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Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario

The Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario shortened to Ontario PC Party or PC, is a centre-right political party in Ontario, Canada. The party has been led by Premier Doug Ford since March 10, 2018, it has governed the province for 80 of the 152 years since Confederation, including an uninterrupted run from 1943 to 1985. It holds a majority government in the 42nd Parliament of Ontario; the first Conservative Party in Upper Canada was made up of United Empire Loyalists and supporters of the wealthy Family Compact that ruled the colony. Once responsible government was granted in response to the 1837 Rebellions, the Tories emerged as moderate reformers who opposed the radical policies of the Reformers and the Clear Grits; the modern Conservative Party originated in the Liberal-Conservative coalition founded by Sir John A. Macdonald and George-Étienne Cartier in 1854, it is a variant of this coalition that formed the first government in Ontario with John Sandfield Macdonald as Premier. Until becoming the Progressive Conservatives in 1942, the party was known as the Liberal-Conservative Association of Ontario, reflecting its Liberal-Conservative origins, but became known as the Conservative Party.

John Sandfield Macdonald was a Liberal and sat concurrently as a Liberal Party of Canada MP in the House of Commons of Canada but he was an ally of John A. Macdonald, his government was a true coalition of Liberals and Conservatives under his leadership but soon the more radical Reformers bolted to the opposition and Sandfield Macdonald was left leading what was a Conservative coalition that included some Liberals under the Liberal-Conservative banner. After losing power in 1871, this Conservative coalition began to dissolve. What was a party that included Catholics and Protestants became an exclusively English and Protestant party and more dependent on the Protestant Orange Order for support, for its leadership; the party became opposed to funding for separate schools, opposed to language rights for French-Canadians, distrustful of immigrants. Paradoxically, an element of the party gained a reputation for being pro-labour as a result of links between the Orange Order and the labour movement.

After 33 years in Opposition, the Tories returned to power under James P. Whitney, who led a progressive administration in its development of the province; the Whitney government initiated massive public works projects such as the creation of Ontario Hydro. It enacted reactionary legislation against the French-Canadian population in Ontario; the Tories were in power for all but five years from 1905 to 1934. After the death of Whitney in 1914, they lacked vision and became complacent; the Tories lost power to the United Farmers of Ontario in the 1919 election but were able to regain office in 1923 election due to the UFO's disintegration and divisions in the Ontario Liberal Party. They were defeated by Mitch Hepburn's Liberals in 1934 due to their inability to cope with the Great Depression. Late in the 1930s and early in the 1940s, the Conservatives developed new policies. Rather than continue to oppose government spending and intervention, a policy which hurt the party politically in the time of the Great Depression, the Conservatives changed their policies to support government action where it would lead to economic growth.

The party changed its name to the "Progressive Conservative" party after its federal counterpart changed its name to the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 1942 on the insistence of its new leader, John Bracken, whose roots were in the populist Progressive Party. The Conservatives took advantage of Liberal infighting to win a minority government in the 1943 provincial election, reducing the Liberals to third-party status. Drew called another election in 1945, only two years into his mandate; the Tories played up Cold War tensions to win a landslide majority, though it emerged several years that the Tory government had set up a secret department of the Ontario Provincial Police to spy on the opposition and the media. The party would dominate Ontario politics for the next four decades. Under Drew and his successor, Leslie Frost, the Party was a strong champion of rural issues but invested in the development of civil works throughout the province, including the construction of the 400 series of highways, beginning with the 401 across Toronto.

In 1961, John Robarts became the 17th premier of Ontario. He was one of the most popular premiers in years. Under Robarts' lead, the party epitomized power, he was an advocate of individual freedoms and promoted the rights of the provinces against what he saw as the centralizing initiatives of the federal government, while promoting national unity against Quebec separatism. He hosted the 1967 "Confederation of Tomorrow" conference in Toronto in an unsuccessful attempt to achieve an agreement for a new Constitution of Canada. Robarts opposed Canadian medicare when it was proposed, but endorsed it and the party implemented the public health care system that continues to this day, he led the party towards a civil libertarian movement. As a strong believer in the promotion of both official languages, he opened the door to French education in Ontario schools. In 1971, Bill Davis became the 18th premier. Anti-Catholicism became an issue again in the 1971 election, when the Tories campaigned strenuously against a Liberal proposal to extend funding for Catholic separate schools until Grade 13.

Davis reversed himself in 1985, enacted the funding extension as one of his last acts before leaving of


Stavanger/Sandnes is the third largest urban area in Norway. It consists of the densely built-up areas in the municipalities of Stavanger, Sandnes and Randaberg, most of which are located on the Stavanger Peninsula, its surrounding islands, the mainland south of the peninsula. Stavanger/Sandnes is the central part of the Stavanger Region. On 1 January 2015, the 73.2-square-kilometre urban area had a population of 210,874. This gives the urban area a population density of 2,881 inhabitants per square kilometre; the area has had a big growth in population, is one of the fastest growing urban areas in Norway. It is expected that larger portions of Sola municipality will grow together with the urban area in the future

Bukey Horde

The Bukey Horde known as the Inner Horde or Interior Horde was an autonomous Khanate of Kazakhs located north of the Caspian Sea in between Ural and Volga Rivers but never reached this rivers. The khanate existed from 1801 to 1845, when the position of khan was abolished and the area was absorbed into the administration of the Russian Empire, it was located in the western part of modern-day Kazakhstan. The land spread on 71,000 square kilometers; the population consisted from 5 thousand families of Junior Juz. In a middle of 19th century population grew to 200 thousand people, it was named after sultan Bokei Nuralyuly. In 1756 the Russians attempted to ban the Kazakhs from crossing the Ural River to help the Bashkirs; this was difficult to enforce, given Russia's limited resources. There were numerous ` illegal' conflicts with the Ural Cossaks. In 1771, following the Kalmyck exodus to Dzungaria, the area became depopulated; the Russians attempted to confine the remaining Kalmyks west of the Volga.

From 1782 the Russians permitted Nur Ali and his family, some other groups, to cross the Ural legally. In 1801, Russia allowed Nur Ali's son Sultan Bukey, along with some 7,500 families from the Junior jüz to reside permanently in the "Inner Side", as the western side of the Ural was known. After the death of Bukey Sultan, Shygai Khan became the new khan from 1819–1823, followed by Zhangir Khan from 1823-1845. In 1845, following the death of Zhangir Khan, the position of khan was abolished and the area came under Russian civil administration. From 1836 to 1838, under the command of Isatay Taymanuly and famous akyn Makhambet Otemisuly, an uprising against the rule of Zhangir Khan occurred in the region; the uprising was suppressed. Kasymbaev, Zh. K. 8 klass - Istoriia Kazakhstana. 2004. Turkic peoples List of Turkic dynasties and countries List of Turkic states and empires Kazakh khanate Kazakhstan in the Russian Empire List of Kazakh khans