A chemist is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry. Chemists study the composition of its properties. Chemists describe the properties they study in terms of quantities, with detail on the level of molecules and their component atoms. Chemists measure substance proportions, reaction rates, other chemical properties; the word'chemist' is used to address Pharmacists in Commonwealth English. Chemists use this knowledge to learn the composition and properties of unfamiliar substances, as well as to reproduce and synthesize large quantities of useful occurring substances and create new artificial substances and useful processes. Chemists may specialize in any number of subdisciplines of chemistry. Materials scientists and metallurgists share skills with chemists; the work of chemists is related to the work of chemical engineers, who are concerned with the proper design and evaluation of the most cost-effective large-scale chemical plants and work with industrial chemists on the development of new processes and methods for the commercial-scale manufacture of chemicals and related products.
The roots of chemistry can be traced to the phenomenon of burning. Fire was a mystical force that transformed one substance into another and thus was of primary interest to mankind, it was fire. After gold was discovered and became a precious metal, many people were interested to find a method that could convert other substances into gold; this led to the protoscience called alchemy. The word chemist is derived from an abbreviation of alchimista. Alchemists discovered many chemical processes. Chemistry as we know it today, was invented by Antoine Lavoisier with his law of conservation of mass in 1783; the discoveries of the chemical elements has a long history culminating in the creation of the periodic table by Dmitri Mendeleev. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry created in 1901 gives an excellent overview of chemical discovery since the start of the 20th century. Jobs for chemists require at least a bachelor's degree, but many positions those in research, require a Master of Science or a Doctor of Philosophy.
Most undergraduate programs emphasize mathematics and physics as well as chemistry because chemistry is known as "the central science", thus chemists ought to have a well-rounded knowledge about science. At the Master's level and higher, students tend to specialize in a particular field. Fields of specialization include biochemistry, nuclear chemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, polymer chemistry, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, theoretical chemistry, quantum chemistry, environmental chemistry, thermochemistry. Postdoctoral experience may be required for certain positions. Workers whose work involves chemistry, but not at a complexity requiring an education with a chemistry degree, are referred to as chemical technicians; such technicians do such work as simpler, routine analyses for quality control or in clinical laboratories, having an associate degree. A chemical technologist has more education or experience than a chemical technician but less than a chemist having a bachelor's degree in a different field of science with an associate degree in chemistry or having the same education as a chemical technician but more experience.
There are degrees specific to become a chemical technologist, which are somewhat distinct from those required when a student is interested in becoming a professional chemist. A Chemical technologist is more involved in the management and operation of the equipment and instrumentation necessary to perform chemical analyzes than a chemical technician, they are part of the team of a chemical laboratory in which the quality of the raw material, intermediate products and finished products is analyzed. They perform functions in the areas of environmental quality control and the operational phase of a chemical plant. In addition to all the training given to chemical technologists in their respective degree, a chemist is trained to understand more details related to chemical phenomena so that the chemist can be capable of more planning on the steps to achieve a distinct goal via a chemistry-related endeavor; the higher the competency level achieved in the field of chemistry, the higher the responsibility given to that chemist and the more complicated the task might be.
Chemistry, as a field, have so many applications that different tasks and objectives can be given to workers or scientists with these different levels of education or experience. The specific title of each job varies from position to position, depending on factors such as the kind of industry, the routine level of the task, the current needs of a particular enterprise, the size of the enterprise or hiring firm, the philosophy and management principles of the hiring firm, the visibility of the competency and individual achievements of the one seeking employment, economic factors such as recession or economic depression, among other factors, so this makes it difficult to categorize the exact roles of these chemistry-related workers as standard for that given level of education; because of these factors affecting exact job titles with distinct responsibilities, some chemists might begin doing technician tasks while other chemists might begin doing more complicated tasks than those of a technician, such as tasks th
A pedestrian is a person travelling on foot, whether walking or running. In some communities, those travelling using tiny wheels such as roller skates and scooters, as well as wheelchair users are included as pedestrians. In modern times, the term refers to someone walking on a road or pavement, but this was not the case historically; the meaning of pedestrian is displayed with the morphemes ped- and -ian. This word was first used during the 18th century, it was used, can still be used today, as an adjective meaning plain or dull. However, in this article it refers to someone who walks; the word pedestrian may have been used in middle french in the Recueil des Croniques et Anchiennes Istories de la Grant Bretaigne, à présent nommé Engleterre. Walking has always been the primary means of human locomotion; the first humans to migrate from Africa, about 60,000 years ago, walked. They walked along the coast of India to reach Australia, they walked across Asia to reach the Americas, from Central Asia into Europe.
During the 18th and 19th centuries, pedestrianism was a popular spectator sport just as equestrianism still is in places such as the United Kingdom and the United States. One of the most famous pedestrians of that period was Captain Robert Barclay Allardice, known as "The Celebrated Pedestrian", of Stonehaven in Scotland, his most impressive feat was to walk 1 mile every hour for 1000 hours, which he achieved between 1 June and 12 July 1809. This feat captured many people's imagination, around 10,000 people came to watch over the course of the event. During the rest of the 19th century, many people tried to repeat this feat, including Ada Anderson who developed it further and walked a half-mile each quarter-hour over the 1,000 hours. Since the 20th century, interest in walking as a sport has dropped. Racewalking fails to catch public attention as it did; however major walking feats are still performed, such as the Land's End to John o' Groats walk in the United Kingdom, the traversal of North America from coast to coast.
The first person to walk around the world was Dave Kunst who started his walk travelling east from Waseca, Minnesota on 20 June 1970 and completed his journey on 5 October 1974, when he re-entered the town from the west. These feats are tied to charitable fundraising and are undertaken by celebrities such as Sir Jimmy Savile and Ian Botham as well as by others. Regular walking is important both for the natural environment. Frequent exercise such as walking tends to reduce the chance of obesity and related medical problems. In contrast, using a car for short trips tends to contribute both to obesity and via vehicle emissions to climate change: internal combustion engines are more inefficient and polluting during their first minutes of operation. General availability of public transportation encourages walking, as it will not, in most cases, take one directly to one's destination. Safety is an important issue; because pedestrians are not protected by their vehicle while car occupants are, pedestrians are classified in the vulnerable road user category in Canada.
Pedestrian fatalities are much more common in accident situations in the European Union than in the USA. In the European Union countries, more than 200,000 pedestrians and cyclists are injured annually; each year, more than 270 000 pedestrians lose their lives on the world’s roads. At a global level pedestrians constitute 22% of all road deaths, but might be two thirds in some countries. Pedestrian fatalities, in 2016, are 2.6 per million population in the Netherlands, 4.3 in Sweden, 4.5 per million population in Wales, 5.3 in New Zealand, 6.0 in Germany. While both the pedestrian and the driver should be aware of road traffic condition to avoid such an accident, crash might occur with factors such as vehicle speed, pedestrian unseen by the driver by night, distraction, or misunderstanding and drugs and alcohol. Drivers and pedestrians share some responsibility for improving safety of road users. Road traffic crashes, are not inevitable. Key risks for pedestrians are well known. Among the well documented factors are: driver behaviour,.
Most of pedestrian are injured at crossing a street/road. Most of pedestrian crash occur by night. Most of pedestrians are killed by a frontal impact. In such a situation, a pedestrian is struck by a car front; the head hits the windscreen with the velocity of the striking car. The victim falls to the ground; some special interest groups consider pedestrian fatalities on American roads a carnage. Five state, California, Florida and Texas produce 46% of all pedestrians deaths in the country. Speculation of the causes for the increase in the USA include population growth, driver distraction with mobile phone, popularity
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic drug is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, consciousness, cognition, or behavior. These substances may be used medically; some categories of psychoactive drugs, which have therapeutic value, are prescribed by physicians and other healthcare practitioners. Examples include anesthetics, analgesics and antiparkinsonian drugs as well as medications used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders, such as antidepressants, anxiolytics and stimulant medications; some psychoactive substances may be used in the detoxification and rehabilitation programs for persons dependent on or addicted to other psychoactive drugs. Psychoactive substances bring about subjective changes in consciousness and mood that the user may find rewarding and pleasant or advantageous and are thus reinforcing. Substances which are both rewarding and positively reinforcing have the potential to induce a state of addiction – compulsive drug use despite negative consequences.
In addition, sustained use of some substances may produce physical or psychological dependence or both, associated with somatic or psychological-emotional withdrawal states respectively. Drug rehabilitation attempts to reduce addiction, through a combination of psychotherapy, support groups, other psychoactive substances. Conversely, certain psychoactive drugs may be so unpleasant that the person will never use the substance again; this is true of certain deliriants, powerful dissociatives, classic psychedelics, in the form of a "bad trip". Psychoactive drug misuse and addiction have resulted in legal measures and moral debate. Governmental controls on manufacture and prescription attempt to reduce problematic medical drug use. Ethical concerns have been raised about over-use of these drugs clinically, about their marketing by manufacturers. Popular campaigns to allow certain recreational drug use are ongoing. Psychoactive drug use can be traced to prehistory. There is archaeological evidence of the use of psychoactive substances dating back at least 10,000 years, historical evidence of cultural use over the past 5,000 years.
The chewing of coca leaves, for example, dates back over 8,000 years ago in Peruvian society. Medicinal use is one important facet of psychoactive drug usage. However, some have postulated that the urge to alter one's consciousness is as primary as the drive to satiate thirst, hunger or sexual desire. Supporters of this belief contend that the history of drug use and children's desire for spinning, swinging, or sliding indicate that the drive to alter one's state of mind is universal. One of the first people to articulate this point of view, set aside from a medicinal context, was American author Fitz Hugh Ludlow in his book The Hasheesh Eater:rugs are able to bring humans into the neighborhood of divine experience and can thus carry us up from our personal fate and the everyday circumstances of our life into a higher form of reality, it is, necessary to understand what is meant by the use of drugs. We do not mean the purely physical craving... That of which we speak is something much higher, namely the knowledge of the possibility of the soul to enter into a lighter being, to catch a glimpse of deeper insights and more magnificent visions of the beauty and the divine than we are able to spy through the cracks in our prison cell.
But there are not many drugs. The entire catalog, at least to the extent that research has thus far written it, may include only opium, in rarer cases alcohol, which has enlightening effects only upon particular characters; this relationship is not limited to humans. A number of animals consume different psychoactive plants, animals and fermented fruit, becoming intoxicated, such as cats after consuming catnip. Traditional legends of sacred plants contain references to animals that introduced humankind to their use. Animals and psychoactive plants appear to have co-evolved explaining why these chemicals and their receptors exist within the nervous system. During the 20th century, many governments across the world responded to the use of recreational drugs by banning them and making their use, supply, or trade a criminal offense. A notable example of this was Prohibition in the United States, where alcohol was made illegal for 13 years. However, many governments, government officials and persons in law enforcement have concluded that illicit drug use cannot be sufficiently stopped through criminalization.
Organizations such as Law Enforcement Against Prohibition have come to such a conclusion, believing: he existing drug policies have failed in their intended goals of addressing the problems of crime, drug abuse, juvenile drug use, stopping the flow of illegal drugs into this country and the internal sale and use of illegal drugs. By fighting a war on drugs the government has increased the problems of society and made them far worse. A system of regulation rather than prohibition is a less harmful, more ethical and a more effective public policy. In some countries, there has been a move toward harm reduction by health services, where the use of illicit drugs is neither condoned nor promoted, but services and support are provided to ensure users have adeq
Flashpoint is a 2011 comic book crossover story arc published by DC Comics. Consisting of an eponymous core limited series and a number of tie-in titles, the storyline premiered in May 2011; the core miniseries was pencilled by Andy Kubert. In its end, the series radically changes the status quo for the DC Universe leading into the publisher's 2011 relaunch, the New 52. Flashpoint details an altered DC Universe in which only Barry Allen seems to be aware of significant differences between the regular timeline and the altered one, including Cyborg's place as the world's quintessential hero much like how Superman is in the main timeline, with Superman himself being held captive as a lab-rat by the United States government within an underground facility in Metropolis. In addition, Thomas Wayne is Batman, a war between Wonder Woman and Aquaman has decimated western Europe. Consisting of a 61 issue run, the series crossed over with Booster Gold, sixteen separate three-issue miniseries, a number of one-shots beginning in June 2011.
DC announced. The storyline is loosely adapted in the film Justice League: The Flashpoint Paradox as well as in the third season of the CW network television series The Flash. At the 2017 San Diego Comic-Con, it was announced that Flashpoint will be adapted into a feature film as part of the DC Extended Universe. Barry Allen wakes up to discover everything and everyone around him has changed, he is not Flash, nor does he have powers. His mother Nora is alive. Captain Cold is Central City's greatest hero, the Justice League was never established, Superman is nonexistent. In Gotham City, Batman throws a criminal off a building. Cyborg and Batman have a conference with a group of superheroes to discuss how Wonder Woman's Amazons have conquered the British Isles, while Aquaman's Atlanteans have sunk the rest of Western Europe, the battle between the two has caused massive death and destruction. America is endangered; the heroes cannot cooperate to find a solution, the meeting is ended. Barry Allen drives to the Batcave.
Batman is revealed to be Thomas Wayne—in this timeline his son, was killed by the robber instead of his wife and him, with Thomas having killed the robber just after that murder took place, Martha went insane and became The Joker in this timeline. In the flooded remains of Paris, Deathstroke captains a pirate ship in search of his daughter. Emperor Aquaman stabs Deathstroke in the chest and attacks Deathstroke's crew. Sonar is able to heal him. At Wayne Manor, Barry tries to explain to Thomas about his secret identity as the Flash and his relationship to Bruce Wayne. Barry's memory begins to spontaneously realign itself to the altered timeline and Barry realizes that the world of Flashpoint is not a parallel dimension, but an alternate reality. Barry's ring ejects Eobard Thawne's Reverse-Flash costume and causes Barry to believe that his enemy is responsible for changing history. Barry decides to recreate the accident that gave him his powers in a bid to undo the damage caused by Thawne, but his initial attempt fails and leaves him badly burned.
In London, Steve Trevor is waiting at a rendezvous for Lois Lane but is attacked by Wonder Woman and the Amazons. Wonder Woman begins interrogating him, he explains that he was hired to extract Lane from New Themyscira because she was sent to gather information on the Amazons for Cyborg. The U. S. president informs Cyborg that Steve Trevor sent a signal to the Resistance but was intercepted because of a traitor among the heroes that Cyborg tried to recruit. Cyborg is relieved of duty. Meanwhile, in New Themyscira, Lane encounters the Resistance. A second attempt at recreating Allen's accident restores his powers and health, he concludes. He learns that Kal-El was taken by Project: Superman. Flash and Cyborg join the cause to stop Wonder Woman and Aquaman; the three find a pale, weakened Superman at the Project and realize that he may well have been in a containment cell since he was a child—possibly never seeing a human being before. After being rescued, Superman flies off in seeming fright in the midst of a battle with the guards, leaving the three in the sewers to be rescued by Element Woman.
Flash's memories continue to change. The president announces Cyborg's failure to unite the world's superheroes and the U. S. enters into the Atlantean-Amazon war. Flash, Batman and Element Woman break down the door in need of the Marvel Family's help and Batman asks Billy to use his lightning to prevent Flash's memories from changing further; the group hears of the failed air assault on England due to the Amazons' Invisible Plane air force. Hal Jordan, who had not become Green Lantern in this timeline, is the first casualty, a giant Atlantean-generated tidal wave threatens the rest of New Themyscira. Flash tells Batman. Despite reservations, Batman joins Flash. Enchantress joins them en route. Wonder Woman and Aquaman are fighting one-on-one until Flash and his team arrive; the Marvel Family transform into Captain Thunder transforming Tawky Tawny. Captain Thunder attacks Wonder Woman and appears to be winning until Enchantress reveals herself as the Amazon spy in t
DC Comics, Inc. is an American comic book publisher. It is the publishing unit of DC Entertainment, a subsidiary of Warner Bros. since 1967. DC Comics is one of the largest and oldest American comic book companies, produces material featuring numerous culturally iconic heroic characters including: Superman, Wonder Woman, The Flash, Green Lantern,Aquaman,Martian Manhunter, Green Arrow, Hawkman and Supergirl. Most of their material takes place in the fictional DC Universe, which features teams such as the Justice League, the Justice Society of America, the Suicide Squad, the Teen Titans, well-known villains such as The Joker, Lex Luthor, Darkseid, Brainiac, Black Adam, Ra's al Ghul and Deathstroke; the company has published non-DC Universe-related material, including Watchmen, V for Vendetta, many titles under their alternative imprint Vertigo. The initials "DC" came from the company's popular series Detective Comics, which featured Batman's debut and subsequently became part of the company's name.
In Manhattan at 432 Fourth Avenue, the DC Comics offices have been located at 480 and 575 Lexington Avenue. DC had its headquarters at 1700 Broadway, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, but it was announced in October 2013 that DC Entertainment would relocate its headquarters from New York to Burbank, California in April 2015. Random House distributes DC Comics' books to the bookstore market, while Diamond Comic Distributors supplies the comics shop specialty market. DC Comics and its longtime major competitor Marvel Comics together shared 70% of the American comic book market in 2017. Entrepreneur Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson founded National Allied Publications in autumn 1934; the company debuted with the tabloid-sized New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine #1 with a cover date of February 1935. The company's second title, New Comics #1, appeared in a size close to what would become comic books' standard during the period fans and historians call the Golden Age of Comic Books, with larger dimensions than today's.
That title evolved into Adventure Comics, which continued through issue #503 in 1983, becoming one of the longest-running comic-book series. In 2009 DC revived Adventure Comics with its original numbering. In 1935, Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, the future creators of Superman, created Doctor Occult, the earliest DC Comics character to still be in the DC Universe. Wheeler-Nicholson's third and final title, Detective Comics, advertised with a cover illustration dated December 1936 premiered three months late with a March 1937 cover date; the themed anthology series would become a sensation with the introduction of Batman in issue #27. By however, Wheeler-Nicholson had gone. In 1937, in debt to printing-plant owner and magazine distributor Harry Donenfeld—who published pulp magazines and operated as a principal in the magazine distributorship Independent News—Wheeler-Nicholson had to take Donenfeld on as a partner in order to publish Detective Comics #1. Detective Comics, Inc. was formed, with Wheeler-Nicholson and Jack S. Liebowitz, Donenfeld's accountant, listed as owners.
Major Wheeler-Nicholson remained for a year, but cash-flow problems continued, he was forced out. Shortly afterwards, Detective Comics, Inc. purchased the remains of National Allied known as Nicholson Publishing, at a bankruptcy auction. Detective Comics, Inc. soon launched a fourth title, Action Comics, the premiere of which introduced Superman. Action Comics #1, the first comic book to feature the new character archetype—soon known as "superheroes"—proved a sales hit; the company introduced such other popular characters as the Sandman and Batman. On February 22, 2010, a copy of Action Comics #1 sold at an auction from an anonymous seller to an anonymous buyer for $1 million, besting the $317,000 record for a comic book set by a different copy, in lesser condition, the previous year. National Allied Publications soon merged with Detective Comics, Inc. forming National Comics Publications on September 30, 1946. National Comics Publications absorbed an affiliated concern, Max Gaines' and Liebowitz' All-American Publications.
In the same year Gaines let Liebowitz buy him out, kept only Picture Stories from the Bible as the foundation of his own new company, EC Comics. At that point, "Liebowitz promptly orchestrated the merger of All-American and Detective Comics into National Comics... Next he took charge of organizing National Comics, Independent News, their affiliated firms into a single corporate entity, National Periodical Publications". National Periodical Publications became publicly traded on the stock market in 1961. Despite the official names "National Comics" and "National Periodical Publications", the company began branding itself as "Superman-DC" as early as 1940, the company became known colloquially as DC Comics for years before the official adoption of that name in 1977; the company began to move aggressively against what it saw as copyright-violating imitations from other companies, such as Fox Comics' Wonder Man, which Fox started as a copy of Superman. This extended to DC suing Fawcett Comics over Captain Marvel, at the time comics' top-selling character.
Faced with declining sales and the prospect of bankruptcy if it lost, Fawcett capitulated in 1953 and ceased publishing comics. Years Fawcett sold the rights for Captain Marvel to DC—which in 1972 revived Captain Marvel in the new title Shazam
James Gordon (comics)
James "Jim" Gordon is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics, most in association with the superhero Batman. The character debuted in the first panel of Detective Comics #27, Batman's first appearance, where he is referred to as Commissioner Gordon; the character was created by Bob Kane. Commissioner Gordon made his debut as an ally of Batman, making him the first Batman supporting character to be introduced; as the police commissioner of Gotham City, Gordon shares Batman's deep commitment to ridding the city of crime. The character is portrayed as having full trust in Batman and is somewhat dependent on him. In many modern stories, he is somewhat skeptical of Batman's vigilante methods, but believes that Gotham needs him; the two have tacit friendship. Gordon is the father or adoptive father of Barbara Gordon, the first modern Batgirl and the information broker Oracle. Jim Gordon has a son, James Gordon Jr. who first appeared in Batman: Year One. Created by Bill Finger and Bob Kane, Gordon debuted in the first panel of Detective Comics #27, in which he is referred to as Commissioner Gordon.
The character's name was taken from the earlier pulp character commissioner James W. "Wildcat" Gordon known as "The Whisperer", created in 1936 by Henry Ralston, John Nanovic, Lawrence Donovan for Street & Smith. Gordon had served in the United States Marine Corps prior to becoming a police officer. In most versions of the Batman mythos, Jim Gordon is at one point or another depicted as commissioner of the Gotham City Police Department. Gordon contacts Batman for help in solving various crimes those committed by supervillains, it is Gordon who uses the Bat-signal to summon Batman, it has become a running joke of sorts that the Dark Knight will disappear in the middle of the discussion when Gordon's back is turned. Gordon is depicted with silver or red hair, a mustache. In most incarnations, he is seen wearing a trenchcoat, on occasion, a fedora hat, he is sometimes pictured with a cane, although it is not revealed why he uses it. Because DC Comics retconned its characters' history in the 1985 miniseries Crisis on Infinite Earths, because of different interpretations in television and film, the details of Gordon's history vary from story to story.
He has been married twice. In the original pre-Crisis version of his history, Gordon is a police detective who resents the mysterious vigilante's interference in police business, he first appears in Detective Comics #27, in the first Batman story, in which they both investigate the murder of a chemical industrialist. Although Batman fights on the side of justice, his methods and phenomenal track record for stopping crimes and capturing criminals embarrasses the police by comparison. Batman meets up with Gordon and persuades the detective that they need each other's help. Gordon deputizes Batman, thereafter the Dark Knight works with Gordon as an agent of the law. In Batman Special #1, it is revealed that Gordon, as a young cop and killed two robbers in self-defense in front of their son; the results of this event would lead the boy to become the first Wrath, a cop killer with a costume and motif inspired by Batman, who would come after Gordon for revenge years later. The post-Crisis version of the character was introduced in the 1987 storyline Batman: Year One, written by Frank Miller.
In this version, James W. Gordon is transferred back to Gotham City after spending more than 15 years in Chicago. A man of integrity, Gordon finds that Batman is his only ally against the mob-controlled administration. One of the most significant differences in this version is that Batman is never deputized and Gordon's relationship with him is kept out of the public eye whenever possible, it is added that he is a special forces veteran, capable in hand-to-hand combat. He is depicted as having an extra-marital affair with Sarah Essen. At one point and Gordon deduce that Batman is in fact Bruce Wayne, but never investigate their guess more in order to confirm it. Gordon breaks off their affair after being blackmailed by the corrupt police commissioner, Gillian B. Loeb. Mob boss Carmine Falcone sends Johnny Viti, to abduct Gordon's family. After Loeb resigns, Gordon is promoted to captain; the 1998 miniseries Gordon of Gotham takes place nearly 20 years prior to the current events of the DC Universe and two months before his arrival in Gotham in Batman: Year One.
It reveals that Gordon, during his tenure in Chicago, struggled with his wife over conceiving a child while taking night classes in criminology. He becomes a minor celebrity after a foiling a late-night robbery attempt; when he decides to investigate a corrupt fellow officer, the corrupt officer and his cronies assault him, the police department discredits him in order to cover up the scandal. Gordon uncovers evidence of rigging in the city council election and brings down two of his fellow officers, which leads to his commander recommending that he be transferred to Gotham; the story Wrath Child, published in Batman Confidential issues 13-16, retcons Gordon's origin yet again: in this continuity, Gordon started his career in Gotham, but transferred to Chicago after shooting a corrupt cop and his wife. The transfer was arranged by Loeb, then
Watchmen is a science fiction American comic book limited series by the British creative team of writer Alan Moore, artist Dave Gibbons and colorist John Higgins. It was published by DC Comics in 1986 and 1987, collected in a single volume edition in 1987. Watchmen originated from a story proposal Moore submitted to DC featuring superhero characters that the company had acquired from Charlton Comics; as Moore's proposed story would have left many of the characters unusable for future stories, managing editor Dick Giordano convinced Moore to create original characters instead. Moore used the story as a means to reflect contemporary anxieties and to deconstruct and satirize the superhero concept. Watchmen depicts an alternate history where superheroes emerged in the 1940s and 1960s and their presence changed history so that the United States won the Vietnam War and the Watergate break-in was never exposed. In 1985, the country is edging toward World War III with the Soviet Union, freelance costumed vigilantes have been outlawed and most former superheroes are in retirement or working for the government.
The story focuses on the personal development and moral struggles of the protagonists as an investigation into the murder of a government-sponsored superhero pulls them out of retirement. Creatively, the focus of Watchmen is on its structure. Gibbons used a nine-panel grid layout throughout the series and added recurring symbols such as a blood-stained smiley face. All but the last issue feature supplemental fictional documents that add to the series' backstory, the narrative is intertwined with that of another story, an in-story pirate comic titled Tales of the Black Freighter, which one of the characters reads. Structured at times as a nonlinear narrative, the story skips through space and plot. In the same manner, entire scenes and dialogue have parallels with others through synchronicity and repeated imagery. A commercial success, Watchmen has received critical acclaim both in the comics and mainstream press. Watchmen was recognized in Time's List of the 100 Best Novels as one of the best English language novels published since 1923.
In a retrospective review, the BBC's Nicholas Barber described it as "the moment comic books grew up". After a number of attempts to adapt the series into a feature film, director Zack Snyder's Watchmen was released in 2009. A video game series, Watchmen: The End Is Nigh, was released in the same year to coincide with the film's release. DC Comics published Before Watchmen, a series of nine prequel miniseries in 2012, Doomsday Clock, a 12-issue limited series, a sequel to the original series that premiered in 2017, both without Moore's or Gibbons' involvement. Watchmen, created by writer Alan Moore and artist Dave Gibbons, first appeared in the 1985 issue of DC Spotlight, the 50th anniversary special, it was published as a 12-issue maxiseries from DC Comics, cover-dated September 1986 to October 1987. It was subsequently collected in 1987 as a DC Comics trade paperback that has had at least 24 printings as of March 2017. In February 1988, DC published a limited-edition, slipcased hardcover volume, produced by Graphitti Design, that contained 48 pages of bonus material, including the original proposal and concept art.
In 2005, DC released Absolute Watchmen, an oversized slipcased hardcover edition of the series in DC's Absolute Edition format. Assembled under the supervision of Dave Gibbons, Absolute Watchmen included the Graphitti materials, as well as restored and recolored art by John Higgins; that December DC published a new printing of Watchmen issue #1 at the original 1986 cover price of $1.50 as part of its "Millennium Edition" line. In 2012, DC published Before Watchmen a series of nine prequel miniseries, with various creative teams producing the characters' early adventures set before the events of the original series. In the 2016 one-shot DC Universe: Rebirth Special, numerous symbols and visual references to Watchmen, such as the blood-splattered smiley face, the dialogue between Doctor Manhattan and Ozymandias in the last issue of Watchmen is shown. Further Watchmen imagery was added in the DC Universe: Rebirth Special #1 second printing, which featured an update to Gary Frank's cover, better revealing the outstretched hand of Doctor Manhattan in the top right corner.
Doctor Manhattan appeared in the 2017 four-part DC miniseries The Button serving as a direct sequel to both DC Universe Rebirth and the 2011 storyline "Flashpoint". Manhattan reappears in the 2017–18 twelve-part sequel series Doomsday Clock. In 1983, DC Comics acquired a line of characters from Charlton Comics. During that period, writer Alan Moore contemplated writing a story that featured an unused line of superheroes that he could revamp, as he had done in his Miracleman series in the early 1980s. Moore reasoned that MLJ Comics' Mighty Crusaders might be available for such a project, so he devised a murder mystery plot which would begin with the discovery of the body of the Shield in a harbour; the writer felt it did not matter which set of characters he used, as long as readers recognized them "so it would have the shock and surprise value when you saw what the reality of these characters was". Moore used this premise and crafted a proposal featuring the Charlton characters titled Who Killed the Peacemaker, submitted the unsolicited proposal to DC managing editor Dick Giordano.
Giordano was receptive to the proposal, but opposed the idea of using the Charlton characters for the story. Moore said, "DC realized their expensive characters would end up either dead or dysfunctional." Instead, Giordano persuaded Moore to continue with new characters. Moore had believed that original characters would not provide emotional resonan