Proctor, a variant of procurator, is a person who takes charge of, or acts for, another. The title is used in England and some other English-speaking countries in three principal contexts: In law, a proctor is a historical class of lawyers, the King's Proctor is a senior government lawyer. In religion, a proctor represents the clergy in Church of England dioceses. In education, a proctor is the name of university officials in certain universities. In the United States and some other countries, the word "proctor" is used to describe someone who oversees an examination or dormitory. A proctor was a legal practitioner in the admiralty courts in England; these courts were distinguished from the common law courts and courts of equity because they applied "civil law" derived from Roman law, instead of English common law and equity. Proctors were licensed by the Archbishop of Canterbury to undertake the duties that were performed in common law courts by attorneys and in the courts of equity by solicitors.
Proctors were attached to the Doctors' Commons, which performed a similar function for civil law or "civilian" advocates to that of the Inns of Court for barristers. A series of reforms in the mid-19th century removed the monopoly of the civilian doctors and proctors in the family and admiralty courts, leaving only the ecclesiastical Court of Arches; the Judicature Acts of 1873 and 1875, which created the Supreme Court of Judicature, combined the three roles into the common profession of "solicitor of the Supreme Court". In Sri Lanka, the two groups of legal practitioners and Proctors existed since 1833 until the Justice Law No. 44 of 1973, created a single group of practitioners, known as Attorneys-at-law. Proctor is a term that survives in Western Australia, in South Australia; until it was amended in 1992 and superseded by the Legal Profession Act in 2008, the Legal Practitioners Act 1893 provided for legal practitioners in Western Australia to be admitted and entitled to practice as "practitioners".
That term was defined as "a person admitted and entitled to practice as a barrister, solicitor and proctor of the Supreme Court of Western Australia, or in any one or more of these capacities". Whilst it was theoretically possible to apply for admission in any of these capacities, as there was no separate qualification for such separate admissions, the standard practice was for all persons to be admitted as barristers and proctors of the Supreme Court of Western Australia. Many survive today. South Australian legislation still provides as of December 2019 that a person admitted as a Solicitor to the Supreme Court of South Australia is both a Proctor, an Attorney, of that court; the Queen's Proctor is the historical name for an official who acted for the Crown in certain courts in England. The modern name of the office is HM Procurator-General, this office has for many years been combined with that of the Treasury Solicitor, whose formal title is Her Majesty's Procurator-General and Treasury Solicitor.
In the admiralty courts, the King's Proctor acted in all causes concerning the King. A proctor or procurator was an officer who, in conjunction with the King's Proctor, acted as the attorney or solicitor in all causes concerning the Lord High Admiral's affairs in the High Court of Admiralty and other courts. In probate and divorce courts, the Queen's Proctor acted as the proctor or solicitor representing the Crown. In petitions of divorce, or for declaration of nullity of marriage, the Queen's Proctor may, under direction of the Attorney General, intervene in the suit for the purpose of arguing any question that the court deems expedient to have argued, his or her powers are set out in section 8 of the Matrimonial Causes Act 1973, include the power to show cause against a decree nisi being made absolute on receipt of information indicating that the court has been misled into granting a decree.. A representative of the clergy in convocation; the Lower Houses of the Convocations of Canterbury and York include specially elected proctors and directly elected proctors.
In some universities, a proctor is a high official. The early history of the office at Cambridge is obscure, but it seems that the Proctors have always represented the colleges in University proceedings. In the past the Proctors administered the university's finances, acted as examiners for all candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Arts, prosecuted anyone suspected of unfair trading, had a multitude of other tasks. At present their functions are twofold: taking part in all university ceremonials, enforcing discipline in the case of members of the University who are in statu pupillari. At Cambridge University the Proctors are nominated every May by colleges identified in a predetermined cycle, they serve for one year from 1 October, assisted by their Deputy Proctors and two Pro-Proctors. They must have been a member of the Senate for three years, must have resided two years at the university; the two Pro-Proctors are not, as at Oxford, nominated by the Proctors, but are elected by the Regent House on the nomination of the colleges
Vitakridrinda is a genus of abelisaurid theropod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Balochistan, western Pakistan. The type species is V. sulaimani. The discovery was made near Vitariki by a team of palaeontologists from the Geological Survey of Pakistan, in rocks from the Maastrichtian-age Vitakri Member of the Pab Formation. Formally described in 2006 by M. S. Malkani, the genus is based on partial remains including two thigh bones, a braincase, a tooth. A partial snout was found that Malkani assigned to the holotype, additional vertebrae may belong to this genus. However, the snout was reclassified as a new genus of mesoeucrocodylian, Induszalim. Thomas Holtz gave a possible length of 6 meters. Timeline of ceratosaur research Dinosaur Mailing List post on Vitakridrinda and other new taxa from Pakistan
Liu Jinru is a Chinese artistic gymnast. She is a 2018 World Championships team bronze medalist. Liu began training in gymnastics at age seven, she became a national team member in 2012. In 2016, Liu competed at the Cottbus World Challenge Cup; the same year, she finished first on vault and eighth in floor exercise at the Szombathely World Challenge Cup. In 2017, Liu was eighth in the all-around at the London World Cup, she won gold in the team competition at the Bangkok Asian Championships. In 2018, Liu won team gold at the Jakarta Asian Games, finishing 16th in floor exercise, 22nd on vault and 45th in individual all-around. At the Melbourne World Cup, she finished fifth on vault. At the Doha World Cup, she was fifth on vault and ninth in floor exercise. At the Doha World Championships, she won team bronze - alongside Chen Yile, Liu Tingting, Luo Huan and Zhang Jin - and finished sixth on vault. Liu was named an Elite Athlete of National Class in 2014, before being named an Elite Athlete of International Class in 2019 by the General Administration of Sport in China.
Liu Jinru at the International Gymnastics Federation