Architectural lighting design
Architectural lighting design is a field within architecture, interior design and electrical engineering, concerned with the design of lighting systems, including natural light, electric light, or both, to serve human needs. The design process takes account of: The kind of human activity for which lighting is to be provided The amount of light required The color of the light as it may affect the views of particular objects and the environment as a whole The distribution of light within the space to be lighted, whether indoor or outdoor The effect of the lightened system itself on the userThe objective of lighting design is the human response, to see and without discomfort; the objective of architectural lighting design is to further the design of architecture or the experience of buildings and other physical structures. Gas lighting was economical enough to light streets in major cities starting in the early 1800s, was used in some commercial buildings and in the homes of wealthy people; the gas mantle boosted the luminosity of kerosene lamps.
The next major drop in price came about with the incandescent light bulb powered by electricity. Architectural lighting design focuses on three fundamental aspects of the illumination of buildings or spaces; the first is the aesthetic appeal of a building, an aspect important in the illumination of retail environments. Secondly, the ergonomic aspect: the measure of how much of a function the lighting plays. Thirdly is the energy efficiency issue to ensure that light is not wasted by over illumination, either by illuminating vacant spaces unnecessarily or by providing more light than needed for the aesthetics or the task. Cultural factors need to be considered; as the Sun crosses the sky, it may appear to be red, yellow or white depending on its position. The changing color of the Sun over the course of the day is a result of scattering of light and is not due to changes in black-body radiation; the blue color of the sky is caused by Rayleigh scattering of the sunlight from the atmosphere, which tends to scatter blue light more than red light.
For colors based on black-body theory, blue occurs at higher temperatures, while red occurs at lower, temperatures. This is the opposite of the cultural associations attributed to colors, in which red represents hot, blue cold. Lighting fixtures come in a wide variety of styles for various functions; the most important functions are as a holder for the light source, to provide directed light and to avoid visual glare. Some are plain and functional, while some are pieces of art in themselves. Nearly any material can be used, so long as it can tolerate the excess heat and is in keeping with safety codes. An important property of light fixtures is the luminous efficacy or wall-plug efficiency, meaning the amount of usable light emanating from the fixture per used energy measured in lumen per watt. A fixture using replaceable light sources can have its efficiency quoted as the percentage of light passed from the "bulb" to the surroundings; the more transparent the lighting fixture is, the higher efficacy.
Shading the light will decrease efficiency but increase the directionality and the visual comfort probability. The PH-lamps are a series of light fixtures designed by Danish designer and writer Poul Henningsen from 1926 onwards; the lamp is designed with multiple concentric shades to eliminate visual glare, only emitting reflected light, obscuring the light source. Photometric studies are used to simulate lighting designs for projects before they are built or renovated; this enables architects, lighting designers, engineers to determine whether a proposed lighting setup will deliver the amount of light intended. They will be able to determine the contrast ratio between light and dark areas. In many cases these studies are referenced against IESNA or CIBSE recommended lighting practices for the type of application. Depending on the type of area, different design aspects may be emphasized for safety or practicality. A specialized lighting design application is used to create these, which combine the use of two-dimensional digital CAD drawings and lighting simulation software.
Color temperature for white light sources affects their use for certain applications. The color temperature of a white light source is the temperature in kelvins of a theoretical black body emitter that most matches the spectral characteristics of the lamp. An incandescent bulb has a color temperature around 2800 to 3000 kelvins. Lower color temperature lamps have more energy in the yellow and red part of the visible spectrum, while high color temperatures correspond to lamps with more of a blue-white appearance. For critical inspection or color matching tasks, or for retail displays of food and clothing, the color temperature of the lamps will be selected for the best overall lighting effect. Color may be used for functional reasons. For example, blue light thus may be used to discourage drug use; the color temperature of a light source is the temperature of an ideal black-body radiator that radiates light of comparable hue to that of the light source. Color temperature is a characteristic of visible light that has important applications in lighting, videography, manufacturing, astrophysics and other fields.
In practice, color temperature is only meaningful for light sources that do in fact correspond somewhat closely
Visual merchandising is the practice in the retail industry of developing floor plans and three-dimensional displays in order to maximize sales. Both goods and services can be displayed to highlight their benefits; the purpose of such visual merchandising is to attract and motivate the customer towards making a purchase. Visual merchandising occurs in retail spaces such as stores; when the giant nineteenth century dry goods establishments like Marshall Field & Co. shifted their business from wholesale to retail, the visual display of goods became necessary to attract the general consumers. The store windows were used to attractively display the store's merchandise. Over time, the design aesthetic used in window displays moved indoors and became part of the overall interior store design reducing the use of display windows in many suburban malls. In the twentieth century, well-known artists such as Salvador Dalí and Andy Warhol created window displays. In the beginning of twenty-first century, visual merchandising is forming as a science.
Nowadays, visual merchandising became one of the major tool of business promotion, used to attract customers and increase sales. WindowsWear is a database of visual merchandising from around the world. Visual merchandising contributes to a brand's personality and the characteristics associated with the brand; the design of the store should reflect this as part of their retail brand strategy. This includes the in-store environment and brand communications used, such as signage and images displayed in-store; these visual elements play a part in building a retail brand and therefore they help a brand differentiate itself from its competitors, create brand loyalty, allows for a brand to place premium pricing on their products. Part of the brand strategy used in visual merchandising is research into the brand's target market to find out what their customers’ values and self-images are; this information can allow the retailer to cater the design of a store and their advertising to match their consumers.
Visual merchandising supports retail sales by creating environments to further maximize growth, educate customers, stretch brand image. In order for retailers to gain an important competitive advantage in the marketplace, visual merchandising is an important factor and an effective way of adding value to their brand. Visual merchandising communicates with customers through elements that stimulate their senses such as lighting, music and television screens; the environment in which a consumer is in can influence the purchasing decisions. Research shows that stores that do not communicate well with their customers, such as the retail store having a poor layout can cause customers to incur psychic costs, may lead to customers being deterred from shopping again as overall shopping pleasure has been reduced; the physical environment is a primary objective in communicating with customers in retail. Research from Thaler shows that consumers are more willing to pay a higher price for a product if the product is purchased in a more favourable environment.
This makes customers become more accepting of the higher price, rather than if it were to be sold in an old rundown store. Customers can form an important bias of the merchandise quality based on the retail store design environment, factors such as employee's interpersonal skills and how they are treated. Visual merchandising augments the retail design of a store, it is one of the final stages in setting out a store in a way customers find attractive and appealing. Many elements can be used by visual merchandisers in creating displays including color, space, product information, sensory inputs, as well as technologies such as digital displays and interactive installations. Visual merchandising consists of two techniques; the goal of these two techniques is to attract the attention of consumers, entice them into the store, to keep them in the store as long as possible, influence purchasing decisions. A recent study has found. In-store design and window display techniques can be used to enhance the store environment, influencing consumer behaviour and purchasing decisions.
In-store design is a technique, which can be used to enhance the atmosphere of the store and the overall store environment. Having a visually appealing store design can simulate the representation of the brand and attract customers. Efficient, customer friendly environment makes shopping easier for consumers, which encourages buying and, most reassures repeat purchasing; the window design technique is a way of communicating with customers, which uses a combination of lighting, props and graphic design to display goods, attract the attention of the customer, sustain a brand image. The overall goal of the window display for the retailer is to persuade the customer into the store and motivate purchasing. In-store visual merchandising can be used to capture the attention of consumers whilst they are in the store, an essential component in the buying decision-making process. To capture the attention of the customer, the retailer must consider the customer's needs during this process. Factors that contribute to the overall in-store design include the store layout, store design, point of purchases displays, item display, assortment display, signage.
When applied to a store, these factors can meet the needs of the consumer and provide a positive in-store purchasing environment. The layout of a store is a sig
Environmental design is the process of addressing surrounding environmental parameters when devising plans, policies, buildings, or products. Classical prudent design may have always considered environmental factors. Environmental design can refer to the applied arts and sciences dealing with creating the human-designed environment; these fields include architecture, urban planning, landscape architecture, interior design. Environmental design can encompass interdisciplinary areas such as historical preservation and lighting design. In terms of a larger scope, environmental design has implications for the industrial design of products: innovative automobiles, wind power generators, solar-powered equipment, other kinds of equipment could serve as examples; the term has expanded to apply to ecological and sustainability issues. The first traceable concepts of environmental designs focused on solar heating, which began in Ancient Greece around 500 BCE. At the time, most of Greece had exhausted its supply of wood for fuel, leading architects to design houses that would capture the solar energy of the sun.
The Greeks understood. For a latitude of 40 degrees in summer the sun is high in the south, at an angle of 70 degrees at the zenith, while in winter, the sun travels a lower trajectory, with a zenith of 26 degrees. Greek houses were built with south-facing façades which received little to no sun in the summer but would receive full sun in the winter, warming the house. Additionally, the southern orientation protected the house from the colder northern winds; this clever arrangement of buildings influenced the use of the grid pattern of ancient cities. With the North-South orientation of the houses, the streets of Greek cities ran East-West; the practice of solar architecture continued with the Romans, who had deforested much of their native Italian Peninsula by the first century BCE. The Roman heliocaminus, literally'solar furnace', functioned with the same aspects of the earlier Greek houses; the numerous public baths were oriented to the south. Roman architects added glass to windows to allow for the passage of light and to conserve interior heat as it could not escape.
The Romans used greenhouses to grow crops all year long and to cultivate the exotic plants coming from the far corners of the Empire. Pliny the Elder wrote of greenhouses that supplied the kitchen of the Emperor Tiberius during the year. Along with the solar orientation of buildings and the use of glass as a solar heat collector, the ancients knew other ways of harnessing solar energy; the Greeks and Chinese developed curved mirrors that could concentrate the sun's rays on an object with enough intensity to make it burn in seconds. The solar reflectors were made of polished silver, copper or brass. Early roots of modern environmental design began in the late 19th Century with writer/designer William Morris, who rejected the use of industrialized materials and processes in wallpaper and books his studio produced, he and others, such as John Ruskin felt that the industrial revolution would lead to harm done to nature and workers. The narrative of Brian Danitz and Chris Zelov's documentary film Ecological Design: Inventing the Future asserts that in the decades after World War II, "The world was forced to confront the dark shadow of science and industry."
From the middle of the twentieth century, thinkers like Buckminster Fuller have acted as catalysts for a broadening and deepening of the concerns of environmental designers. Nowadays, energy efficiency, appropriate technology, organic horticulture and agriculture, land restoration, New Urbanism, ecologically sustainable energy and waste systems are recognized considerations or options and may each find application. By integrating renewable energy sources such as solar photovoltaic, solar thermal, geothermal energy into structures, it is possible to create zero emission buildings, where energy consumption is self-generating and non-polluting, it is possible to construct "energy-plus buildings" which generate more energy than they consume, the excess could be sold to the grid. In the United States, the LEED Green Building Rating System rates structures on their environmental sustainability. Environmental design and planning is the moniker used by several Ph. D. programs that take a multidisciplinary approach to the built environment.
Environmental design and planning programs address architectural history or design, city or regional planning, landscape architecture history or design, environmental planning, construction science, cultural geography, or historic preservation. Social science methods are employed; the concept of "environmental" in these programs is quite broad and can encompass aspects of the natural, work, or social environments. The following universities offer a Ph. D. in environmental design and planning: Clemson University, College of Architecture and Humanities Arizona State University, College of Design Kansas State University University of Calgary Virginia Tech until offered the degree program, but has since replaced it with programs in "architecture and design research" and "planning and globalization". Fanshawe College in London, Ontario Canada offers an honours bachelor's degree called "Environmental Design and planning. University of Missouri, Columbia: Ph. D. in
Communication is the act of conveying meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules. The main steps inherent to all communication are: The formation of communicative motivation or reason. Message composition. Message encoding. Transmission of the encoded message as a sequence of signals using a specific channel or medium. Noise sources such as natural forces and in some cases human activity begin influencing the quality of signals propagating from the sender to one or more receivers. Reception of signals and reassembling of the encoded message from a sequence of received signals. Decoding of the reassembled encoded message. Interpretation and making sense of the presumed original message; the scientific study of communication can be divided into: Information theory which studies the quantification and communication of information in general. The channel of communication can be visual, auditory and haptic, electromagnetic, or biochemical.
Human communication is unique for its extensive use of abstract language. Development of civilization has been linked with progress in telecommunication. Nonverbal communication describes the processes of conveying a type of information in the form of non-linguistic representations. Examples of nonverbal communication include haptic communication, chronemic communication, body language, facial expressions, eye contact, how one dresses. Nonverbal communication relates to the intent of a message. Examples of intent are voluntary, intentional movements like shaking a hand or winking, as well as involuntary, such as sweating. Speech contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage, e.g. rhythm, intonation and stress. It establishes trust. Written texts include nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, the spatial arrangement of words and the use of emoticons to convey emotion. Nonverbal communication demonstrates one of Paul Wazlawick's laws: you cannot not communicate. Once proximity has formed awareness, living creatures begin interpreting.
Some of the functions of nonverbal communication in humans are to complement and illustrate, to reinforce and emphasize, to replace and substitute, to control and regulate, to contradict the denovative message. Nonverbal cues are relied on to express communication and to interpret others' communication and can replace or substitute verbal messages. However, non-verbal communication is ambiguous; when verbal messages contradict non-verbal messages, observation of non-verbal behaviour is relied on to judge another's attitudes and feelings, rather than assuming the truth of the verbal message alone. There are several reasons as to why non-verbal communication plays a vital role in communication: "Non-verbal communication is omnipresent." They are included in every single communication act. To have total communication, all non-verbal channels such as the body, voice, touch, distance and other environmental forces must be engaged during face-to-face interaction. Written communication can have non-verbal attributes.
E-mails and web chats allow an individual's the option to change text font colours, stationary and capitalization in order to capture non-verbal cues into a verbal medium. "Non-verbal behaviours are multifunctional." Many different non-verbal channels are engaged at the same time in communication acts and allow the chance for simultaneous messages to be sent and received. "Non-verbal behaviours may form a universal language system." Smiling, pointing and glaring are non-verbal behaviours that are used and understood by people regardless of nationality. Such non-verbal signals allow the most basic form of communication when verbal communication is not effective due to language barriers. Verbal communication is the written conveyance of a message. Human language can be defined as a system of symbols and the grammars by which the symbols are manipulated; the word "language" refers to common properties of languages. Language learning occurs most intensively during human childhood. Most of the thousands of human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others around them.
Languages tend to share certain properties. There is no defined line between a dialect. Constructed languages such as Esperanto, programming languages, various mathematical formalism is not restricted to the properties shared by human languages; as mentioned, language can be characterized as symbolic. Charles Ogden and I. A Richards developed The Triangle of Meaning model to explain the symbol, the referent, the meaning; the properties of language are governed by rules. Language follows phonological rules, syntactic rules, semantic rules, pragmatic rules; the meanings that are attached to words can be otherwise known as denotative.
Type design may refer to aircraft type design. Type design is the process of designing typefaces, it is used synonymously with the term "font design". For the purposes of this article, the term typeface design will include the design of fonts. A typeface differs from other modes of graphic production such as handwriting and drawing in that it is the mechanical storage and dispensation of alphanumeric characters; each of the characters is stored in a master archetype form and a user, by means of hand picking, a keyboard or other means selects individual characters to "set" into the text. The technology of printing text using movable type was invented in China, but the vast number of Chinese characters, the esteem with which calligraphy was held, meant that few distinctive, complete fonts were created in China in the early centuries of printing. Gutenberg's most important innovation in the mid 15th century development of his press was not the printing itself, but the casting of Latinate types. Unlike Chinese characters, which are based on a uniform square area, European Latin characters vary in width, from the wide "M" to the slender "l".
Gutenberg developed an adjustable mold. From until at least 400 years type started with cutting punches, which would be struck into a brass "matrix"; the matrix was inserted into the bottom of the adjustable mold and the negative space formed by the mold cavity plus the matrix acted as the master for each letter, cast. The casting material was an alloy containing lead, which had a low melting point and could be filed and finished. In those early days, type design had to not only imitate the familiar handwritten forms common to readers, but account for the limitations of the printing process, such as the rough papers of uneven thicknesses, the squeezing or splashing properties of the ink, the eventual wear on the type itself. Beginning in the 1890s, each character was drawn in a large size for the American Type Founders Corporation and a few others using their technology—over a foot high; the outline was traced by a Benton pantograph-based engraving machine with a pointer at the hand-held vertex and a cutting tool at the opposite vertex down to a size less than a quarter-inch.
The pantographic engraver was first used to cut punches, to directly create matrices. In the late 1960s through the 1980s, typesetting moved from metal to photo composition. During this time, type design made a similar transition from physical matrixes to hand drawn letters on vellum or mylar and the precise cutting of "rubyliths." Rubylith was a common material in the printing trade, in which a red transparent film soft and pliable, was bonded to a supporting clear acetate. Placing the ruby over the master drawing of the letter, the craftsman would and cut through the upper film and peel the non-image portions away; the resulting letterform, now existing as the remaining red material still adhering to the clear substrate, would be ready to be photographed using a reproduction camera. With the coming of computers, type design became a form of computer graphics; this transition occurred with a program called Icarus around 1980, but widespread transition began with programs such as Aldus Freehand and Adobe Illustrator, to dedicated type design programs called font editors, such as Fontographer and FontLab.
This process occurred rapidly: by the mid-1990s all commercial type design had transitioned to digital vector drawing programs. Each glyph design can be drawn or traced by a stylus on a digitizing board, or modified from a scanned drawing, or composed within the program itself; each glyph is in a digital form, either in a bitmap or vector format. A given digitization of a typeface can be modified by another type designer. Type design could be copyrighted typeface by typeface in many countries, though not the United States; the United States offered and continues to offer design patents as an option for typeface design protection. The design of a legible text-based typeface remains one of the most challenging assignments in graphic design; the visual quality of the reading material being of paramount importance, each drawn character must be in appearance with every other glyph regardless of order or sequence. If the typeface is to be versatile, it must appear the same whether it is small or large.
Because of optical illusions that occur when we apprehend small or large objects, this entails that in the best fonts, a version is designed for small use and another version is drawn for large, applications. Large letterforms reveal their shape, whereas small letterforms in text settings reveal only their textures: this requires that any typeface that aspires to versatility in both text and display, needs to be evaluated in both of these visual domains. A beautifully shaped typeface may not have a attractive or legible texture when seen in text settings. Spacing is an important part of type design; each glyph consists not only of the shape of the character, but the white space around it. The type designer must consider the relationship of the space within a letter form (the counter
Microplastics are small pieces of plastic that pollute the environment. Microplastics are not a specific kind of plastic, but rather any type of plastic fragment, less than five millimeters in length according to the U. S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, they enter natural ecosystems from a variety of sources, but not limited to, cosmetics and industrial processes. Two classifications of microplastics exist. Primary microplastics are any plastic fragments or particles that are 5.0 mm in size or less before entering the environment. These include microfibers from clothing and plastic pellets. Secondary microplastics are microplastics that are created from the degradation of larger plastic products once they enter the environment through natural weathering processes; such sources of secondary microplastics include water and soda bottles, fishing nets, plastic bags. Both types are recognized to persist in the environment at high levels in aquatic and marine ecosystems. Additionally, plastics degrade often over hundreds if not thousands of years.
This increases the probability of microplastics being ingested and incorporated into, accumulated in, the bodies and tissues of many organisms. The entire cycle and movement of microplastics in the environment is not yet known, but research is underway to investigate this issue. Microplastics are common in our world today. In 2014, it was estimated that there are between 15 and 51 trillion individual pieces of microplastic in the world’s oceans, estimated to weigh between 93,000 and 236,000 metric tons. Primary microplastics are small pieces of plastic, they are used in facial cleansers and cosmetics, or in air blasting technology. In some cases, their use in medicine as vectors for drugs was reported. Microplastic "scrubbers", used in exfoliating hand cleansers and facial scrubs, have replaced traditionally used natural ingredients, including ground almonds and pumice. Primary microplastics have been produced for use in air blasting technology; this process involves blasting acrylic, melamine, or polyester microplastic scrubbers at machinery and boat hulls to remove rust and paint.
As these scrubbers are used until they diminish in size and their cutting power is lost, they become contaminated with heavy metals such as cadmium and lead. Although many companies have committed to reducing the production of microbeads, there are still many bioplastic microbeads that have a long degradation life cycle similar to normal plastic. Secondary plastics are small pieces of plastic derived from the breakdown of larger plastic debris, both at sea and on land. Over time, a culmination of physical and chemphotodegradation, including photodegradation caused by sunlight exposure, can reduce the structural integrity of plastic debris to a size, undetectable to the naked eye; this process of breaking down large plastic material into much smaller pieces is known as fragmentation. It is considered that microplastics might further degrade to be smaller in size, although the smallest microplastic detected in the oceans at present is 1.6 micrometres in diameter. The prevalence of microplastics with uneven shapes suggests.
There are countless sources of both secondary microplastics. Microplastic fibers enter the environment from the washing of synthetic clothing. Tires, composed of synthetic styrene butadiene rubber, will erode into tiny plastic and rubber particles as they are used. Furthermore, 2.0-5.0 mm plastic pellets, used to create other plastic products enter ecosystems due to spillages and other accidents. A Norwegian Environment Agency review report about microplastics published in early 2015 states it would be beneficial to classify these sources as primary, as long as microplastics from these sources are added from human society at the "start of the pipe", their emissions are inherently a result of human material and product use and not secondary defragmentation in nature; the existence of microplastics in the environment is established through aquatic studies. These include taking plankton samples, analyzing sandy and muddy sediments, observing vertebrate and invertebrate consumption, evaluating chemical pollutant interactions.
Through such methods, it has been shown that there are microplastics from multiple sources in the environment. Microplastics could contribute up to 30% of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch polluting the world’s oceans and, in many developed countries, are a bigger source of marine plastic pollution than the visible larger pieces of marine litter, according to a 2017 IUCN report. Sewage treatment plants known as wastewater treatment plants, remove contaminants from wastewater from household sewage, using various physical and biological processes. Most plants in developed countries have both secondary treatment stages. In the primary stage of treatment, physical processes are employed to remove oils and other large solids using conventional filters and settling tanks. Secondary treatment uses biological processes involving bacteria and protozoa to break down organic matter. Common secondary technologies are activated sludge systems, trickling filters, constructed wetlands; the optional tertiary treatment stage may include processes for nutrient disinfection.
Microplastics have been detected in both the secondary treatment stages of the plants. A study estimated that about one particle per liter of microplastics are being releas
Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language legible and appealing when displayed. The arrangement of type involves selecting typefaces, point sizes, line lengths, line-spacing, letter-spacing, adjusting the space between pairs of letters; the term typography is applied to the style and appearance of the letters and symbols created by the process. Type design is a related craft, sometimes considered part of typography. Typography may be used as a decorative device, unrelated to communication of information. Typography is the work of typesetters, graphic designers, art directors, manga artists, comic book artists, graffiti artists, now, anyone who arranges words, letters and symbols for publication, display, or distribution, from clerical workers and newsletter writers to anyone self-publishing materials; until the Digital Age, typography was a specialized occupation. Digitization opened up typography to new generations of unrelated designers and lay users; as the capability to create typography has become ubiquitous, the application of principles and best practices developed over generations of skilled workers and professionals has diminished.
So at a time when scientific techniques can support the proven traditions through understanding the limitations of human vision, typography as encountered may fail to achieve its principal objective: effective communication. The word "typography" in English comes from the Greek roots τύπος typos = "impression" and -γραφία -graphia = "writing". Although applied to printed, published and reproduced materials in contemporary times, all words, letters and numbers written alongside the earliest naturalistic drawings by humans may be called typography; the word, typography, is derived from the Greek words τύπος typos "form" or "impression" and γράφειν graphein "to write", traces its origins to the first punches and dies used to make seals and currency in ancient times, which ties the concept to printing. The uneven spacing of the impressions on brick stamps found in the Mesopotamian cities of Uruk and Larsa, dating from the second millennium B. C. may be evidence of type, wherein the reuse of identical characters was applied to create cuneiform text.
Babylonian cylinder seals were used to create an impression on a surface by rolling the seal on wet clay. Typography was implemented in the Phaistos Disc, an enigmatic Minoan printed item from Crete, which dates to between 1850 and 1600 B. C, it has been proposed that Roman lead pipe inscriptions were created with movable type printing, but German typographer Herbert Brekle dismissed this view. The essential criterion of type identity was met by medieval print artifacts such as the Latin Pruefening Abbey inscription of 1119, created by the same technique as the Phaistos Disc; the silver altarpiece of patriarch Pellegrinus II in the cathedral of Cividale was printed with individual letter punches. The same printing technique may be found in tenth to twelfth century Byzantine reliquaries. Other early examples include individual letter tiles where the words are formed by assembling single letter tiles in the desired order, which were reasonably widespread in medieval Northern Europe. Typography with movable type was invented during the eleventh-century Song dynasty in China by Bi Sheng.
His movable type system was manufactured from ceramic materials, clay type printing continued to be practiced in China until the Qing Dynasty. Wang Zhen was one of the pioneers of wooden movable type. Although the wooden type was more durable under the mechanical rigors of handling, repeated printing wore the character faces down and the types could be replaced only by carving new pieces. Metal movable type was first invented in Korea during the Goryeo Dynasty 1230. Hua Sui introduced bronze type printing to China in 1490 AD; the diffusion of both movable-type systems was limited and the technology did not spread beyond East and Central Asia, however. Modern lead-based movable type, along with the mechanical printing press, is most attributed to the goldsmith Johannes Gutenberg in 1439, his type pieces, made from a lead-based alloy, suited printing purposes so well that the alloy is still used today. Gutenberg developed specialized techniques for casting and combining cheap copies of letter punches in the vast quantities required to print multiple copies of texts.
This technical breakthrough was instrumental in starting the Printing Revolution and the first book printed with lead-based movable type was the Gutenberg Bible. Advancing technology revolutionized typography in the latter twentieth century. During the 1960s some camera-ready typesetting could be produced in any office or workshop with stand-alone machines such as those introduced by IBM. During the mid-1980s personal computers such as the Macintosh allowed type designers to create typefaces digitally using commercial graphic design software. Digital technology enabled designers to create more experimental typefaces as well as the practical typefaces of traditional typography. Designs for typefaces could be created faster with the new technology, for more specific functions; the cost for developing typefaces was drastically lowered, becoming available to the masses. The change has been called the "democratization of type" and has given new designers more opportunities to enter the field; the design of typefaces has de