A programmable logic controller or programmable controller is an industrial digital computer, ruggedized and adapted for the control of manufacturing processes, such as assembly lines, or robotic devices, or any activity that requires high reliability, ease of programming and process fault diagnosis. PLCs can range from small modular devices with tens of inputs and outputs, in a housing integral with the processor, to large rack-mounted modular devices with a count of thousands of I/O, which are networked to other PLC and SCADA systems, they can be designed for many arrangements of digital and analog I/O, extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, resistance to vibration and impact. Programs to control machine operation are stored in battery-backed-up or non-volatile memory. PLCs were first developed in the automobile manufacturing industry to provide flexible and programmable controllers to replace hard-wired relays. Since they have been adopted as high-reliability automation controllers suitable for harsh environments.
A PLC is an example of a "hard" real-time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a limited time, otherwise unintended operation will result. PLC originated in the late 1960s in the automotive industry in the USA and were designed to replace relay logic systems. Before, control logic for manufacturing was composed of relays, cam timers, drum sequencers, dedicated closed-loop controllers; the hard-wired nature made it difficult for design engineers to alter the process. Small changes would require rewiring and careful updating of the documentation. If one wire were out of place, or one relay failed, the whole system would become faulty. Times technicians would spend hours troubleshooting by examining the schematics and comparing them to existing wiring; when general-purpose computers became available, they were soon applied to control sequential and combinatorial logic in industrial processes. These early computers required specialist programmers and strict control of working conditions, such as temperature and power quality.
To meet these challenges, the PLC was developed with several advantages over earlier designs. It would tolerate the industrial environment, be extensible with additional I/O, be simple to use, would permit its operation to be monitored. Early PLCs were programmed in "ladder logic", which resembles a schematic diagram of relay logic; this program notation was chosen to reduce training demands for the existing technicians. Other PLCs used a form of instruction list programming, based on a stack-based logic solver. In a parallel development Odo Josef Struger is sometimes known as the "father of the programmable logic controller" as well, he was involved in the invention of the Allen‑Bradley programmable logic controller during 1958 to 1960 and is credited with inventing the PLC acronym. Allen-Bradley became a major PLC manufacturer in the United States during his tenure. Struger played a leadership role in developing IEC 61131-3 PLC programming language standards. Many early PLCs were not capable of graphical representation of the logic, so it was instead represented as a series of logic expressions in some kind of Boolean format, similar to Boolean algebra.
As programming terminals evolved, it became more common for ladder logic to be used, because it was a familiar format used for electro-mechanical control panels. Newer formats, such as state logic and Function Block exist, but they are still not as popular as ladder logic. A primary reason for this is that PLCs solve the logic in a predictable and repeating sequence, ladder logic allows the person writing the logic to see any issues with the timing of the logic sequence more than would be possible in other formats. Up to the mid-1990s, PLCs were programmed using proprietary programming panels or special-purpose programming terminals, which had dedicated function keys representing the various logical elements of PLC programs; some proprietary programming terminals displayed the elements of PLC programs as graphic symbols, but plain ASCII character representations of contacts and wires were common. Programs were stored on cassette tape cartridges. Facilities for printing and documentation were minimal due to lack of memory capacity.
The oldest PLCs used non-volatile magnetic core memory. PLC programs are written in a special application on a personal computer downloaded by a direct-connection cable or over a network to the PLC; the program is stored in the PLC either in battery-backed-up RAM or some other non-volatile flash memory. A single PLC can be programmed to replace thousands of relays. More PLCs are programmed using application software on personal computers, which now represent the logic in graphic form instead of character symbols; the computer is connected to the PLC through USB, Ethernet, RS-485, or RS-422 cabling. The programming software allows editing of the ladder-style logic. In some software packages, it is possible to view and edit the program in function block diagrams, sequence flow charts and structured text; the software provides functions for debugging and troubleshooting the PLC software, for example, by highlighting portions of the logic to show current status during operation or via simulation. The software will download the PLC program, for backup and restoration purposes.
In some models of programmable controller, the program is transferred from a p
Sean and Shawn were the pen-names of John Klamik, an American artist specializing in gay male erotica and comics. His homosexual-themed cartoons were among the first to appear in US publications, including a regular feature in the early years of The Advocate, he worked under two pen-names: Shawn for more mainstream gay publications such as In Touch, Sean for fetish publications such as Drummer and Bound & Gagged. Klamik was born on July 22, 1935 in Chicago, studied at the Art Institute, he moved to West Hollywood, California in the mid 1960s, where he worked in an art factory producing paintings for hotel rooms, as Display Director for the Akron stores. His first erotic work was "published" in 1963, by taking photographs of the illustrations and making prints in home darkrooms. In 1965, he began doing editorial and gag comics for The Advocate, in the late 1960s did a half-page series under the title "Gayer Than Strange". In the 1970s he did both softcore and hardcore illustrations for erotic novels and collections of short stories published by Larry Townsend, his Leatherman’s Handbook.
In the mid 1970s he created stand-alone wordless hardcore comics Biff and Biff Bound for San Francisco publisher Le Salon, which featured centerfolds with 10 and 15 men having sex, respectively. During this time he produced eighteen 10-page comics stories for hardcore photo-story magazines published by Nova Studios, which were reprinted in Meatmen. In the 1980s he did art direction for some of Nova's porn films and videos. In the late 1980s he produced "Up the Block", a humor comic strip set in a gay neighborhood, for Frontiers, he produced a 4-page series for Jock magazine. At the end of the 1980s, he moved to Phoenix and continued to work with California publishers by mail. In 1965 Klamik began a relationship with Jim Newberry.
Fukui Station is a railway station in Fukui, Japan, operated by West Japan Railway Company and the private railway operator Echizen Railway. Fukui Station is served by the following railway companies and lines: JR West Hokuriku Main Line Etsumi-Hoku Line Echizen Railway Katsuyama Eiheiji Line Mikuni Awara Line Fukui-eki Station, in front of the JR station, is served by: Fukui Railway Fukubu LineIt is scheduled to become a station on the high-speed Hokuriku Shinkansen line when the extension west of Kanazawa opens around 2025; the JR West station has a "Midori no Madoguchi" staffed ticket office. The JR West station consists of two island platforms and five tracks located in the above-ground portion of Fukui Station; the Echizen Railway has two tracks serving one temporary island platform located atop the future Shinkansen viaduct until construction of its own permanent elevated station is completed. What is now the JR West station opened on 15 July 1896. With the privatization of JNR on 1 April 1987, the station came under the control of JR West.
On 18 April 2005 a new station building and "Prism Fukui" shopping mall opened. Kyoto Dentō Echizen Electric Railway Line Fukui Station opened on 21 September 1929; the station became part of the Keifuku Electric Railroad on 2 March 1942, with the line being renamed Echizen Main Line. The station became part of the Echizen Railway on 2 February 2003. Train services were restored on 20 July 2003. Fukui-Ekimae Station on the Fukui Railway Fukubu Line was located 150 meters to the west of the JR station. On 27 March 2016 the station was relocated as Fukui-eki Station to the square in front of the west building of the JR station. Former site of Fukui Castle, now home to the Fukui Prefectural Government Building and Fukui Prefectural Police Department Headquarters Fukui City Hall NHK Fukui Broadcasting Station Fukui Broadcasting Hall Fukui International Activities Plaza Fukui District Court Fukui District Prosecutor's Office Fukui Tax Office Fukui Chamber of Commerce Asuwayama Park Echizen Railway Fukui Station AOSSA building, home to the Fukui Prefectural Civic Hall and Fukui Municipal Sakuragi Library Wel City Fukui Fukui Prefectural Koshi High School Fukui Municipal Baseball Stadium Fukui Local Meteorological Observatory List of railway stations in Japan Fukui Station Echizen Railway Official Website
Karl Meyer was a Norwegian businessman and founder of the short-lived fascist party, the National Legion. He had a history of several big fraud cases against him, although he was acquitted from at least one tax evasion case, his proposed business projects, described in the press as "fantastical", included a "Coney Island"-style amusement park at Hovedøya, turning the steam-liner RMS Carmania into a "floating tenement" at the Oslo harbour. In 1927 Meyer founded the fascist party the National Legion; the party's activities included Meyer's rousing speeches at a circus, Cirkus Verdensteatret in Oslo, at Drammens Theater in Drammen. After increasing internal opposition, Meyer was expelled from the party in early 1928, he unsuccessfully attempted to regain control of the party in February, when along with some co-conspirators he went to action against the party's offices with clubs and revolvers. Meyer and two other men were arrested in the incident; the party fell apart amid internal conflicts, was dissolved in early 1928.
Karl Meyer was a brother of Haakon Meyer. Emberland, Terje. Da fascismen kom til Norge. Den nasjonale legions vekst og fall, 1927–1928. Dreyer. ISBN 9788282651288
Route 263 is a state highway in northwestern Connecticut running from Goshen to the city of Winsted in the town of Winchester. Route 263 begins as Winchester Road at an intersection with Route 272 in northeastern Goshen and heads northeast around Mount Ouleout, crossing into the town of Winchester after 0.4 miles. In Winchester, it heads east as Thomen Road and Ashley Road towards Winchester Center, turning right onto West Road in the town center. After passing by the Winchester post office, Route 263 turns northeast along Winchester Road, it travels in between Highland Lake as it proceeds on its way to Winsted. In Winsted, Route 263 uses Boyd Street and Lake Street to reach its eastern end at an intersection with US 44 and Route 183 near the Mad River in Winsted. Since 1959, the road connecting Winsted and Winchester Center had been an unsigned state-maintained road known as State Road 863; as part of the 1962 Route Reclassification Act, Route 263 was established in 1963 from SR 863 and a westward extension to Route 272 in Goshen.
There have been no significant changes to the road designation since. The entire route is in Litchfield County
Richard Pieris & Company PLC established in 1940 it is one of Sri Lanka's largest conglomerates with interests in manufacturing, engineering and plantation industries. It is a pioneer in the tyre and rubber industries of Sri Lanka. With a staff strength of more than 25,000 the company's major brands includes Arpitec and Arpico; the company was founded in 1932 as a partnership dealing with the plantation and tire industries.. It started as a family business; the founder member of the company Mr. Richard Pieris. Since it has diversified into the areas of manufacturing, pumps and engineering sectors; the company pioneered the concept of hypermarkets in Sri Lanka through their'Arpico Super Centre' chain. Today the company has more than 1000 retail outlets including factories island wide; the Pieris family’s stake in Richard Pieris as well as other large blocks of the company’s shares was acquired by Dr. Sena Yaddehige and related parties in a hard-fought take over in 2002-2004; the company is engaged in the manufacture of moulded and foam rubber both for the export and domestic markets.
Major markets include North America and the Middle East. The division conforms to ISO 9002 standards. Richard Piries Company is the market leader and the pioneer in the tyre Retread industry of Sri Lanka and commands a market share of nearly 60%. In addition to that it has become the largest Retreader in the whole of South Asia, a remarkable achievement for a Sri Lankan company; the company is associated with Bandag Corporation -- Birla Group India. The group is one of the largest players in the plantation industry with ownership of major plantation companies including Maskeliya Plantations PLC, Namunukula Plantations PLC and Kegalle Plantations PLC; the sector employees more than 24,000 people combined. With its retail arm ‘Arpico Supercentre’ the company is the largest retailer of general household products in Sri Lanka; the company pioneered the concept of Hypermarkets in Sri Lanka. The board is composed of distinguished professionals in their respective fields