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Procter & Gamble

The Procter & Gamble Company is an American multinational consumer goods corporation headquartered in Cincinnati, founded in 1837 by William Procter and James Gamble. It specializes in a wide range of personal health/consumer health, personal care and hygiene products. Before the sale of Pringles to Kellogg's, its product portfolio included foods and beverages. P&G is incorporated in Ohio. In 2014, P&G recorded $83.1 billion in sales. On August 1, 2014, P&G announced it was streamlining the company and selling off around 100 brands from its product portfolio in order to focus on the remaining 65 brands, which produced 95% of the company's profits. A. G. Lafley—the company's chairman, CEO until October 31, 2015—said the future P&G would be "a much simpler, much less complex company of leading brands that's easier to manage and operate". David S. Taylor is the current chairman and CEO of P&G. Candlemaker William Procter, born in England, soapmaker James Gamble, born in Ireland, both emigrated from the United Kingdom.

They settled in Cincinnati and met when they married sisters Olivia and Elizabeth Norris. Alexander Norris, their father-in-law, persuaded them to become business partners, in 1837 Procter & Gamble was created. In 1858–1859, sales reached $1 million. By that point, about 80 employees worked for Gamble. During the American Civil War, the company won contracts to supply the Union Army with soap and candles. In addition to the increased profits experienced during the war, the military contracts introduced soldiers from all over the country to Procter & Gamble's products. In the 1880s, Procter & Gamble began to market a new product, an inexpensive soap that floated in water; the company called the soap Ivory. William Arnett Procter, William Procter's grandson, began a profit-sharing program for the company's workforce in 1887. By giving the workers a stake in the company, he assumed that they would be less to go on strike; the company began to build factories in other locations in the United States because the demand for products had outgrown the capacity of the Cincinnati facilities.

The company's leaders began to diversify its products, as well, in 1911, began producing Crisco, a shortening made of vegetable oils rather than animal fats. As radio became more popular in the 1920s and 1930s, the company sponsored a number of radio programs; the company moved into other countries, both in terms of manufacturing and product sales, becoming an international corporation with its 1930 acquisition of the Thomas Hedley Co. based in Newcastle upon Tyne, England. After this acquisition, Procter & Gamble had their UK Headquarters at'Hedley House' in Newcastle upon Tyne, until quite when they moved to The Heights, Brooklands. Numerous new products and brand names were introduced over time, Procter & Gamble began branching out into new areas; the company introduced Tide laundry detergent in 1946 and Prell shampoo in 1947. In 1955, Procter & Gamble began selling the first toothpaste to contain fluoride, known as Crest. Branching out once again in 1957, the company purchased Charmin paper mills and began manufacturing toilet paper and other tissue paper products.

Once again focusing on laundry, Procter & Gamble began making Downy fabric softener in 1960 and Bounce fabric softener sheets in 1972. One of the most revolutionary products to come out on the market was the company's disposable Pampers diaper, first test-marketed in 1961, the same year Procter & Gamble came out with Head & Shoulders. Prior to this point, disposable diapers were not popular, although Johnson & Johnson had developed a product called Chux. Babies always wore cloth diapers, which were labor-intensive to wash. Pampers provided a convenient alternative, albeit at the environmental cost of more waste requiring landfilling. Amid the recent concerns parents have voiced on the ingredients in diapers, Pampers launched Pampers Pure collection in 2018, a "natural" diaper alternative. Procter & Gamble acquired a number of other companies that diversified its product line and increased profits; these acquisitions included Folgers Coffee, Norwich Eaton Pharmaceuticals, Richardson-Vicks, Shulton's Old Spice, Max Factor, the Iams Company, Pantene, among others.

In 1994, the company made headlines for big losses resulting from levered positions in interest rate derivatives, subsequently sued Bankers Trust for fraud. In 1996, P&G again made headlines when the Food and Drug Administration approved a new product developed by the company, Olestra. Known by its brand name'Olean', Olestra is a lower-calorie substitute for fat in cooking potato chips and other snacks. In January 2005, P&G announced the acquisition of Gillette, forming the largest consumer goods company and placing Unilever into second place; this added brands such as Gillette razors, Duracell and Oral-B to their stable. The acquisition was approved by the European Union and the Federal Trade Commission, with conditions to a spinoff of certain overlapping brands. P&G agreed to sell its SpinBrush battery-operated electric toothbrush business to Church & Dwight, Gillette's Rembrandt toothpaste line to Johnson & Johnson; the deodorant brands Right Guard and Dri, Dry Idea were sold to Dial Corporation.

The companies merged on October 1, 2005. Liquid Paper and Gillette's stationery division, Paper Mate, were sold to Newell Rubbermaid. In 2008, P

Bathampton Toll Bridge

Bathampton Toll Bridge is an arch bridge in England, carrying a minor road across the River Avon near Bathampton, to the east of Bath. It is a Grade II listed structure; the bridge was built of Bath stone by Hickes and Isaac in 1872, for the Bridge Company Turnpike Trust. It has three smaller ones at either end; the north end was built over mill leat. The first version of the bridge was replaced a ford and ferry; the road over the bridge between Batheaston and Bathampton is single-track with give way signs. On the Bathampton side to the south of the river, the road crosses three further bridges; the first is a modern bridge over the dual-carriageway Batheaston/Swainswick Bypass, part of the A4. The second crosses the Great Western Main Line and the final bridge is over the Kennet and Avon Canal; the Toll house was built at the same time as the bridge and is Grade II listed. It is a two storey building with a high pitch slate roof. A board advertising the historical toll prices is still in place

Earl Sterndale

Earl Sterndale is a village in the Upper Dove Valley in the Peak District, England, situated near the River Dove, 5 miles south of Buxton, 8 miles west of Bakewell. The population at the 2011 Census is listed under Hartington Middle Parish, it sits 1,100 feet above sea level. The farms surrounding the village were medieval monastic granges in the care of the monks of Basingwerk Abbey; the village church, dedicated to St Michael, was built in 1828 on the site of an ancient chapel. It was destroyed in 1941, when it was mistakenly bombed, the only church in Derbyshire to be hit by a German bomb, it was restored in 1952, still contains a Saxon font. Earl Sterndale is popular with walkers, as it lies close to the distinctive peaks of Chrome Hill and Parkhouse Hill, is within walking distance of Hartington and the gateway to Dovedale. List of places in Derbyshire Media related to Earl Sterndale at Wikimedia Commons