Pet Shop Boys
Pet Shop Boys are an English synth-pop duo, formed in London in 1981 and consisting of Neil Tennant and Chris Lowe. Pet Shop Boys have sold more than 100 million records worldwide, are listed as the most successful duo in UK music history by The Guinness Book of Records. Three-time Brit Award winners and six-time Grammy nominees, since 1985 they have achieved 42 Top 30 singles, 22 of them Top 10 hits in the UK Singles Chart, including four UK number ones: "West End Girls", "It's a Sin", an acclaimed cover of "Always on My Mind", "Heart". Other hit songs include a cover of "Go West", "Opportunities" and "What Have I Done to Deserve This?" in a duet with Dusty Springfield. At the 2009 Brit Awards in London, Pet Shop Boys received an award for Outstanding Contribution to Music. In 2016, Billboard magazine named Pet Shop Boys the number one dance duo/group over the 40 years since the chart's inception in 1976. In 2017 the duo received NME's Godlike Genius Award. Neil Tennant and Chris Lowe met in a hi-fi shop on King's Road in Chelsea, London, in 1981.
Tennant had purchased a Korg MS-10 synthesizer which sparked a conversation with Lowe, working in the shop at time. Discovering that they had a mutual interest in dance and electronic music, they began to work together on material, first in Tennant's flat in Chelsea from 1982, in a small studio in Camden Town, they claim their band name was taken from friends who worked in a pet shop in Ealing, were known as the "pet shop boys". In August 1983, Tennant, an assistant editor at Smash Hits, went to New York to interview Sting. While there he arranged to meet Hi-NRG producer Bobby Orlando, gave him a demo tape containing "It's a Sin" and "Opportunities". From 1983–84, Orlando recorded 11 tracks with Tennant and Lowe including "West End Girls", "Opportunities", "It's A Sin", "I Want A Lover", "I Get Excited", "Two Divided By Zero", "Rent", "Later Tonight", "Pet Shop Boys", "A Man Could Get Arrested" and "One More Chance". In April 1984, the Orlando-produced "West End Girls" was released, becoming a club hit in Los Angeles and San Francisco.
On 2 November, it was voted "Screamer of the Week" by listeners of Long Island, New York, radio station WLIR. It was a minor dance hit in Belgium and France, but was only available in the United Kingdom as a 12" import. In March 1985, after long negotiations, Pet Shop Boys cut their contractual ties with Bobby O, with a settlement giving Bobby O significant royalties for future sales. Hiring manager Tom Watkins, they signed with the London-based Parlophone label. In April, Tennant left Smash Hits magazine - where he had progressed to the position of deputy editor - and in July, a new single, "Opportunities", was released, reaching number 116 in the UK; the B-side to this single, "In the Night" resurfaced, in a longer remixed version, as the opening track to the duo's first remix album, Disco, in 1986. This version was used as the theme for the UK television series The Clothes Show. Unperturbed by the low chart position, the band returned to the studio in August to re-record "West End Girls" with producer Stephen Hague.
Released in October 1985, this new version entered the charts at a low position, but began a slow rise so that, by January 1986, it achieved the top spot. It was subsequently number one in the United States, Finland, Hong Kong, Israel, New Zealand and Norway and sold an estimated 1.5 million copies worldwide. It remains the most-heard Pet Shop Boys song to date. After the success of "West End Girls", Pet Shop Boys released a follow-up single, "Love Comes Quickly", on 24 February 1986; the single reached number 19 in the UK Singles Chart and was followed by their debut album, Please, on 24 March. In June 1986, the band announced a European tour. Please started Pet Shop Boys' penchant for choosing one-word album titles, which Neil Tennant has since stated is now a Pet Shop Boys "signature thing", akin to e.e. cummings' use of lower case letters. New versions of their second single, "Opportunities", the album track "Suburbia" were released in 1986, followed by a remix album, Disco. In September 1986, Pet Shop Boys performed "Love Comes Quickly" and "West End Girls" at the 1986 MTV Video Music Awards in Los Angeles.
1987 started with Pet Shop Boys receiving both a BRIT Award and Ivor Novello Award for "West End Girls". On 15 June, they released what became their second number one single, "It's a Sin"; the single caused some controversy: Tennant's school, St. Cuthbert's Grammar School, in Newcastle upon Tyne, chastised him in the press, while Jonathan King accused them of plagiarising the Cat Stevens song "Wild World". Pet Shop Boys sued King and won damages, which were donated to charity; the video to "It's a Sin" saw their first collaboration with director Derek Jarman. The continued success of "It's a Sin" was followed by the release of "What Have I Done to Deserve This?" on 10 August. Co-written with Allee Willis and featuring Dusty Springfield on vocals, the single reached number two on the UK Singles Chart and the U. S. Billboard Hot 100 chart. Although the duo had wanted to release this track on their debut album, they had been unable to track down Springfield and were reluctant to record it with any other female singer, despite their record company's suggestions.
Springfield's manager contacted them in 1986, following the release of Please, towards the end of that year, she travelled to London to record "What Have I Done to Deserve This?" with them. It was the fi
Mr. Blue Sky
"Mr. Blue Sky" is a song by British rock group Electric Light Orchestra, featured on the band's seventh studio album Out of the Blue. Written and produced by frontman Jeff Lynne, the song forms the fourth and final track of the "Concerto for a Rainy Day" suite, on side three of the original double album. "Mr. Blue Sky" was the second single to be taken from Out of the Blue, peaking at number 6 in the UK Singles Chart and number 35 in the United States. In a BBC Radio interview, Lynne talked about writing "Mr. Blue Sky" after locking himself away in a Swiss chalet and attempting to write ELO's follow-up to A New World Record: It was dark and misty for 2 weeks, I didn't come up with a thing; the sun shone and it was,'Wow, look at those beautiful Alps.' I wrote 13 other songs in the next 2 weeks. The song's arrangement has been called "Beatlesque", bearing similarities to Beatles songs "Martha My Dear" and "A Day in the Life" while harmonically it shares its unusual first four chords and harmonic rhythm with "Yesterday".
The arrangement makes prominent use of a cowbell-like sound, credited on the album, to percussionist Bev Bevan, as that of a "fire extinguisher." When the song is performed live, a drumstick is used to strike the side of a fire extinguisher, which produces the now iconic sound. Describing the song for the BBC, Dominic King said: Lots of Gibb Brothers’ vocal inflexions and Beatles’ arrangement quotes, but this fabulous madness creates its own wonder – the bendy guitar solo, funky cello stop-chorus, the most freakatastic vocoder since Sparky's Magic Piano. Plus the musical ambush on "way" at 2.51 still thrills. And that's. Kitsch, yet exhilarating; the song features a vocoded voice singing the phrase "Mr. Blue Sky". A second vocoded segment at the end of the song was interpreted as "Mister Blue Sky"; this was confirmed by Jeff Lynne on 3 October 2012 on The One Show. The song has been used in the films Megamind, Role Models, The Magic Roundabout, Wild Mussels, Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, Paul Blart: Mall Cop, The Magic Roundabout, The Game Plan, Martian Child, The Invention of Lying, Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2.
The song was used in the television show Doctor. It was featured during the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2012 Summer Olympics and the Closing Ceremony of the 2018 Gold Coast Commonwealth Games in a promotion for the 2022 Games to be held in Birmingham. Jeff Lynne re-recorded the song and other ELO tracks in his own home studio in 2012; the resulting album, Mr. Blue Sky: The Very Best of Electric Light Orchestra, was released under the ELO name. A music video has been released in late 2012 via the official ELO website and YouTube, a colourful animation directed by Michael Patterson and Candace Reckinger with animation sequences designed and animated by University of Southern California students. In-depth Song Analysis at the Jeff Lynne Song Database "Electric Light Orchestra: Mr. Blue Sky" at Discogs "Mr. Blue Sky" song review at Allmusic Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Republic of Ireland
Ireland known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, located on the eastern part of the island, whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's over 4.8 million inhabitants. The sovereign state shares its only land border with a part of the United Kingdom, it is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, the Irish Sea to the east. It is a parliamentary republic; the legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, an elected President who serves as the ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state.
It was declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955, it joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement. Ireland ranks among the top twenty-five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015. After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index, it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD; the Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since prior to World War II and the country is not a member of NATO, although it is a member of Partnership for Peace. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".
The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state; as well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South". In an Irish republican context it is referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties". From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. One million Irish died of starvation and/or disease and another 1.5 million emigrated to the United States.
This set the pattern of emigration for the century to come, resulting in constant population decline up to the 1960s. From 1874, under Charles Stewart Parnell from 1880, the Irish Parliamentary Party gained prominence; this was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land League, that won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Acts, secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rule, via two unsuccessful bills which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy. These led to "grass-roots" control of national affairs, under the Local Government Act 1898, in the hands of landlord-dominated grand juries of the Protestant Ascendancy. Home Rule seemed certain when the Parliament Act 1911 abolished the veto of the House of Lords, John Redmond secured the Third Home Rule Act in 1914. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power
Gary Barlow is an English singer and musician. He is best known. Barlow served as head judge of The X Factor UK in 2011, 2012 and 2013 and Let It Shine in 2017. Barlow is one of Britain's most successful songwriters, having written fourteen number one singles and twenty-four top 10 hits; as a solo artist he has had three number one singles, six top 10 singles and two number one albums, has additionally had seventeen top 5 hits, twelve number one singles and eight number one albums with Take That. Barlow has received six Ivor Novello Awards from the British Academy of Songwriters and Authors, including the award for Outstanding Services to British Music, he has sold over 50 million records worldwide. Barlow was born on 20 January 1971 in Frodsham, the second son of Colin and Marjorie Barlow. In Barlow's autobiography, he relates that his love of music began at an early age, calls himself "one of those kids that's forever dancing in front of the TV looking at reflection", he cites watching a performance of "Just Can't Get Enough" by Depeche Mode on Top of the Pops when he was 10 years old as a main influence, describing it as "mesmerising".
He subsequently asked for a keyboard for Christmas and spent most of his spare time teaching himself to play his favourite songs. He has credited Elton John with inspiring him to play the piano. In 1986, when Barlow was 15 years old, he entered a BBC Pebble Mill at One Christmas song competition with "Let's Pray for Christmas". After reaching the semi-finals, he was invited to London's West Heath Studios to record his song; this inspired him to perform on singing cover versions and his own songs. Barlow's first performance was in Wales, at the Connah's Quay Labour Club in the late 1980s, he was paid £18 per performance on Saturday evenings. In 1989, Barlow appointed Wigan show business agent Barry Woolley to be his manager and recorded a single, never released commercially. Barlow was put in touch with casting agent Nigel Martin-Smith, by renowned celebrity photographer Doc Braham, who took Barlow's first professional head-shots. Nigel was a friend of Doc's, introduced Barlow to Nigel, interested in starting a boyband.
Martin-Smith decided to use Barlow as the lead-singer after being impressed by his self-written material, including an early demo tape of Barlow's "A Million Love Songs", concluding that the band would be built around Barlow's vocals and songwriting skills. Barlow, who wrote the majority of the group's songs, is recognised as the lead singer of Take That. After selecting Barlow as the group's lead-singer, Nigel Martin-Smith introduced Jason Orange, Howard Donald, Mark Owen and Robbie Williams to the fold; the group were signed to RCA Records, after a number of top 40 hits secured their first number one with Barlow's "Pray". Previous hits included "A Million Love Songs", "It Only Takes a Minute" and "Could It Be Magic"; the debut album Take That & Party was released on 17 August 1992 and reached number two in the UK Album Chart. The following year saw the release of their second album, Everything Changes based on Barlow's own material, it went straight in at number one in the UK Albums Chart and spawned four number 1 singles, as well as "Why Can't I Wake Up with You" and "Love Ain't Here Anymore" hitting numbers two and three respectively.
Barlow received an Ivor Novello Award for Best Contemporary Song in 1994 for the number 1 hit song "Pray" included on the album. In 1994, alongside Rick Astley, Barlow did backing vocals for Elton John's version of "Can You Feel the Love Tonight" from The Lion King. Take That's third album Nobody Else, again based on Barlow's own material, went straight to number 1 and was to be their last studio album of the 1990s; the album had three number 1 singles, including Barlow's "Back for Good" which peaked at number 7 on the US Billboard Hot 100 and was brought forward an unprecedented 6 weeks before its official release such was the demand for the single. A Greatest Hits collection followed again reaching number 1; the album featured the band's eighth number 1 single "How Deep Is Your Love". This was to be the first single released by Take That as a four piece and it was their last single until they reformed in 2005. Barlow returned to the spotlight in a successful TV documentary, Take That: For the Record in 2005.
Following this success and renewed interest, Take That experienced a career renaissance in 2005 when the post-Williams line-up reformed for a sell-out arena/stadium tour. The band released their comeback single "Patience" which went to number 1 for four weeks while topping the charts across Europe. Patience was voted the Record of the Year in 2006 and won a Brit Award for single of the year; this was followed with "Shine". Take That's first album of new material in over ten years, Beautiful World was released on 24 November 2006; the album peaked at number 1 in the UK Album Chart selling over 2.8 million copies in the UK alone to date. It was re-released as a tour edition with hit single "Rule the World" in 2007 and peaked again at number one. In 2008, the band were nominated for four Brit Awards, they won Best Best British Live Act. After great success in 2006, Take That released the single "Greatest Day" which went straight to number 1 and became their eleventh number 1 single in the UK; the week after they released their second album since their reunion in The Circus.
The Circus album was a great success for Take That going straight to th
Jason Thomas Orange is an English former singer-songwriter, dancer and actor. He was a member of Take That during their original run from 1990 to 1996 and again following their reunion in 2005, he left the group in 2014. Orange was born in Crumpsall in Manchester, he attended South Trafford College for two years beginning in 2002 and studied A-level English, an access course including psychology and history though he did not progress onto higher education. He was part of the Manchester-based breakdance crew Street Machine in the mid 1980s, they won the Manchester round of the UK Breakdancing Championship in 1985. He appeared in the show The Hit Man and Her as one of the featured dancers on the show in the late 1980s. Orange joined the boy band Take That in November 1990 and stayed with the band until their split in February 1996, he pursued a career in acting and appeared in the television thriller Killer Net in 1998, the London stage production of Gob in 1999. He was the lead actor together with Tom Hayes in the play, written by Jim Kenworth, directed by James Martin Charlton.
In 2005, Take That reformed as a four-piece and released a new greatest hits album, followed in 2006 by their first studio album since 1995, Beautiful World. Orange contributed both lead vocals on the album. In 2008, they released The Circus. In 2010, the album Progress was released by the band as a five-piece. On 24 September 2014, it was announced that Orange had left the band stating that he did not wish to continue recording music and touring. Orange appeared in a cameo role in the Channel 4 comedy Shameless, which aired in April 2013
Take That Presents: The Circus Live
Take That Present: The Circus Live was the seventh concert tour by British pop group, Take That. The tour promoted The Circus; the tour began on 5 June 2009 at the Stadium of Light in Sunderland and finished on 5 July 2009 at Wembley Stadium in London. The Circus Live was their biggest tour to date, and was seen by 1,014,000 people, making a profit of £40,560,000. The tour became the fastest selling in UK history, with the 600,000 for all original eight dates selling out in five hours. Gary Go James Morrison The Saturdays The Script Lady Gaga "The Adventures of a Lonely Balloon" "Greatest Day" "Hello" "Could It Be Magic" "Pray" "A Million Love Songs" "Back for Good" "The Garden" "Shine" "Up All Night" "Wooden Boat" "How Did It Come to This?" Piano Medley – "Love Ain't Here Anymore"/"Babe"/"Nobody Else" "The Circus" "What Is Love?" Clown Medley – "Do What U Like"/"Promises"/"It Only Takes a Minute"/"Take That & Party" "Said It All" "Never Forget" "Patience" "Relight My Fire" Encore "Hold Up a Light" "Rule the World"The series of "Up All Night", "Wooden Boat" and "How Did It Come to This?" was performed by Take That as a rock band with Gary on keyboards, Howard on drums, Mark on a bass guitar and Jason on a acoustic and electric guitar.
Gary played piano in "Shine" and the Piano Medley where he sang part of "Babe" Mark´s solo number. Jason sang lead in "Wooden Boat" and "How Did It Come to This?", it was the only Take That's show where he had two solo songs. Howard sang lead in "What Is Love?" and "Never Forget", Mark´s lead was in "Hello", "Shine", "Up All Night" and "Hold Up a Light". In "The Garden" and "Never Forget" each band member had a solo line. "The Garden" was sung by Take That on the back of a huge mechanical elephant carrying them from the B-stage to the main stage. While singing "What Is Love?" Take That members made themselves up as clowns on stage for the following Clowns Medley, a parody of their old boyband dance routines. During "It Only Takes a Minute" Howard and Mark rode unicycles while Gary rode a child's bike with stabilisers, making fun of his reputation as the clumsy member of the band. In "Relight My Fire" Take That played animal trainers with female dancers playing wild beasts. Musical director, guitar, saxophone: Mike Stevens Guitars: Ben Mark, Milton McDonald Bass guitar: Lee Pomeroy Drums: Donavan Hepburn Keyboards: Jamie Norton The Wembley Stadium concerts of 3 and 4 July 2009 were filmed and released as a two-disc DVD and Blu-ray set, released on 23 November 2009.
A live album, containing several live recordings, a bonus disc of Take That at Abbey Road, was released a week later. Highlights were broadcast on ITV1 on 19 December 2009; the DVD became the fastest selling DVD of all time in the UK, selling 82,414 copies in 24 hours, 181,979 in its first week. It sold over 600,000 copies in September 2011 and has been certified 11× Platinum, becoming one of the best selling music DVDs in the UK
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate