Process and Reality

Process and Reality is a book by Alfred North Whitehead, in which the author propounds a philosophy of organism called process philosophy. The book, published in 1929, is a revision of the Gifford Lectures he gave in 1927–28. We diverge from Descartes by holding that what he has described as primary attributes of physical bodies, are the forms of internal relationships between actual occasions; such a change of thought is the shift from materialism to Organic Realism, as a basic idea of physical science. Whitehead's background was an unusual one for a speculative philosopher. Educated as a mathematician, he became, through his coauthorship and 1913 publication of Principia Mathematica with Bertrand Russell, a major logician, he wrote extensively on physics and its philosophy, proposing a theory of gravity in Minkowski space as a logically possible alternative to Einstein's general theory of relativity. Whitehead's Process and Reality is his philosophical master work; the following is an attempt to provide an accessible outline of some of the main ideas in Whitehead's Process and Reality, based on the book itself, but guided by a general reading of secondary sources I.

Leclerc's Whitehead's Metaphysics. An Introductory Exposition. Whitehead speaks of the metaphysics of Process and Reality as'the philosophy of organism'; the cosmology elaborated in Process and Reality posits an ontology based on the two kinds of existence of entity, that of actual entity and that of abstract entity or abstraction. The ultimate abstract principle of actual existence for Whitehead is creativity. Actual existence is a process of becoming, "...'becoming' is a creative advance into novelty." It is manifest in what can be called'singular causality'. This term may be contrasted with'nomic causality'. An example of singular causation is. An example of nomic causation is that alarm clocks wake people in the morning. Aristotle recognises singular causality as efficient causality. For Whitehead, there are many contributory singular causes for an event. A further contributory singular cause of my being awoken by my alarm clock this morning was that I was lying asleep near it till it rang. An actual entity is a general philosophical term for an utterly determinate and concrete individual particular of the existing world or universe of changeable entities considered in terms of singular causality, about which categorical statements can be made.

Whitehead's most far-reaching and profound and radical contribution to metaphysics is his invention of a better way of choosing the actual entities. Whitehead chooses a way of defining the actual entities that makes them all alike, qua actual entities, with a single exception, God. For example, for Aristotle, the actual entities were the substances, such as Socrates and Bucephalus. Besides Aristotle's ontology of substances, another example of an ontology that posits actual entities is in Leibniz' monads, said to be'windowless'. For Whitehead, the actual entities exist as the only foundational elements of reality, the existing facts of the world. Nothing "either in fact or in efficacy" lies beyond the actual entities; the actual entities are of two kinds and atemporal. With one exception, all actual entities for Whitehead are occasions of experience. This'actual entity' idea is most distinctly characteristic of the metaphysics of Process and Reality, requires of the newly approaching reader a philosophically unprejudiced approach.

An entity that people think of as a simple concrete object, or that Aristotle would think of as a substance – a human being included – is in this ontology considered to be a composite of indefinitely many occasions of experience. The one exceptional actual entity is at once temporal and atemporal: God, he is objectively immortal, as well as being immanent in the world. He is objectified in each temporal actual entity. Whitehead uses the term'actual occasion' to refer only to purely temporal actual entities, those other than God; the occasions of experience are of four grades. The first comprises processes in a physical vacuum such as the propagation of an electromagnetic wave or gravitational influence across empty space; the occasions of experience of the second grade involve just inanimate matter. The occasions of experience of the third grade involve living organisms. Occasions of experience of the fourth grade involve experience in the mode of presentational immediacy, which means more or less what are called the qualia of subjective experience.

So far as we know, experience in the mode of presentational immediacy occurs in only more evolved animals. That some occasions of experience involve experience in the mode of presentational immediacy is the one and only reason why Whitehead makes the occasions of experience his actual entities, it is inessential that an occasion of experience have an aspect in the mode of presentational immediacy. The highest grade of experience "is to be identified with the canalized importance of free conceptual functionings". There is no mind-matter duality in this ontology, because "mind" is seen as an abstraction from an occasion of experience which has a material aspect, of course another abstraction from it; the b

Ian Charleson Hedge

Ian Charleson Hedge is a Scottish botanist at the Royal Botanic Gardens in Edinburgh. Ian Hedge made important contributions to the flora of Iran and the flora of Iraq and is a recognised authority on the flora of south-west Asia, he has named more than 300 new plant species. Hedge spent seven months collecting in Turkey in 1957 with Peter Davis. Together they gathered more than 6,000 specimens, he spent 3 months in Afghanistan with Per Wendelbo, they made significant collections to the Garden Herbarium in 1962 in the north and north-east of the country and he returned in 1969 with Wendelbo and Lars Ekberg. They were one of the first botanists to explore the area, he described Salvia buchananii in the Botanical Magazine in 1963. In 1982, he published a book about Salvia's. By 1988, he was the curator of the Botanical Garden Herbarium, he collected in Portugal in the 1990s with Fatima Sales. They published'Jasione L. taxonomy and phylogeny' in 2002. Also'Three perplexing names of species of Campanula L.' and'The taxonomy and conservation of Campanula primulifolia, a critically endangered species in the Iberian Peninsula' in 2010.

He contributed to'The Davis Festschrift' on Peter Hadland Davis's 70th birthday and his own 60th Birthday in 1989. He is mentioned in Mabberley's Plant-book of 2003. and his The Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of the Vascular Plants. In 2010, with other members of the Royal Botanical Garden, he identified various plant specimens for Mark Price's book'Animal Re-introductions: The Arabian Oryx in Oman'. On 31 January 2012, he appealed via the BBC to the Pakistani government to release more than 4,000 copies of a botany text book destined for Afghanistan schools and environmental groups; the 10 tonnes of books had been held at customs in Karachi for the past year. It is the'Field Guide Afghanistan Flora and Vegetation', written by Ian and Siegmar-Walter Breckle in 2010. M. Alam, 2009, "Plant Collectors in Afghanistan", Bulletin de la Société vaudoise des Sciences naturelles, 91: 327-329 K. Tan, 1989, Plant taxonomy and related subjects; the Davis & Hedge Festschrift. Kent, D. H. & Allen, D. E. Brit.

Irish Herb. Studies in the Flora of Afghanistan by Ian Charleson Hedge and Per Wendelbo, 1963 Flora Iranica: Capparidaceae - Volume 68 Index of collectors in the Edinburgh Herbarium / edited by I. C. Hedge and J. M. Lamond, Edinburgh Herbarium, 1970 Plant life of South-West Asia. Edited by Peter Hadland Davis, Peter Charles Harper and Ian Charleson Hedge, Flora Europea A revision of Salvia in Africa and the Canary Islands. Aizoaceae Molluginaceae Iridaceae: Aizoaceae Flora of Turkey and the eastern Aegaean Islands, vol. 7, Labiatae. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1982 Flora of Cyprus. Ian C Hedge, Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, 1985 Umbelliferae / I. C. Hedge editor, Karl Heinz Rechinger Hedge, Ian C. 1987 Plant Taxonomy and Related Subjects: Davis and Hedge Festschrift by P. H. Davis, Ian Charleson Hedge, Kit Tan and R. R. Mill Chenopodiaceae 1997 Labiatae Flora of Pakistan. No. 204, Chenopodiaceae Cruciferae, Ian Hedge, The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department, 1997. Field Guide Afghanistan Flora and Vegetation (Ian Hedge and Siegmar-Walter Breckle, 2010 Has photo of Ian Hedge

Inagaki ManjirĊ

Inagaki Manjirō was a Japanese diplomat and political theorist, active during the Meiji period of Japan. Inagaki was born as the son of a samurai of the Hirado Domain; as a young man he was a warder of the Satsuma men imprisoned in Nagasaki after the unsuccessful Satsuma Rebellion and gained their respect and affection. After studying at the clan-established Ishinkan and Kagoshima Shigakko, he entered the Department of Literature of the Tokyo Imperial University in 1882. Sent down from Tokyo University with many others after the Incident of 1883, when the student body rebelled and boycotted the graduation ceremonies because the time of the ceremony was changed, he never returned, unlike most of the others. Instead, Inagaki went to Britain from January 1888 to December 1890 and studied at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, he founded the Japanese Club at Cambridge University to study the ways of English gentlemen. He studied classical literature and is the first Japanese known to have learned Greek.

He became a popular figure at the University with the Master of Pembroke College and the Vice-Chancellor, the Reverend Dr. Charles Edward Searle. After graduating Inagaki returned to Japan, became a temporary professor at Gakushuin Higher Commercial School, he entered the Foreign Ministry and became Japan's first deputy Minister Resident to the Kingdom of Siam on March 31, 1897. He was appointed Minister Plenipotentiary on 19 November 1899 and envoy extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary in 1903, he continued in that role until July 1907, when he was transferred to Madrid, where he died of illness in 1908. Inagaki wrote a number of scholarly books in English and Japanese on international affairs but died young with his potential unfulfilled, his writings urging Japanese expansionism into the South Pacific were part of the theoretical basis of the Southern Expansion Doctrine of the Imperial Japanese Navy and certain factions in the government in the early 20th century. Japan and the Pacific and the Japanese View of the Eastern Question, 1890 - dedicated to John Robert Seeley who taught Inagaki at Gonville and Caius College.

Tohosaku. Shiberia tetsudoron. Kizokuron Kyoiku no Omoto Nanyo Chosei dan Gaiko to Gaisei Kikuchi Dairoku Suematsu Kencho Donald MacAlister Anglo-Japanese relations Japanese students in Britain Works by or about Inagaki Manjirō at Internet Archive Japanese Students at Cambridge University in the Meiji Era, 1868-1912: Pioneers for the Modernization of Japan, by Noboru Koyama, translated by Ian Ruxton, Portrait of Inagaki Manjirō on the website of the National Diet Library of Japan