This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Product placement, also known as embedded marketing, is a marketing technique where references to specific brands or products are incorporated into another work, such as a film or television program, with specific promotional intent.
While references to brands may be voluntarily incorporated into works to maintain a feeling of realism and/or comment upon the brand, product placement is the deliberate incorporation of references to a brand or product in exchange for compensation. Product placements may range from unobtrusive appearances within an environment, to prominent integration and acknowledgement of the product within the work. Common categories of products used for placements include automobiles and consumer electronics. Works produced by vertically integrated companies (such as Sony) may use placements to promote their other divisions as a form of corporate synergy.
During the 21st century, the use of product placement on television grew, particularly to combat the wider use of digital video recorders that can skip traditional commercial breaks, as well as to engage with younger demographics. Digital editing technology is also being used to tailor product placement to specific demographics or markets, and in some cases, add placements to works that did not originally have embedded advertising, or update existing placements.
- 1 History
- 2 Types
- 3 Sports
- 4 Notable placements
- 5 Radio, television and publishing
- 6 Legal considerations
- 7 Extreme examples
- 8 Viewer response
- 9 Criticisms
- 10 Research
- 10.1 Effectiveness
- 10.2 Audience demographics
- 10.3 Measurement
- 10.4 Ethics
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
Product placement began in the 19th century. By the time Jules Verne published the adventure novel Around the World in Eighty Days (1873), his fame had led transport and shipping companies to lobby to be mentioned in the story. Whether Verne was actually paid to do so, however, remains unknown. Similarly, a painting by Eduoard Manet (1881-1882) shows a bar at the Folies Bergere with distinctive bottles placed at either end of the counter. The beer bottle is immediately recognisable as Bass beer. Manet's motivations for including branded products in his painting are unknown; it may be that it simply added to the work's authenticity, but on the other hand the artist may have received some payment in return for its inclusion.
Research reported by Jean-Marc Lehu (2007) suggests that films produced by Auguste and Louis Lumière in 1876 were made at the request of a representative of Lever Brothers in France. The films feature Sunlight soap, which may be the first recorded instance of paid product placement in film. This led to cinema becoming one of the earliest channels used for product placement.
With the arrival of photo-rich periodicals in the late 19th century, publishers found ways of lifting their paper's reputation by placing an actual copy of the magazine in photographs of prominent people. For example, the German magazine Die Woche in 1902 printed an article about a countess in her castle where she, in one of the photographs, holds a copy of the magazine in her hands.
During the next four decades, Harrison's Reports frequently cited cases of on-screen brand-name products. Harrison condemned the practice as harmful to movie theatres, and his editorials reflected his hostility towards product placement in films. Harrison's Reports published its first denunciation of that practice over Red Crown gasoline's appearance in The Garage (1920). Another editorial criticised the collaboration between the Corona Typewriter company and First National Pictures when a Corona typewriter appeared in several films in the mid-1920s including The Lost World (1925).
Recognisable brand names appeared in movies from cinema's earliest history. Before films were even narrative forms in the sense that they are recognized today, industrial concerns funded the making of what film scholar Tom Gunning described as "cinematic attractions", short films of one or two minutes. In the first decade or so of film (1895–1907) audiences attended films as "fairground attractions" interesting for their then-amazing visual effects. This format was better suited to product placement than narrative cinema. Gurevitch argued that early cinematic attractions have more in common with television advertisements in the 1950s than they do with traditional films. Gurevitch suggested that as a result, the relationship between cinema and advertising is intertwined, suggesting that cinema was in part the result of advertising and the economic advantage that it provided early film makers. Segrave detailed the industries that advertised in these early films.
Movies and television
A feature film that has expectations of reaching millions of viewers attracts marketers.
In many cases no payment is made for product exposure and no promise of marketing support is made when consumer brands appear in movies. Film productions need props for scenes, so each movie's property master, who is responsible for gathering props film, contacts product placement middlemen agencies or product companies directly. In addition to items for on-screen use, the product/service supplier might provide a production with large quantities of complementary products or services. Tapping product placement channels can be particularly valuable for movies when a vintage product is required—such as a sign or bottle—that is not readily available.
Although there is no definitive proof that product placement for Red Crown gasoline in The Garage, Fritz Lang's Dr. Mabuse the Gambler (1922) contained a prominent title card in the opening credits reading "The gowns of the female stars were designed by Vally Reinecke and made in the fashion studios of Flatow-Schädler und Mossner."
Among notable silent films to feature product placement was Wings (1927), the first to win the Academy Award for Best Picture. It contained a plug for Hershey's chocolate. Fritz Lang's film M (released in 1931) shows a banner display for Wrigley's PK Chewing Gum, for approximately 20–30 seconds.
Another early example occurs in Horse Feathers (1932), where Thelma Todd's character falls out of a canoe and into a river. She calls for a "life saver" and Groucho Marx tosses her a Life Savers candy. It's a Wonderful Life (1946) depicts a young boy with aspirations to be an explorer, displaying a prominent copy of National Geographic magazine. In Love Happy (1949), Harpo cavorts on a rooftop among various billboards and at one point escapes from the villains on the old Mobil logo, the "Flying Red Horse". Harrison's Reports severely criticised this scene in its film review and in a front-page editorial. In Gun Crazy (1949), the climactic crime is the payroll robbery of the Armour meat-packing plant, where a Bulova clock is prominently displayed.
In the New World Pictures dub of The Return of Godzilla, Godzilla 1984, Dr. Pepper is subject to prominent product placement in the new scenes shot specifically for the dub. In a scene shot at an American military base, a vending machine is situated directly between two characters, and in similar scenes characters are often shown drinking the soft drink.
Cheerios and Coca-Cola had product placement in the Andrew Lloyd Webber musical Evita, in Superman: The Movie and the sequel Superman II. Clark Kent eats Cheerios for breakfast in Smallville. In Superman II's climax, Superman crashes into a giant Coca-Cola advertisement and saves people on a bus bearing an ad for Evita, before he smashes into a Marlboro delivery truck.
A more prominent example of product placement comes in the film Cast Away in which Tom Hanks, the lead character, is a FedEx employee. References to the delivery company FedEx are made throughout the film, and the company is central to the plot itself. The Internship (2013), which features two unemployed friends seeking employment at Google, was described by Tom Brook of the BBC as "one huge advertisement for Google" that took "product placement to a startling new extreme".
In other early media, e.g., radio in the 1930s and 1940s and television in the 1950s, programs were often underwritten by companies. Soap operas were so-named because they were initially underwritten by consumer packaged goods companies such as Procter & Gamble or Unilever. When television began to displace radio, DuMont's Cavalcade of Stars television show was, in its era, notable for not relying on a sole sponsor. Sponsorship continues with programs being sponsored by major vendors such as Hallmark Cards.
The conspicuous display of Studebaker motor vehicles in the television series Mr. Ed (1961–1966), which was sponsored by the Studebaker Corporation from 1961 to 1963, as well as the display of Ford vehicles on the series Hazel (1961–1966), which was sponsored by the Ford Motor Company from 1961 to 1965, are notable examples of television product placement.
Placements fall into two categories: those that are donated to reduce production costs and those placed in exchange for compensation. Lotz refers to two classifications within these two categories—"basic" and "advanced". Basic placement is when the logo of an object or a brand name is visible but the characters do not draw attention to the brand. Advanced placement is when the product or brand is mentioned by name by characters in the show or movie.
Barter and service deals (mobile phones provided for crew use, for instance) are also common practices. Content providers may trade product placements for help funding advertisements tied-in with a film's release, a show's new season or other event.
A variant of product placement is advertisement placement. In this case an advertisement for the product (rather than the product itself) appears in the production. Examples include a Lucky Strike cigarette advertisement on a billboard or a truck with a milk advertisement on its trailer.
Placing contemporary products into existing content creates new opportunities for marketers. Current product placements can be added to older programs when they are rerun or released on video.
As of 2007, dynamic or switchable placements became possible. Placements can be customised based upon factors such as demographics, psychographics or behavioral information about the consumer. In-game advertising vendors such as Massive Incorporated transmit user information such as individual player IDs and data about what was on the screen and for how long to their servers, enabling user-specific placements.
Hypervideo techniques allow the insertion of interactive elements into video.
A variant of product placement is brand integration, which varies from placement when "the product or company name becomes part of the show in such a way that it contributes to the narrative and creates an environment of brand awareness beyond that produced by advanced placement." While this type of advertising is common on unscripted shows such as The Apprentice, it can also be used in scripted television. An early example was by Abercrombie & Fitch, when one of its stores provided the notional venue for part of the romantic comedy film Man's Favorite Sport? (1964). On All My Children one character took a job at Revlon. The character's job became part of the character's development.
Jurassic Park not only prominently features Ford cars and other commercial products, but also includes a scene displaying its own promotional merchandise. One shot shows the "Jurassic Park Souvenir Store", with products that it offered for sale to fans.
According to Danny Boyle, director of the film Slumdog Millionaire (2008), the makers used "product displacement" to accommodate sponsors such as Mercedes-Benz that refused to allow their products to be used in non-flattering settings. While Mercedes did not mind having a gangster driving their cars, they objected to their products being shown in a slum. The makers removed logos digitally in post-production, costing "tens of thousands of pounds". When such issues are brought up in advance of filming, production companies often resort to "greeking", the practice of simply covering logos with tape, but one of them driven by Latika is shown to have the logos on the car keys.
Similarly, in The Blues Brothers (1980), portions of the defunct Dixie Square Mall in Harvey, Illinois, were reconstructed in façade and used as the scene of an indoor car chase. Signage belonging to mall tenants was replaced with that of other vendors; for instance, a Walgreens would become a Toys "R" Us.
Cars (2006) parodies NASCAR, an advertising-heavy sport which controversially had long allowed alcohol and tobacco sponsorships. NASCAR's sponsors were replaced with fictional or parody brands; Dinoco Oil takes pride of place, followed by a string of invented automotive aftermarket products positioned as pharmacy or medical brands. "Dale Earnhardt Inc." displaced "Junior #8"'s sponsor Budweiser to avoid advertising beer in a Disney feature. NASCAR's former Winston Cup trophy became the Piston Cup, removing a tobacco advertisement.
Audio vs visual
Placements can be sound-only, visual-only or a combination of both. The Russian television show дом-2 (phonetically Dom-2) (similar to Big Brother) often features participants stating something along the lines of, "Oh, did you check out the new product X by company Y yet?" after which the camera zooms in on the named product, explicitly combining an audio mention with a visual image. In The Real World/Road Rules Challenge participants often make a similar comment, usually pertaining to the mobile device and carrier for a text message.
In 2010 Wal-Mart teamed with Procter & Gamble to produce Secrets of the Mountain and The Jensen Project, both family-oriented films that display the characters using Wal-Mart and Procter & Gamble- branded products. The Jensen Project also featured a preview of Kinect.
20th Century Fox regularly uses their sister Fox News and Sky News channels in their films by including them as a plot device when characters view news broadcasts. The channel is featured in a film depends on its setting. The character typically says that the audience is viewing Sky News. Examples include the 1996 films Independence Day and Mission: Impossible.
The pilot episode of the NBC sitcom 30 Rock featured the General Electric (at the time an 80% owner of NBC) Trivection oven, but was said to be a joke by the show's creator. The show later parodied placement.
The 1988 film Return of the Killer Tomatoes mocked the concept when at one point the film stops for lack of money. The character played by George Clooney suggests product placement as a way to continue. This was followed by several scenes with blatant product placement, including a Pepsi billboard installed in front of the villain's mansion.
The film Fight Club, directed by David Fincher, bit the hand that fed it by depicting acts of violence against most of the products that paid to be placed in the film. Examples include the scene where the Apple Store is broken into, the scene where Brad Pitt and Edward Norton smash the headlights of a new Volkswagen Beetle, and try to blow up a "popular coffee franchise", a thinly veiled dig at Starbucks.
The film Superstar, starring Will Ferrell and Molly Shannon, shows every resident in town driving Volkswagen New Beetles, possibly for comic effect. Similarly, the film Mr. Deeds shows Adam Sandler's character purchasing a Chevrolet Corvette for every resident of his town.
Wayne's World featured a scene where Wayne refuses to allow his show's sponsor to appear on the air. When told it is part of his contract, Wayne argues that the deal "didn't include selling out" while conspicuously drinking a can of Pepsi, eating Doritos, and displaying a Pizza Hut pizza. Garth then laments that "people only do things because they get paid" while his entire wardrobe consists of Reebok athletic wear. Finally, Wayne complains of a headache and Garth advises him to take Nuprin while cutting to a few seconds of a Nuprin TV ad.
Kung Pow! Enter the Fist spoofed its product placements, highlighting the anachronistic inclusion of a Taco Bell. In a similar vein, in Looney Tunes: Back In Action, the main characters stumble across a Wal-Mart while stranded in the middle of Death Valley and acquire supplies just for providing an endorsement. Kannagi: Crazy Shrine Maidens poked fun at its sponsor Sony by having one character give another a Blu-ray Disc with the tagline "It's a Sony", only for them to complain that they do not have a Blu-ray player, to which the character responds with a version in Betamax.
X-Files (1993–2002) (as well as many other films and television productions) featured the fictional Morley brand of cigarettes, the choice of the Cigarette Smoking Man. The company producing Morleys was also involved in a cover-up conspiracy, Brand X.
Ghostbusters had a faux product in the climax of the film when the team faces the Stay Puft Marshmallow Man. Previously in the film, Stay-Puft brand marshmallows are shown in Dana's apartment and a Stay-Puft billboard is visible (via a matte painting) when the Ghostbusters' storage grid is deactivated and the imprisoned ghosts are released. Similar in form, Mel Brooks used the same device in the comedy spoof Spaceballs, which parodied Star Wars: in one scene, he opened up a can of Perri-Air canned air, a play on the name Perrier, the brand of fresh spring water.
The Truman Show utilized faux placements to advance the narrative of the reality television set. The protagonist's wife places products in front of hidden cameras, even naming them in dialogue with her husband. This increases Truman's suspicions as he comes to realise his surroundings are intentionally fabricated.
Some filmmakers created fictional products that appear in multiple movies. Examples include Kevin Smith (Nails Cigarettes, Mooby Corporation, Chewlees Gum, Discreeto Burritos) and Quentin Tarantino (Red Apple Cigarettes, Jack Rabbit Slim's Restaurants, Big Kahuna Burger). This went even further with the fictional brand Binford Tools which appeared in TV shows Home Improvement and Last Man Standing and in the Toy Story movie franchise, all starring Tim Allen.
This practice is also fairly common in certain comics, such as Svetlana Chmakova's Dramacon, which makes several product-placement-esque usages of "Pawky", (a modification of the name of the Japanese snack "Pocky", popular among anime and manga fans) or Naoko Takeuchi's Sailor Moon, which includes numerous references to the series Codename: Sailor V, from which Sailor Moon was spun off.
This practice is also common in certain "reality-based" video games such as the Grand Theft Auto series, which feature fictitious stores such as Ammu-Nation, Vinyl Countdown, Gash (spoofing Gap) Zip, Pizza Boy, etc.
So-called "reverse product placement" creates real products to match those seen in a fictional setting. For example, in 2007, 7-Eleven rebranded 11 of its American stores and one Canadian store as "Kwik-E-Marts", selling versions of products seen in episodes of The Simpsons, such as Buzz Cola and Krusty-O's cereal. In 1997, Acme Communications was created as a chain of real television stations; the firm is named for the fictional Acme Corporation of Warner Brothers fame. Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory (1971) led to a real Willy Wonka candy company, established soon after the film's release.
In 1949, Crazy Eddie was created as a fictional car dealer in the film A Letter to Three Wives. That name, bestowed in 1971 upon a real-life electronics chain in New York City, appeared in 1984 in an ad in Splash. Crazy Eddie's memorable ads are parodied in Howard the Duck, featuring a duck version of the famous pitchman, and UHF, as "Crazy Ernie", a used car salesman, threatens to club a baby seal if nobody comes in to buy a car.
Music and recording industries
While radio and television stations are regulated by national governments, producers of printed or recorded works are not, leading marketers to attempt to get products mentioned in lyrics of popular songs.
In 2008, The Kluger Agency was claimed to have proposed placement of Double Happiness Jeans, a virtual sweatshop created as part of the Invisible Threads project for the 2008 Sundance Festival, in a Pussycat Dolls song for a fee. The firm was not intended to represent a commercial product. It had been invented as a collaboration between Jeff Crouse of the Anti-Advertising Agency and Stephanie Rothenberg. While the product technically existed at the time, Double Happiness was intended to be a critical piece.
In January 2009, Migra Corridos, a five-song EP including accordion ballad "El Mas Grande Enemigo", had received airplay on twenty-five Mexican radio stations. The tune purports to be the lament of a would-be immigrant left to die in the Arizona desert by coyotes (people smugglers). No disclosure was made to the radio stations that the U.S. Border Patrol had commissioned the project with content devised by Elevación, a Hispanic advertising agency based in Washington, D.C. and New York City.
In 2010, a video for Lady Gaga's "Telephone" was panned by critics for displaying nine brands in nine minutes (including her own line of Heartbeats headphones), many as paid product placements. Other 2010 music videos displayed the PlentyofFish website include Natasha Bedingfield's "Touch", Flo Rida and Akon's "Available", Jason Derulo's "Ridin' Solo", and 3OH!3's "Double Vision".
Jennifer Lopez's Fiat-sponsored music video "Papi" was edited for broadcast as a 30-second advertisement for the Fiat 500 Cabrio in 2011. The original video also advertised BlackBerry, Tous, Planet Love Match and Crown Royal.
Alcohol advertising in music videos drew criticism from Curtin University in Perth, Australia in 2011. An Alcohol Beverages Advertising Code (ABAC) exists in Australia to handle complaints, but a placement of Midori liqueur in Cobra Starship's "You Make Me Feel..." was judged not to be alcohol advertising.
South African football comic book Supa Strikas accepts product placement to allow for the comic's free distribution. Product placement occurs throughout the publication; on players' shirts, billboards and signage, and through the branding of locations or scenarios. Supa Strikas receives the majority of its support from Chevron, via its Caltex and Texaco brands.
In markets where Chevron lacks a presence, other brands step in, e.g., including Visa in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Other brands include their logos included as both billboard and background advertising, and through the branding of locations and scenarios. These companies include Metropolitan Life, Nike, Spur Steak Ranches and the South African National Roads Agency, among others.
Other titles adopted the same system, including cricket comic Supa Tigers and Strike Zone.
Product placement has long been prevalent in sports at all levels.
While now-defunct NFL Europe allowed liberal use of team uniforms by sponsors, the main National Football League (NFL) does not. For instance, the league prohibits logos of sponsors painted onto the fields, although Gillette Stadium in Foxborough, Massachusetts, has their stadium's logomark painted onto the FieldTurf field. In 2008, the league allowed sponsors on the practice jerseys of the uniforms, but not game uniforms.
Early on, two of the league's flagship teams—the Green Bay Packers and the Pittsburgh Steelers—adopted their identity from corporate sponsors. The Packers adopted the name "Packers" because they were sponsored by the Indian Packing Company. They later had "ACME PACKERS" written on their uniforms in the early 1920s after the Acme Packing Company bought Indian Packing. The Steelers adopted their current logo in 1962 as a product-placement deal with the American Iron and Steel Institute, which owned the rights to the Steelmark logo. The Steelers later were allowed to add "-ers" to the Steelmark logo the following year so that they could own a trademark on the logo. (The Steelers' pre-NFL predecessors also regularly sold naming rights to companies in the Pittsburgh area.)
In automobile racing, the concept of the factory-backed contestant, who is provided with vehicles and technical support in return for the car's manufacturer obtaining visibility for its products in competition, dates in NASCAR to the 1950s and Marshall Teague's factory-backed Fabulous Hudson Hornet. "Win on Sunday, sell on Monday" was once a common adage among automakers.
The most common products to be promoted in this way are automobiles. Frequently, all the important vehicles in a film or television series are supplied by one manufacturer.
Cars (2006) portrays a mix of real and fictional vehicles as characters. None are directly paid product placements, but many are factory-backed by manufacturers who provided technical assistance and vehicles during production. The Lexus LC 500 was featured in the 2018 film Black Panther (film). The Audi R8 was featured in the Iron Man film series, while the Acura NSX Roadster  was featured in The Avengers.
Apparel and accessories
Under Armour, an athletic wear company, currently worth $6.67 billion, has been featured in films such as the Fast and the Furious The Martian, 22 Jump Street, and Fantastic Four to name a few.
Consumer electronics and computers
Apple's products frequently appear in films, music videos and on television. Apple has stated that they do not pay for this, but declined to discuss how its products are placed; some Apple placements may have stemmed from the brand's position as a status symbol rather than actual paid promotion. Similarly, Pixar films have often featured references to Apple products, although these are an homage to the involvement of its founder, Steve Jobs, as an early investor in the studio.
The 2010 Modern Family episode "Game Changer" prominently featured the iPad and aired prior to its launch, while the 2015 episode "Connection Lost" is presented entirely from the perspective of a character's Macbook Pro laptop, with all interactions between characters being conducted via FaceTime and iMessage. Show creator Steven Levitan said the show had an ongoing relationship with Apple, but did not elaborate further. In the case of the former, while the episode's credits did state that the iPad was "provided" by Apple, the company did not pay the show's broadcaster ABC for the integration, nor buy any commercial time during the episode.
Owing to its common ownership, Sony Pictures films have featured placements of Sony consumer electronics products, particularly Sony Xperia smartphones, amongst other products. The James Bond films Skyfall and Spectre (2015 film)|Spectre prominently feature placements of the Sony Xperia T and Sony Xperia Z5 smartphones respectively, and Sony released editions of the T and Xperia Z5 Compact branded as tie-ins for the films.
In video games, the most common placements are for processors or graphics cards. For example, in EA's Battlefield 2142, ads for Intel Core 2 processors appear on map billboards. EA's The Sims contains in-game advertising for Intel and for McDonald's. Rare's Perfect Dark Zero features many ads for Samsung in their menus.
Food and beverage
The use of Reese's Pieces as a prominent plot element in the film E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial was the result of a sponsorship deal; it was originally intended for the titular character's favorite food to be M&Ms candies, but Mars, Incorporated turned down an offer, believing the film's alien would scare children. The Hershey Company took the sponsorship instead, which included the rights for the company to cross-promote Reese's Pieces with the film. The deal was considered a major coup for the company; sales of Reese's Pieces tripled, and some retailers had trouble meeting demand for the product. For a few years after the film's release, Reese's ran commercials featuring a purple-skinned alien (who looked nothing like E.T.) that came down to Earth and bonded with Earth children by offering them Reese's Pieces.
Alongside criticism for trying to ride off the popularity of E.T., the film Mac and Me was widely criticised for containing numerous placements for Coca-Cola soft drinks and the fast food chain McDonald's; both brands are integral to the film's plot, while McDonald's mascot Ronald McDonald makes an appearance during a dance scene set at a McDonald's, and is credited as appearing in the film "as himself". Critics also noted that the name of the alien creature featured in the film, "Mac", could also be interpreted as a reference to the chain's notable burger, the Big Mac. Its producer R.J. Louis denied that the film was funded by McDonald's; he had previously worked on campaigns for the company and wanted to make a film that would help benefit the Ronald McDonald House Charities, and had to pursue rights to portray the McDonald's brand in the film (noting that he was "still the only person in the universe that ever had the exclusive motion picture rights to the McDonald's trademark, their actors, their characters, and the whole company"), but did receive funding from one of the chain's major suppliers, Golden State Foods. He also justified the extended dance scene, as trips to McDonald's were often seen as a "treat" for children of the era, and explained that "Mac" was meant to be an acronym for "Mysterious Alien Creature".
Sylvester Stallone's Rocky films featured heavy product placement. The most obvious example appeared in Rocky III: when Rocky spends time with his young son, he asks him what he wants for breakfast. The boy responds, "Wheaties!" and, at Rocky's prompting, adds that it's "the breakfast of champions!"
Tobacco companies have made direct payment to stars for using their cigarettes in films. Sylvester Stallone received US$500,000 to use Brown and Williamson tobacco products in five feature films.
In response to a Christian Science Monitor article accusing the industry of deliberately using product placement as an advertising strategy, the Tobacco Institute claimed that product placement is driven by filmmakers to "achieve desired artistic effects but also to offset production costs". It also claimed "the 1970 federal ban on cigarette advertising on television and radio does not prohibit payments to filmmakers for the use of cigarettes in a film." The rebuttal concludes with the sentiment that smoking in film provides a certain "aesthetic" which is legitimate and at the filmmaker's discretion.
Many airlines have advertised prominently in film, in some cases to promote a new flight route or just to increase public awareness of the company. Pan American World Airways advertised in many films, including some James Bond ones. American Airlines was advertised in Home Alone and Home Alone 2, and a model of a Virgin Atlantic Boeing 747 was shown in Wayne's World. Mike Myers' later film, Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me, featured a major promotion with Virgin, including repainting some of Virgin's fleet to read "Virgin Shaglantic".
American Airlines and Hilton Hotels were featured in the film Up in the Air. George Clooney, an avid flyer is constantly seen in the airport because of his career. This film was a huge endorsement for American Airlines, yet no payment was exchanged between the filmmaker and the airline.
Radio, television and publishing
The list of television shows with the most instances of product placement (November 2007 – 2008; according to Nielsen Media Research) included:
Video sharing website
In 2001, British author Fay Weldon published The Bulgari Connection, a novel commissioned by Italian jewellery company Bulgari. According to The Independent, this was the first instance of a literary product-placement deal between an established writer of fiction and a commercial partner.
Much of U.S. broadcast law pertaining to on-air product promotion dates to the payola scandals of 1950s broadcast radio. An investigation launched in November 1959 into allegations that some radio disc jockeys had accepted bribes in return for radio airplay ended with a US$2,500 fine for disc jockey Alan Freed (of WABC and WINS) for violating commercial bribery laws. On September 13, 1960, the U.S. government banned payola in broadcasting. Under 47 U.S.C. § 317 "All matter broadcast by any radio station for which money, service, or other valuable consideration is directly or indirectly paid, or promised to or charged or accepted by, the station so broadcasting, from any person, shall, at the time the same is so broadcast, be announced as paid for or furnished, as the case may be, by such person..." with similar and related provisions reflected in Federal Communications Commission regulations as 47 C.F.R. 73.1212.
Often, a broadcaster claimed to have complied by placing an acknowledgement in an inconspicuous place, such as embedded within the credits. In 2005 U.S. Federal Communications Commission commissioner Jonathan Adelstein stated "if broadcasters and cable TV companies insist on further commercializing new and other shows alike, that is their business. But if they do so without disclosing it to the viewing public, that is payola, and that is the FCC's business."
In the United Kingdom, placement by commercial broadcasters was forbidden prior to 2011. On February 28, 2011, telecommunications regulator Ofcom legalised placements in certain types of programming. A placement must be "editorially justified" and not place "undue prominence" on the product. Product placements are not allowed for products that cannot legally be advertised on television, including alcohol, baby milk, gambling products, medication or junk food. Placements are not allowed during children's, news, public affairs and religious programs. Additionally, broadcasters must disclose placements on-air by displaying a "PP" icon on-screen during the program for at least three seconds at the beginning, after every commercial break, and at the end. The first legal product placement on British television came during an episode of This Morning, for a Nestlé-produced coffee maker. As with all other advertising, the BBC is barred from using placements on its publicly funded services.
I, Robot offers placements for Converse, Ovaltine, Audi, FedEx, Dos Equis and JVC among others, all of them introduced within the film's first ten minutes. One moment includes a straightforward advertisement where Will Smith's character responds to a compliment about his shoes, to which he replies "Converse All-Stars, vintage 2004" (the year of the film's release). Audi created a special car for the film, the Audi RSQ. Surveys conducted in the US showed that the placements boosted the brand's image. The Audi RSQ appears for nine minutes, and other Audis also appear in the film. I, Robot was ranked "the worst film for product placement" on a British site.
Demolition Man makes heavy mention of the only remaining restaurant chain being Taco Bell (in the U.S. release) or Pizza Hut (in the European release).
The Island features at least 35 individual products or brands, including cars, bottled water, shoes, credit cards, beer, ice cream, and a web search engine. In the movie's DVD Commentary track, director Michael Bay claims he added the advertisements for greater realism.
The 2006 comedy film Talladega Nights: The Ballad of Ricky Bobby parodied the large amount of sponsorship in NASCAR. For example, Ricky Bobby thanks baby Jesus for certain products during the dinner blessings, due to contractual obligations. In one race, he drives his car with a giant Fig Newtons sticker on his windshield, which obscures his vision. A scene where Ricky's and Jean Girard's cars go flipping for an excessively long time is interrupted by an Applebee's commercial (referencing NBC's use of commercial breaks during its own coverage). The character Jean Girard, a cultured French driver, is appropriately sponsored by Perrier mineral water.
Josie and the Pussycats contains placements in most of the shots. This appears to be done ironically, as the plot of the film revolves around subliminal messages in advertising. The film's general message can also be construed as an anti-consumerist one. The film neither sought nor received compensation for the placements.
The 2009 Star Trek, in a scene where young James Kirk drives and crashes a Chevrolet Corvette, he operates a Nokia touch-screen smartphone. Before running the car off the cliff while being chased by a hovering motorcycle cop, the distinct Nokia trademark ring tone can be heard. The Finnish phone maker offered Star Trek apps for its phones. The use of contemporary products was ridiculed, as the scene is set in the year 2255.
The 2013 Filipino film My Little Bossings attracted criticism for its extensive use of product placement. Reviewers panned the film for being "one long commercial", where advertisements for brands endorsed by the characters' actors are frequently interspersed into the film. Zig Marasigan of Rappler described the film's use of product endorsements as "some of the most distasteful examples of local product placement while no effort is made to weave them into the narrative."
In a similar vein to early radio and television programs, sponsored programs in the Philippines are not uncommon, where children's programs like Tropang Potchi and Jollitown were produced on behalf of companies, prominently featuring products and related properties in the shows in question.
In April 2009, fans of the television series Chuck responded to a placement by Subway restaurants with a grassroots effort to save the show from cancellation. The movement gained support from cast and crew, with series star Zachary Levi leading hundreds of fans to a Subway restaurant in Birmingham, United Kingdom.
Placement continues to grow, despite consumer groups such as Commercial Alert that object to the practise as "an affront to basic honesty". The group requested disclosure of all product-placement arrangements and notification before and during embedded advertisements. It justifies this to allow parents to protect easily influenced children.
Some scholars argue that product placement may inherently affect the creativity and originality of movies as film producers may re-write scripts in order to incorporate products. Most typically, product placement and merchandise are most successful amongst specific genres of movies which may eventually limit the diversity of films.
As with most marketing tactics, product placement leads to explicit as well as implicit advertising effects. Explicit effects can be observed directly and are usually visible by higher recall scores. They are highly connected to the conscious mind. Implicit effects can be observed by a change in behavior – like a higher purchase intention. They are fully based on the subconscious mind. Implicit effects are more relevant for purchase decisions and therefore more valuable than explicit reactions.
Recall describes whether people can name a product after seeing it within the content. Research showed that there is a significant relationship between product placement and recall.
Product placement affects the audience on a conscious, but also subconscious level. Science showed that there does not even need to be an explicit, conscious effect to activate subconscious effects. For example, product placement can lead to an exclusion of competing brands from the consideration set of the audience – subconsciously. It is also hoped to bypass advertising defense reactions of consumers by focusing on the subconscious character of product placement.
Under specific circumstances, product placement can lead to no or even negative effects. This usually happens if the product placement is too obvious, while the audience also feels it is being manipulated.
Audio vs visual
After viewing a Seinfeld episode with visual, auditory and audiovisual product placements, a recall task indicated that audiovisual product placements were recalled the best, visual product placements somewhat less and audio placements least. In a recognition test audiovisual was still remembered the best but audio placements were remembered second best and visual placements were remembered third best. As indicated, the type of placement that is most effective seems to vary depending on task, but audiovisual placements seem to be often the most effective. However, audiovisual product placements are not remembered best when there is more than one audiovisual placement at once, making it hard to remember each one. In case the placement is only on the audio level, advertisers must make sure it is very prominent to have any effect at all.
People tended to like brand names that were paired with attractive faces more than those paired with unattractive faces. The more times a brand was paired with an attractive face, the more people liked it.
Product placement perceived to disrupt a movie, especially when repeated, were found in one study to be counterproductive. Moderate repetition of subtle product placements did not increase people's feelings of distraction.
Products that are integrated within the plot of a movie are better recall, although not if more than one product is shown at a time. In one study placements connected to the story were recognized most often, products used by the main character were remembered less often and products in the background were remembered least often.
Placements were found more effective on a larger screen compared to on a smaller one. Also, products placed in the first half of a movie tend to be remembered better than products in the second half of a movie, which demonstrates the primacy effect.
Level of Involvement
High involvement with the program makes it easier for people to recognize the product placement. This can lead to positive effects, but might also lead to negative reactions. The same applies for high product category involvement.
Older research cited a difference between different cultural areas. For example, Australians, Austrians. and Germans tended to evaluate product placement more critically and show less positive reactions than Americans or people from certain Asian countries such as India.
If the product is endorsed by a person, there are stronger priming effects if the audience is the same sex. Women tend to be influenced a little easier, but show more negative reactions when the product can be described as ethically questionable (e.g. alcohol).
To measure the success of product placement, one first tracks the parameters of the placement itself, like the ease of identification, screen time, number of exposure(s), or association with a main character. That information is also often used to determine the price of a specific placement. Secondly, the effectiveness is measured using direct (for explicit memory effects) as well as indirect (for implicit memory effects) measurements.
Measurement of the explicit memory
Explicit effects are measured by recall or recognition tests. Subjects are asked to name the products that he or she noticed (free recall). This survey can be also aided by giving additional information like a specific product category. At recognition tests, a selection of products is shown to the interviewed person, who then needs to select the ones that he has seen before.
Measurement of the implicit memory
Implicit effects are measured in an indirect way by observing a change in behavior. This can be done by tracking the consideration set and buying behavior of people, measuring brain activities or using abstract indirect test settings like the word fragment or word stem completion test. The implicit association test (IAT) is also an applicable measurement tool.
Many argue that product placement is ethically questionable, because it manipulates people against their will. A contrary view is, even if product placement is only perceived unconsciously, it is still evaluated by our mind. It cannot make people act against their beliefs. Most people also appreciate the fact that movies look more realistic with real brands and do not feel disturbed by the placements. Additionally, further research argues that product placement is not any different from other marketing tactics when it comes to ethics.
- Schiller, Gail (June 1, 2005). "Win, Draw for Burnett Branding—Split Decision". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. Retrieved September 2, 2010.
But marketers warned that Apprentice had used nearly every episode this past season as a call to action for its advertising partners and viewers could become wary of the embedded marketing messages that are becoming a bit too blatant.
- Swift, Deanna (July 17, 2001). "Leaked Memo Reveals WTO Plan to 'Sell' Itself to American Youth—Ever Since the Disastrous 'Battle of Seattle' in 1999, the World Trade Organization Has Been Trying To Remake Its Image. 'Positive Anarchy' Might Be Just the Solution". AlterNet. Archived from the original on April 16, 2011. Retrieved September 2, 2010.
Adopt embedded marketing strategy. Teen marketing research shows that teens may respond positively to marketing symbols used in association with formerly unpopular brands.
- "When Ads Get Personal". CEO. September 1, 2001. Archived from the original on June 26, 2015. Retrieved May 28, 2014.
The executive creative director at marketing firm RTCdirect, in Washington, D.C., Shapiro sees embedded marketing as the logical next stage in the development of loyal brands.
- Lomax, Alyce (March 23, 2006). "Advertising, Disrupted". The Motley Fool. Archived from the original on April 15, 2011. Retrieved September 2, 2010.
Product placements and programming with embedded marketing messages are also becoming more prevalent.
- Owen, Rob (January 13, 2012). "TV Q&A: ABC News, 'Storage Wars' and 'The Big Bang Theory.'". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on September 18, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
- Rose, Steve (June 24, 2014). "As seen on TV: why product placement is bigger than ever". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on July 10, 2017. Retrieved July 28, 2017.
- "Synergy Or Interference? How Product Placement in TV Shows Affects The Commercial-Break Audience". Forbes.com. Archived from the original on July 29, 2017. Retrieved September 29, 2015.
- William Butcher (translation and introduction). Around the World in Eighty Days, Oxford Worlds Classics, 1995, Introduction.
- Lehu, J-M, Branded Entertainment: Product Placement & Brand Strategy in the Entertainment Business, Kogan Page, 2007, pp 18-19
- Lehu, J-M, Branded Entertainment: Product Placement & Brand Strategy in the Entertainment Business, Kogan Page, 2007, pp 19-20
- Die Woche, issue 40, October 4, 1902, page 1874
- See especially Gurevitch, Leon. (2010). "The Cinemas of Transactions: The exchangeable currency of GC attractions across audiovisual" in Popular Narrative Media, Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, Vol. 2 (2), 143-158.
- Harrison's Reports and Film Reviews. Volume 1, page iii.
- Harrison's Reports. January 17, 1920, page 9.
- Harrison's Reports. September 12, 1925, page 148.
- For more detail on the Cinemas of Attractions see Tom Gunning's work: "The Cinema of Attractions: Early Film, Its Spectator and the Avant-Garde"; in Early Film ed. Thomas Elsaesser and Adam Barker (British Film Institute, 1989)
- See Gurevitch, Leon (2010) "The Cinemas of Transactions: The Exchangeable Currency of CG Attractions", Journal of Television and New Media, Sage Publications, New York, 11 (5), 367-385
- Gurevitch, L. (2009). "Problematic Dichotomies: Narrative and Spectacle in Film and Advertising Scholarship", Journal of Popular Narrative Media, Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, Vol. 2 (2), 143-158.
- Kerry Segrave. Product Placement in Hollywood Films: A History. McFarland, 2004.
- Wiles, Michael. (2009) The Worth of Product Placement in Successful Film
- Harrison's Reports; October 8, 1949, page 162.
- Brook, Tom. "The Internship: One long ad for Google?". BBC. Archived from the original on January 13, 2017. Retrieved January 12, 2017.
- ERMA.org, a Hollywood product placement association
- Lotz, Amanda D. (2007) The Television Will Be Revolutionized. New York, NY: New York University Press. p. 167
- Lotz, Amanda D. (2007) The Television Will Be Revolutionized. New York, NY: New York University Press. p. 166-167
- Wayne Friedman and Jack Neff, "Eagle-Eye Marketers Find Right Spot, Right Time,Advertising Age, 1/22/01.
- Lotz, Amanda D. (2007) The Television Will Be Revolutionized. New York, NY: New York University Press. p. 168-169
- Lubell, Sam (January 2, 2006). "Advertising's Twilight Zone: That Signpost Up Ahead May Be a Virtual Product". nytimes.com. Archived from the original on June 12, 2015. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
- Cohen, Nancy (February 23, 2006). "Virtual Product Placement Infiltrates TV, Film, Games". ecommercetimes.com. Archived from the original on March 3, 2009. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
- Cobb, Jarry (March 8, 2006). "Product placement goes digital, gets lucrative". nbcnews.com. Archived from the original on May 31, 2016. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
- Kyllo, Blaine (September 1, 2005). "Ads get piece of the action". straight.com. Archived from the original on October 19, 2017. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
- Lotz, Amanda (2007). The Television Will Be Revolutionized. New York, NY: New York University Press. pp. 169–170. ISBN 978-0-8147-5220-3.
- "Damages + Cadillac". BLITZ Agency. Archived from the original on November 8, 2014.
- "Dixie Square Mall History", pawflimworks.com (archived, 2006)
- Neil, Dan (June 4, 2006). "A grease geek will guide you: `Cars' decoded". articles.latimes.com. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
- Neil, Dan (June 4, 2006). "Cars' requires a crash course in racing". articles.chicagotribune.com. Archived from the original on November 5, 2014. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
- Peckham, Matt (July 14, 2010). "Walmart Pushing Limited $199 Kinect Pre-Order Bundle". PC Magazine. Archived from the original on July 17, 2010. Retrieved September 2, 2010.
- McNamara, Mary (July 16, 2010). "Television Review: The Jensen Project—Nothing Says Family Togetherness Like a Game of Predict the Cheesy Dialogue. Gather Around, Kids—It's Time for The Jensen Project". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on July 19, 2010. Retrieved September 2, 2010.
- "Battle of the Chefs is back!". chronicle.co.zw. March 7, 2017. Archived from the original on May 12, 2017. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
- Trivection Oven Archived November 1, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. on kitchencontraptions.com
- "On '30 Rock,' Tina Fey Draws From Her Past At 'SNL'". accesshollywood.com. October 12, 2006. Archived from the original on December 13, 2007. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
- Mitovitch, Matt (February 13, 2009). "30 Rock Boss Tina Fey Addresses a McFlurry of Criticism". tvguide.com. Archived from the original on June 16, 2011. Retrieved November 8, 2018.
- "30 Things We Learned from the 'Fight Club' Commentary". Film School Rejects. July 11, 2014. Archived from the original on July 10, 2018. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
- MeTV Staff (July 28, 2016). "The fascinating history of Morley Cigarettes, the favorite fake brand of Hollywood". metv.com. Archived from the original on August 27, 2018. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
- Forbes, Paula (August 27, 2010). "Stay Puft Marshmallows from Ghostbusters Made Real, $19.99". eater.com. Archived from the original on August 25, 2016. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
- Hopper, Tristan (December 16, 2015). "We talked to the Albertans selling bottled air to China — and despite all indications to the contrary, it's not a hoax". nationalpost.com. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
- "The Truman Show: A Reflection on Product Placement". smstudy.com. January 7, 2016. Archived from the original on July 14, 2017. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
- "Grand Theft Auto V Game Guide". guides.gamepressure.com. Archived from the original on July 9, 2017. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
- "Management Online Review". Morexpertise.com. September 30, 2008. Archived from the original on April 25, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
- "Locate A Kwik-E-Mart Near You", 7-eleven.com (archived, 2007)
- Velasco, Schuyler (November 29, 2011). "top these fiction-to-fact products?". Archived from the original on January 2, 2012. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
- Elliot, Stewart (January 9, 2006). "Fake Products and the Movies That Loved Them". nytimes.com. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
- Van, Eliot (September 19, 2008). "Products Placed: How Companies Pay Artists to Include Brands in Lyrics | Listening Post". Wired.com. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
- "BLOG: "Don't cha wish your website was hot like this?"". MusicRadar. September 23, 2008. Archived from the original on March 19, 2013. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
- "Product Placement "oppertunity" from adamkluger -at- inbox.com". Anti-Advertising Agency. August 22, 2008. Archived from the original on August 17, 2010. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
- "Invisible Threads, Jeff Crouse & Stephanie Rothenberg". National Museum of Contemporary Art, Athens, Greece. Archived from the original on October 19, 2017. Retrieved August 7, 2018.
- Associated Press (January 22, 2009). "'Migra corridos' aim to keep immigrants home". nydailynews.com. Archived from the original on March 4, 2009. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
- Ceresole, Carlos (February 15, 2009). "US uses songs to deter immigrants". bbc.co.uk. Archived from the original on October 19, 2017. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
- Hampp, Andrew (March 13, 2010). "How Miracle Whip, Plenty of Fish Tap Lady Gaga's 'Telephone'". Advertising Age. Archived from the original on March 19, 2011. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
- "Jason Derulo Is Ridin' Solo on PlentyofFish.com". June 2010. Archived from the original on March 5, 2011. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
- Elliott, Stuart (February 17, 2011). "Plenty of Fish, a Dating Site, Promotes Itself in Music Videos". New York Times. Archived from the original on October 3, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
- Kelly, Liz (February 18, 2011). "Celebritology 2.0 - Britney Spears debuts 'Hold It Against Me' video/infomercial". Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
- Hampp, Andrew (October 10, 2011). "Jennifer Lopez Debuts New Fiat Commercial After Last Spot Called 'Decade's Worst'". Billboard. Archived from the original on September 8, 2012. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- Sauer, Abe (September 20, 2011). "Papi-Razzi: Jennifer Lopez Stuffs New Video With Product Placement". BrandChannel. Archived from the original on April 1, 2012. Retrieved September 1, 2012.
- "About the ABAC Scheme". The ABAC Scheme Ltd. Archived from the original on September 11, 2012. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
- "Midori Product Placement - Alcohol Advertising Review Board". McCusker Centre for Action on Alcohol and Youth, Curtin University, Perth, Australia. Archived from the original on August 19, 2012. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
- "Komik Melangkau Sempadan" (in Malay). Kosmo!. December 9, 2008. Archived from the original on December 9, 2008. Retrieved December 9, 2008.
- Carp, Sam (March 28, 2018). "US sportswear giant will remain exclusive uniform provider for league's 32 teams". sportspromedia.com. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- Christl, Cliff (March 23, 2017). "The Acme Packers were short-lived". packers.com. Archived from the original on August 1, 2018. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- "History of the Steelmark". steel.org. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- Moss, Geoff (June 18, 2007). "Japan's Top Anime Series Eyeshield 21 Brings a New Concept, Sports Anime, to the Forefront of the Cartoon World with Its Global Debut on Toonami Jetstream". Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- Nerad, Jack. "The Greatest Cars: Hudson Hornet". Driving Today. Archived from the original on May 22, 2013. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
- Lippman, John (December 11, 2000). "FedEx Has a Star Turn In New Film 'Cast Away'". wsj.com. Archived from the original on February 4, 2018. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- "Stark Contrast: Iron Man 3's Audi Deal Complicates Product Placement". brandchannel:. Archived from the original on September 30, 2015. Retrieved September 29, 2015.
- "He Drives Fast, but Can James Bond Sell a Car?". BloombergView. Archived from the original on October 1, 2015. Retrieved September 29, 2015.
- "Mercedes-Benz vehicles to be featured in 'Jurassic World'". Archived from the original on October 1, 2015. Retrieved September 29, 2015.
- "BMW's 'Mission: Impossible' Marketing: Plenty of Racing, No Logo Close-Ups". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on October 3, 2015. Retrieved September 29, 2015.
- Larry Edsall; Valerie Höhne (August 2006). "Goodbye, Mustang Sally – Hello, Sally Carrera!". Christophorus Magazine. Porsche AG. pp. 72–78. Archived from the original on September 8, 2012. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
- "2018 Lexus LC - Luxury Coupe". Lexus USA. Archived from the original on April 23, 2018. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
- "Black Panther just keeps smashing box office records". Archived from the original on April 23, 2018. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
- "The Best And Worst Car Product Placements In TV And Movies". Archived from the original on April 23, 2018. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
- "Product placement in pictures: Skyfall | Brands & Films". brandsandfilms.com. Archived from the original on September 30, 2015. Retrieved September 29, 2015.
- "Jay-Z's First Official Release From "Magna Carta Holy Grail" Is An Ode Tom Ford". Archived from the original on October 1, 2015. Retrieved September 29, 2015.
- "Ranking All of the Empire Season 2 Premiere's Celeb Cameos". Archived from the original on September 27, 2015. Retrieved September 29, 2015.
- "Sex and the City Carrie Bradshaw Wedding Dress from Vogue Photo shoot". August 25, 2015. Archived from the original on April 23, 2018. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
- "NYSE:UAA - Google Search". www.google.com. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
- Reed, Sam (January 26, 2016). "Dwayne Johnson Was Made for His Under Armour Partnership". hollywoodreporter.com. Archived from the original on November 13, 2017. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- "From The Rock to The Martian, Under Armour Product Placement Scores". September 10, 2015. Archived from the original on April 23, 2018. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
- Goo, Sara Kehaulani (April 15, 2006). "Apple Gets a Big Slice Of Product-Placement Pie". washingtonpost.com. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- "Scare Different and Mac iCar: Two Apple references in Pixar flicks you may have missed". The Next Web. Archived from the original on July 1, 2016. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
- Ihnat, Gwen (February 25, 2015). "Review: Modern Family: "Connection Lost"". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on March 5, 2015. Retrieved March 6, 2015.
- "'Modern Family' Featured an IPad, but ABC Didn't Collect". Advertising Age. Archived from the original on July 29, 2017. Retrieved July 28, 2017.
- "Check out the box for the Sony Xperia Z5 Compact Spectre limited edition". PhoneArena. Archived from the original on June 16, 2016. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
- "Sony Xperia T James Bond Skyfall version exclusive to O2". CNET. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved December 22, 2015.
- "AT&T to offer James Bond's Sony Xperia TL in a promotional tie-in to the next 007 film". PhoneArena. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved December 22, 2015.
- "Sony's Spider-Man Inhabits a World Without Apple". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on June 10, 2016. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
- Videogames and Politics, Šisler, Vít. In EnterMultimediale 2, International Festival of Art and New Technologies, Praha: CIANT, 2005, p. 38–40. ISBN 80-239-4927-6.
- "The Gear That Made E.T. the Pinnacle of Product Placement". Wired. Archived from the original on December 11, 2017. Retrieved December 11, 2017.
- Rabin, Nathan. "Ronald McDonald Approved Case File #151: Mac And Me". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
- Harrison, Eric (August 29, 1999). "Branded into the Scenery: Commentary: Advertising is so much a part of life that it's understandable to find familiar products in films. But sometimes it goes too far". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Archived from the original on September 25, 2017. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
- Wilmington, Michael (August 15, 1988). "MOVIE REVIEW : 'Mac and Me' Takes a Big McBite Out of 'E.T.'". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Archived from the original on March 7, 2011. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
- Patches, Matt (April 3, 2017). "How McDonald's Insane 'E.T.' Rip-off Got Made (and Bombed)". Thrillist. Archived from the original on December 11, 2017. Retrieved December 11, 2017.
- Exhibit 21,044 Legacy Tobacco Documents Library
- Re: agreements between Stallone and Associated Film Promotions Archived June 14, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Legacy Tobacco Documents Library
- "Master Settlement Agreement Collections". Archived from the original on June 22, 2010. Retrieved May 30, 2010.
- Bergman, Carol. "Tobacco's Cloudy Image on The Silver Screen". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- "Letter to Curtis Sitome". University of California. Archived from the original on June 16, 2014. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- Goetzl, David (May 10, 1999). "Virgin brings aboard 'Austin Powers' tie-in". adage.com. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- Hampp, Andrew (December 14, 2009). "How American Airlines Got a Free Ride in 'Up in the Air'". adage.com. Archived from the original on June 7, 2017. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- Krashinsky, Sarah (April 25, 2016). "How a big bet on Batman v Superman paid off for Turkish Airlines". globeandmail.com. Archived from the original on October 5, 2016. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- "Nielsen Tops of 2013: Advertising". www.nielsen.com. Archived from the original on April 25, 2018. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
- "How YouTube Product Placement Videos Reach Millions". May 9, 2016. Archived from the original on April 20, 2018. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
- "Paid product placements and endorsements - YouTube Help". support.google.com. Archived from the original on May 6, 2018. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
- "Embedded third-party sponsorships and ads in YouTube content - YouTube Help". support.google.com. Archived from the original on December 16, 2017. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
- Usborne, David (September 4, 2001). "Strange tale of the author, a jeweller and some novel product". The Independent. Archived from the original on January 11, 2018.
- "Payola Scandal Again Rocking, Roiling Radio: FCC Scrutiny Recalls '59 Charges". redorbit.com. September 19, 2005. Archived from the original on September 17, 2011. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- "CFR TITLE 47 PART 73.1212 - Sponsorship identification". vLex. Archived from the original on March 4, 2009. Retrieved March 1, 2009.
- Morgan, Fiona (August 10, 2005). "Smash hits Will the latest payola scandal shake up the radio and music industries?". indyweek.com. Archived from the original on October 19, 2017. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- Kurtz, Howard (May 25, 2005). "FCC Panelist Wants Probe Of Product 'Payola'". washingtonpost.com. Archived from the original on April 30, 2018. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- FCC’s Adelstein: Probe ‘Payola’, Ted Hearn, Multichannel News, May 30, 2005
- "Ofcom confirms product placement on UK TV". The Guardian. Archived from the original on September 10, 2014. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
- "Product placement ban on British TV lifted". BBC News. February 28, 2011. Archived from the original on May 20, 2011. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
- I, Robot (2004) at Brandspotters.com Archived January 5, 2010, at the Wayback Machine..
- Audi AG (December 2, 2004). "Product Placement in the Film "I, Robot" a Huge Success: The Audi RSQ Spurs on the Brand's Image Ratings". Archived from the original on June 8, 2011. Retrieved July 9, 2008.
- "I, robot - Movie Review - Motor Trend". Motor Trend Magazine. July 9, 2004. Archived from the original on March 20, 2006. Retrieved July 9, 2008.
- "Top 10 Worst Movies For Product Placement - Movie Feature - TheShiznit.co.uk". www.theshiznit.co.uk. Archived from the original on July 2, 2008. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
- Numsum.com Archived May 9, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Partial list of product placements in The Island. Retrieved March 8, 2007.
- Advertisingindustrynewswire.com Archived May 1, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Criticism of product placements in The Island. Retrieved March 8, 2007.
- Agony Booth Archived April 5, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Discussion of The Island DVD Commentary Track. Retrieved April 26, 2007.
- Themoviespoiler.com Archived April 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Plot, product placements. Retrieved March 23, 2007.
- "Volkswagen Recruits Top Comedic Talent for 'Inside the VW Academy' Series of Digital Only Webisodes". Product Placement News. January 6, 2011. Archived from the original on January 3, 2010. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
- Smith, Chuck. "Vic Sotto: 'I'm open to all criticism'". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on October 19, 2017. Retrieved July 10, 2017.
- Franco, Bernie. "Blogger Lourd de Veyra posts message for Vic Sotto: "Puwede namang magpatawa pa rin habang nagtataas ng antas ng kalidad ng paggawa ng pelikula."". Philippine Entertainment Portal (in Tagalog). Archived from the original on October 19, 2017. Retrieved July 10, 2017.
- Marasigan, Zig (January 1, 2014). "'My Little Bossings': The horrible business of show business". Rappler. Archived from the original on January 4, 2014. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
- York, Emily Bryson (April 27, 2009). "Subway Caught Up in Fan Effort to Save NBC Series 'Chuck'". Advertising Age. Archived from the original on May 2, 2009. Retrieved April 30, 2009.
- France, Lisa Respers (April 30, 2009). "'Save Chuck' Latest in Campaigns To Rescue Favorite Shows". CNN. Archived from the original on May 5, 2009. Retrieved April 30, 2009.
- "Product Placement". Commercial Alert. Archived from the original on August 9, 2012. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
- McNary, Dave (November 13, 2005). "Scribes chase blurb bonanza Product placement perturbs WGA". vvariety.com. Archived from the original on March 4, 2009. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- Wakso, Janet (1993). "Hollywood Meets Madison Avenue: The Commercialization of US Films". Media, Culture & Society.
- Herrmann, Jean-Lux; Walliser, Björn; Kacha, Mathieu (2011). "Consumer Consideration of Sponsor Brands They Do Not Remember: Taking a Wider Look at the Memorisation Effects of Sponsorship". International Journal of Advertising. 30 (2): 259–281. doi:10.2501/IJA-30-2-259-281.
- Matthes, Jörg; Schemer, Christian; Wirth, Werner (2007). "More than Meets the Eye: Investigating the Hidden Impact of Brand Placements in Television Magazines". International Journal of Advertising. 26 (4): 477–503.
- Gray, Peter (199). Psychology. W.H. Freeman & Company. p. 682. ISBN 978-1572599437.
- Johnson, Michael D.; Lehmann, Donald R. (1997). "Consumer Experience and Consideration Sets For Brands and Product Categories". Advances in Consumer Research. 24: 295–300.
- Shapiro, Stewart; MacInnis, Deborah J.; Heckler, Susan E. (1997). "The Effects of Incidental Ad Exposure on the Formation of Consideration Sets". Journal of Consumer Research. 24 (1): 94–104. doi:10.1086/209496.
- Coates, Sarah L.; Butler, Laurie T.; Berry, Dianne C. (2004). "Implicit Memory: A Prime Example for Brand Consideration and Choice". Applied Cognitive Psychology. 18 (4): 1195–1211. doi:10.1002/acp.1044.
- Bressoud, Etienne; Lehu, Jean-Marc; Russell, Cristel Antonia. "The Product Well Placed: The Relative Impact of Placement and Audience Characteristics on Placement Recall". Journal of Advertising Research. 50 (4): 374. doi:10.2501/S0021849910091622.
- Delattre, Eric; Colovic, Ana (2009). "Memory and perception of brand mentions and placement of brands in songs". International Journal of Advertising. 28 (5): 0. doi:10.2501/S0265048709200916.
- Wilson, Rick T.; Till, Brian D. "Product placements in movies and on Broadway: a field study". International Journal of Advertising. 30 (3): 373. doi:10.2501/IJA-30-3-373-398.
- Yoo, Seung-Chul; Peña, Jorge. "Do Violent Video Games Impair The Effectiveness of In-Game Advertisements? The Impact of Gaming Environment on Brand Recall, Brand Attitude, and Purchase Intention". Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. 14 (7–8): 439–446. doi:10.1089/cyber.2010.0031.
- Cowley, Elizabeth; Barron, Chris (2008). "When Product Placement Goes Wrong: The Effects of Program Liking and Placement Prominence". Journal of Advertising. 37 (1): 89–98. doi:10.2753/joa0091-3367370107.
- Janiszewski, Chris; Meyvis, Tom (2001). "Effects of Brand Logo Complexity, Repetition, and Spacing on Processing Fluency and Judgment". Journal of Consumer Research. 28 (1): 18–32. doi:10.1086/321945.
- Krishnan, H. Shanker; Shapiro, Stewart (1996). "Comparing Implicit and Explicit Memory for Brand Names From Advertisements". Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied. 2 (2): 147–163. doi:10.1037/1076-898x.2.2.147.
- Lee, Mira; Faber, Ronald J. (2007). "Effects of Product Placement in On-Line Games on Brand Memory". Journal of Advertising. 36 (4): 75–90. doi:10.2753/joa0091-3367360406.
- Auty, Susan; Lewis, Charlie (2004). "Exploring children's choice: The reminder effect of product placement". Psychology and Marketing. 21 (9): 697–713. doi:10.1002/mar.20025.
- Law, Sharmistha; Braun, Kathryn A. (2000). "I'll have what she's having: Gauging the impact of product placements on viewers". Psychology and Marketing. 17 (12): 1059–1075. doi:10.1002/1520-6793(200012)17:12<1059::AID-MAR3>3.0.CO;2-V.
- Mallinckrodt, Victoria; Mizerski, Dick (2007). "The Effects of Playing an Advergame on Young Children's Perceptions, Preferences, and Requests". Journal of Advertising. 36 (2): 87–100. doi:10.2753/joa0091-3367360206.
- Morton, Cynthia R.; Friedman, Meredith (2002). "'I Saw It in the Movies': Exploring the Link Between Product Placement Beliefs and Reported Usage Behavior". Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising (CTC Press). 24 (2): 33–40. doi:10.1080/10641734.2002.10505133.
- Yang, Moonhee; Roskos-Ewoldsen, David R. (2007). "The Effectiveness of Brand Placements in the Movies: Levels of Placements, Explicit and Implicit Memory, and Brand-Choice Behavior". Journal of Communication. 57 (3): 469–489. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2007.00353.x.
- Butler, Laurie T.; Berry, Dianne C. (2002). "The Influence of Affective Statements on Performance on Implicit and Explicit Memory Tasks". Applied Cognitive Psychology. 16 (7): 829–843. doi:10.1002/acp.841.
- Perfect, T. J.; Askew, C. (1994). "Print Adverts: Not Remembered but Memorable". Applied Cognitive Psychology. 8 (7): 693–703. doi:10.1002/acp.2350080707.
- Shapiro, Stewart; Krishnan, H. Shanker (2001). "Memory-Based Measures for Assessing Advertising Effects: A Comparison of Explicit and Implicit Memory Effects". Journal of Advertising. 30 (3): 1–13. doi:10.1080/00913367.2001.10673641.
- Kuerschner, Jens. "Subliminal Product Placement in movies (study)". Placedise. Placedise GmbH. Archived from the original on December 30, 2015. Retrieved August 11, 2015.
- Babin, Laurie A.; Carder, Sheri T. (1996). "Advertising via the Box Office: Is Product Placement Effective?". Journal of Promotion Management. 3 (1/2): 31–52. doi:10.1300/j057v03n01_03.
- Russel, Cristel A. (2002). "Investigating the Effectiveness of Product Placements in Television Shows: The Role of Modality and Plot Connection Congruence on Brand Memory and Attitude". Journal of Consumer Research. 29 (3): 306–318. doi:10.1086/344432.
- Vollmer, Stacy M.; Mizerski, Richard W. (1994). "A Review and Investigation into the Effectiveness of Product Placements in Films," in The Proceedings of the 1994 Conference of the American Academy of Advertising, ed. Karen W. King. Athens, GA: Henry W. Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communications. pp. 97–102.
- Hackley, Christopher; Tiwsakul, Rungpaka A.; Preuss, Lutz (2008). "An Ethical Evaluation of Product Placement: A Deceptive Practice?". Business Ethics: A European Review. 17 (2): 109–120. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8608.2008.00525.x.
- van Reijmersdal, Eva A.; Neijens, Peter C.; Smit, Edith G. (2009). "A New Branch of Advertising: Reviewing Factors That Influence Reactions to Product Placement". Journal of Advertising Research. 49 (4): 429–440. doi:10.2501/s0021849909091065.
- D'Astous, Alain; Bitz, Pierre (1995). "Consumer Evaluations of Sponsorship Programmes". European Journal of Marketing. 29 (12): 6–22. doi:10.1108/03090569510102504.
- McDonald, Colin (1991). "Sponsorship and the Image of the Sponsor". European Journal of Marketing. 25: 31–38. doi:10.1108/eum0000000000630.
- Parker, Ken (1991). "Sponsorship: The Research Contribution". European Journal of Marketing. 25 (11): 22–30. doi:10.1108/eum0000000000629.
- Gupta, Pola B.; Lord, Kenneth R. (1998). "Product Placement in Movies: The Effect of Prominence and Mode on Audience Recall". Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising. 20 (1): 47–59. doi:10.1080/10641734.1998.10505076.
- Purnawirawan, Nathalia; Wouters, Marijke; De Pelsmaker, Patrick (2010). "Brand Placements in Movies: The Impact of Modality, Prominence and Plot Connection on Attitude and Behavioral Intention". Advances in Advertising Research. 1: 347–361. doi:10.1007/978-3-8349-6006-1_23.
- Humphreys, Michael S.; Tangen, Jason M.; Bettina Cornwell, T.; Quinn, Emerald A.; Murray, Krista L. "Unintended effects of memory on decision making: A breakdown in access control". Journal of Memory and Language. 63 (3): 400–415. doi:10.1016/j.jml.2010.06.006.
- Homer, Pamela Miles. "Product Placements". Journal of Advertising. 38 (3): 21–32. doi:10.2753/JOA0091-3367380302.
- Friestad, Marian; Wright, Peter (1994). "The Persuasion Knowledge Model: How People Cope with Persuasion Attempts". Journal of Consumer Research. 21 (1): 1–31. doi:10.1086/209380.
- Moorman, Marjolein; Willemsen, Lotte M.; Neijens, Peter C.; Smit, Edith G. (2012). "Program-Involvement Effects on commercial Attention and Recall of Successive and Embedded Advertising". Journal of Advertising. 41 (2): 25–38. doi:10.2753/JOA0091-3367410202.
- Laurent, Gilles; Kapferer, Jean-Noël (1985). "Measuring Consumer Involvement Profiles". Journal of Marketing Research. 22 (1): 41–53. doi:10.2307/3151549.
- Strahan, Erin J.; Spencer, Steven J.; Zanna, Mark P. (2002). "Subliminal Priming and Persuasion: Striking While the Iron is Hot". Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 38 (6): 556–568. doi:10.1016/S0022-1031(02)00502-4.
- Zaichkowsky, Judith Lynne (1986). "Conceptualizing Involvement". Journal of Advertising. 15 (2): 4–14. doi:10.1080/00913367.1986.10672999.
- Gardner, Meryl Paula; Mitchell, Andrew A.; Russo, J. Edward (1985). "Low Involvement Strategies for Processing Advertisements". Journal of Advertising. 14 (2): 4–56. doi:10.1080/00913367.1985.10672941.
- Brennan, Stacey; Rosenberger, Philip J. III.; Hementera, Veronica (2004). "Product Placements in Movies: An Australian Consumer Perspective on their Ethicality and Acceptability". Marketing Bulletin. 15: 1–16.
- Gould, Stephen; Gupta, P. B.; Grabner-Kräuter, S. (2000). "Product placements in movies: A cross-cultural analysis of Austrian, French and American consumers' attitudes toward this emerging, international promotional medium". Journal of Advertising. 29 (4): 41–58. doi:10.1080/00913367.2000.10673623.
- Eisend, Martin (2009). "A Cross-Cultural Generalizability Study of Consumers' Acceptance of Product Placements in Movies". Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising. 31 (1): 15–25. doi:10.1080/10641734.2009.10505254.
- Rössler, Patrick; Bacher, Julia (2002). "Transcultural Effects of Product Placement in Movies: A comparison of Placement Impact in Germany and the USA". Zeitschrift für Medienpsychologie. 14 (3): 98–108. doi:10.1026/1617-63184.108.40.206.
- Nelson, Michelle R.; Deshpande, Sameer (2013). "The Prevalence of and Consumer Response to Foreign and Domestic Brand Placement in Bollywood Movies". Journal of Advertising. 42 (1): 1–15. doi:10.1080/00913367.2012.749195.
- Karrh, James A.; Frith, Katherine Toland; Callison, Coy (2001). "Audience Attitudes towards Brand (Product) Placement: Singapore and the United States". International Journal of Advertising. 20 (1): 3–24.
- McKechnie, Sally A.; Zhou, Jia (2003). "Product Placement in Movies: A Comparison of Chinese and American Consumers' Attitudes". International Journal of Advertising. 22 (3): 349–374.
- Gunter, Barrie; Oates, Caroline; Blades, Mark (2005). Advertising to Children on TV: Content, Impact, and Regulation. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. ISBN 978-0805844887.
- Hang, Haiming (2012). "The implicit influence of bimodal brand placement on children: information integration or information interference?". International Journal of Advertising. 31 (3): 465. doi:10.2501/IJA-31-3-465-484.
- Owen, Laura; Lewis, Charlie; Auty, Susan; Buijzen, Moniek (2013). "Is Children's Understanding of Nontraditional Advertising Comparable to Their Understanding of Television Advertising?". Journal of Public Policy & Marketing. 32 (2): 195–206. doi:10.1509/jppm.09.003.
- Fenko, Anna; Wilemijn, Drost (2014). "A study in pink: What determines the success of gender-specific advertising?". 13th International Conferences on Research in Advertising (ICORIA), Amsterdam, 26–28 June.
- Chen, Huan; Haley, Eric (2014). "Product Placement in Social Games: Consumer Experiences in China". Journal of Advertising. 43 (3): 286–295. doi:10.1080/00913367.2013.858086.
- de Gregorio, Frederico; Sung, Yongjun (2010). "Understanding Attitudes Toward and Behaviors in Response to Product Placement". Journal of Advertising. 39 (1): 83–96. doi:10.2753/JOA0091-3367390106.
- Gupta, Pola B.; Gould, Stephen J. (1997). "Consumers' Perceptions of the Ethics and Acceptability of Product Placements in Movies: Product Category and Individual Differences". Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising (CTC Press). 19 (1): 38–50. doi:10.1080/10641734.1997.10505056.
- Duke, Charles R. (1995). "Exploratory Comparisons of Alternative Memory Measures for Brand Name". Psychology and Marketing. 12 (1): 19–36. doi:10.1002/mar.4220120103.
- Schacter, Daniel L. (1987). "Implicit Memory: History and Current Status". Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. 13 (3): 501–518. doi:10.1037/0278-73220.127.116.111.
- Medina, John (2004). "The Neurobiology of the Decision To Buy". Psychiatric Times. 21 (10): 31–34.
- Grimes, Anthony; Kitchen, Philip J. (2007). "Researching Mere Exposure Effects to Advertising: Theoretical Foundations and Methodological Implications". International Journal of Market Research. 49 (2): 191–219.
- Greenwald, Anthony G.; McGhee, Debbie E.; Schwartz, Jordan L. K. (1998). "Measuring Individual Differences in Implicit Cognition: The Implicit Association Test". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 74 (6): 1464–1480. doi:10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1684. PMID 9654756.
- Mierke, Jan; Klauer, Karl Christoph (2003). "Method-Specific Variance in the Implicit Association Test". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 85 (6): 1180–1192. doi:10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1240.
- D'Astous, Alain; Chartier, Francis (2000). "A Study of Factors Affecting Consumer Evaluations and Memory of Product Placements in Movies". Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising. 22 (2): 31–40. doi:10.1080/10641734.2000.10505106.
- D'Astous, Alain; Séguin, Nathalie (199). "Consumer Reactions to Product Placement Strategies in Television Sponsorship". European Journal of Marketing. 33 (9): 896–910. doi:10.1108/03090569910285832.
- Gupta, Pola B.; Balasubramanian, Siva K. (2000). "Viewers' Evaluations of Product Placements in Movies: Public Policy Issues and Managerial Implications". Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising (CTC Press). 22 (2): 41–52. doi:10.1080/10641734.2000.10505107.
- Chartrand, Tanya L.; Dalton, Amy N.; Fitzsimons, Gavan J. (2007). "Nonconscious Relationship Reactance: When Significant Others Prime Opposing Goals". Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 43 (5): 719–726. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2006.08.003.
- Laran, Juliano; Dalton, Amy N.; Andrade, Eduardo B. (2011). "The Curious Case of Behavioral Backlash: Why Brands Produce Priming Effects and Slogans Produce Reverse Priming Effects". The Journal of Consumer Research. 37 (6): 999–1014. doi:10.1086/656577.
- Hackley, Christopher; Tiwsakul, Rungpaka A. (2006). "Entertainment Marketing and Experiential Consumption". Journal of Marketing Communications. 12 (1): 63–75. doi:10.1080/13527260500358608.
- Tiwsakul, Rungpaka A.; Hackley, Christopher; Szmigin, Isabelle (2005). "Explicit, Non-Integrated Product Placement in British Television Programmes". International Journal of Advertising. 24 (1): 95–111.
- Simon J. Pervan and Brett A. S. Martin (2002) Product placement in US and New Zealand television soap operas: an exploratory study (Journal of Marketing Communications)
- Balasubramanian, Siva K (1994). "Beyond Advertising and Publicity: Hybrid Messages and Public Policy Issues". Journal of Advertising. 23 (4): 29–46. doi:10.1080/00913367.1943.10673457.
- Balasubramanian, Siva K.; Karrh, James; Patwardhan, Hemant (2006). "Audience Response to Product Placements: An Integrative Framework and Future Research Agenda". Journal of Advertising. 35 (3): 115–141. doi:10.2753/joa0091-3367350308.
- Gurevitch, Leon. (2010). "The Cinemas of Transactions: The Exchangable Currency of Digital Attractions Across Audiovisual Economies", Journal of Television and New Media, Sage Publications, New York, 11 (5), 367-385.
- Gurevitch, Leon. (2010). The Cinemas of Interactions: Cinematics and the ‘Game Effect’ in the Age of Digital Attractions, Forthcoming (December) in Senses of Cinema Journal, Online Journal AFI/RMIT, Melbourne, Issue 57.
- Gurevitch, Leon. (2009). "Problematic Dichotomies: Narrative and Spectacle in Film and Advertising Scholarship", Journal of Popular Narrative Media, Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, Vol. 2 (2), 143-158.
- Marich, Robert (2013) "Marketing To Moviegoers: Third Edition", SIU Press books,  p. 166-180.
- Miller, Mark Crispin (April 1990). "Hollywood: The Ad—The Techniques and the Cartoon-Like Moral Vision of Television Advertising Are Exerting More and More Influence over American Moviemaking". The Atlantic. Retrieved September 4, 2010.
- Pascal Schumacher: Effektivität von Ausgestaltungsformen des Product Placement, Fribourg 2007
- Russell, Cristel A.; Stern, Barbara (2006). "Consumers, Characters, and Products: A Balance Model of Sitcom Product Placement Effects". Journal of Advertising. 35 (1): 7–18. doi:10.2753/joa0091-3367350101.
- Russell, Cristel A.; Belch, Michael (2005). "A Managerial Investigation into the Product Placement Industry". Journal of Advertising Research. 45 (1): 73–92. doi:10.1017/s0021849905050038.
- Russell, Cristel A (2002). "Investigating the Effectiveness of Product Placements in Television Shows: The Role of Modality and Plot Connection Congruence on Brand Memory and Attitude". Journal of Consumer Research. 29 (3): 306–318. doi:10.1086/344432.
- Product Placement mit Startschwierigkeiten (Matthias Alefeld) http://www.productplacement.de/#presse