Progressive music is music that attempts to expand existing stylistic boundaries associated with specific genres of music. The word comes from the basic concept of "progress", which refers to development and growth by accumulation, is deployed in the context of distinct genres such as progressive country, progressive folk, progressive jazz, progressive rock. Music, deemed "progressive" synthesizes influences from various cultural domains, such as European art music, Celtic folk, West Indian, or African, it is rooted in the idea of a cultural alternative and may be associated with auteur-stars and concept albums, considered traditional structures of the music industry. As an art theory, the progressive approach falls between eclecticism. "Formalism" refers to a preoccupation with established external compositional systems, structural unity, the autonomy of individual art works. Like formalism, "eclecticism" connotates a predilection toward style integration. However, contrary to formalist tendencies, eclecticism foregrounds discontinuities between historical and contemporary styles and electronic media, sometimes referring to vastly different musical genres and cultural codes.
In marketing, "progressive" is used to distinguish a product from "commercial" pop music. Progressive jazz is a form of big band, more complex or experimental, it originated in the 1940s with arrangers who drew from modernist composers such as Igor Stravinsky and Paul Hindemith. Its "progressive" features were replete with dissonance and brash effects. Progressive jazz was most popularized by the bandleader Stan Kenton during the 1940s. Critics were wary of the idiom. Dizzy Gillespie wrote in his autobiography. I said,'You're full of shit!"Stan Kenton? There ain't nothing in my music that's cold, cold like his."Progressive big band is a style of big band or swing music, made for listening, with denser, more modernist arrangements and more room to improvise. The online music guide AllMusic states that, along with Kenton, musicians like Gil Evans, Toshiko Akiyoshi, Cal Massey, Frank Foster, Carla Bley, George Gruntz, David Amram, Sun Ra, Duke Ellington were major proponents of the style. "Progressive rock" is synonymous with "art rock".
Although a unidirectional English "progressive" style emerged in the late 1960s, by 1967, progressive rock had come to constitute a diversity of loosely associated style codes. With the arrival of a "progressive" label, the music was dubbed "progressive pop" before it was called "progressive rock". "Progressive" referred to the wide range of attempts to break with the standard pop music formula. A number of additional factors contributed to the label—lyrics were more poetic, technology was harnessed for new sounds, music approached the condition of "art", some harmonic language was imported from jazz and 19th-century classical music, the album format overtook singles, the studio, rather than the stage, became the focus of musical activity, which involved creating music for listening, not dancing. During the mid 1960s, pop music made repeated forays into new sounds and techniques that inspired public discourse among its listeners; the word "progressive" was used, it was thought that every song and single was to be a "progression" from the last.
In 1966, the degree of social and artistic dialogue among rock musicians increased for bands such as the Beach Boys, the Beatles, the Byrds who fused elements of composed music with the oral musical traditions of rock. Rock music started to take itself paralleling earlier attempts in jazz. In this period, the popular song began signaling a new possible means of expression that went beyond the three-minute love song, leading to an intersection between the "underground" and the "establishment" for listening publics; the Beach Boys' leader Brian Wilson is credited for setting a precedent that allowed bands and artists to enter a recording studio and act as their own producers. The music was developed following a brief period in the mid 1960s where creative authenticity among musical artists and consumer marketing coincided with each other. Before the progressive pop of the late 1960s, performers were unable to decide on the artistic content of their music. Assisted by the mid 1960s economic boom, record labels began investing in artists, giving them freedom to experiment, offering them limited control over their content and marketing.
The growing student market serviced record labels with the word "progressive", being adopted as a marketing term to differentiate their product from "commercial" pop. Music critic Simon Reynolds writes that beginning with 1967, a divide would exist between "progressive" pop and "mass/chart" pop, a separation, "also, one between boys and girls, middle-class and working-class." Before progressive/art rock became the most commercially successful British sound of the early 1970s, the 1960s psychedelic movement brought together art and commercialism, broaching the question of what it meant to be an artist in a mass medium. Progressive musicians thought that artistic status depended on personal autonomy, so the strategy of "progressive" rock groups was to present themselves as performers and composers "above" normal pop practice. "Proto-prog" is a retrospective label for the first wave of progressive rock musicians. The musicians that approached
Ricky Oyola is a regular-footed professional skateboarder from Philadelphia, PA. Oyola was born in Pemberton, NJ. and grew up in Medford, NJ. He received his first skateboard in 1985 as a Town & Country Zoner. Before he moved to Philadelphia, Oyola would drive into West Philadelphia, park at Roger Browne's house and spend the days skating with him. Oyola is credited with popularizing the skate scene in Philadelphia, alongside Browne, Matt Reason, Sergei Trudnowski. Oyola is recognized for his distinctive east-coast street skate style, he was known in his early days to sport other hairstyles involving long hair. His part in Dan Wolfe's 1996 skate video Eastern Exposure 3, showcased Oyola's creativity and speed, exposing his skating to a larger audience. Oyola's first official sponsor was Z-Products who noticed Oyola's skating while he was on a two month trip to California. Oyola has held numerous sponsors over his career from companies he founded: Illuminati and Silverstar to Kastel, Zoo York, New Deal, Spitfire, Duffs, Vox, Krux trucks, Division Wheel Company, as well as.
After leaving New Deal skateboards in 2003, Oyola founded his own company Traffic Skateboards. Staying true to its name, the initial Traffic team was composed of East Coast street skaters including Shaun Williams, Rich Adler, Jack Sabback, Bobby Puleo, others. Oyola skates for Traffic skateboards and Autobahn Wheels, he has a pro model shoe on Vox footwear named after him, however since he left the team the shoe has been renamed the Vox Philly. Top 5 - Ricky Oyola - Transworld Skateboarding Eastern Exposure 3 - by Dan Wolfe - released 1996
Sharks is the sixteenth album by the British hard rock band UFO. It is the last album to feature longtime German lead guitarist Michael Schenker. There are reports of an 18 track version of this cd with tracks from previous UFO albums but tracks not listed in the cover. 1. "Only You Can Rock Me" 2. "Too Hot to Handle" 3. "Rock Bottom" Phil Mogg - vocals Michael Schenker - guitar Pete Way - bass guitar Aynsley Dunbar - drums Mike Varney - guitar fills & outro guitar solo on "Fighting Man", producer Kevin Carlson - keyboards Jesse Bradman - background vocals Luis Maldonado - background vocals Steve Fontano - producer, mixing, mastering Jason D'Ottavio, John Anaya - assistant engineers Tim Gennert - mastering
The General Council is the unicameral parliament of Andorra. It is sometimes referred to as the General Council of the Valleys because it was the historical name and to distinguish it from named bodies in the Val d'Aran and in France. There are twenty-eight "general councillors", who are elected for four-year terms based on party lists in a closed list system: two general councillors from each of the seven parishes, elected from the list with most votes in each parish; the parish lists and the national list are independent of one another: the same person cannot appear on both the national list and on a parish list, voters cast two separate ballots. This is a recent development. However, as parishes varied in population from 350 to 2,500, this was felt to be imbalanced, the national list system was introduced for the 1997 elections to counter the disproportionate power held by the smallest parishes; the Council appoints a presiding officer, titled the Síndic general, a deputy, the subsíndic. The current Síndic general is Vicenç Mateu Zamora of the Democrats for Andorra.
The General Council elects the Head of Government. The Head of Government appoints the remaining seven members of the Executive Council; the current Head of Government, is Xavier Espot Zamora. Political parties are a recent innovation; the most recent Andorran parliamentary election was April 2019. The General Council has the second-highest proportion of women legislators, the highest in the developed world. In 2015 half of its members were women; the first parliament in Andorra was established as the Consell de la Terra. Councillors were elected by the population, the council appointed syndics to manage the administration of the principality, it remained in force for several hundred years becoming the fiefdom of a few major families. The reforms were masterminded by Guillem d'Areny-Plandolit, had several effects: The Consell de la Terra was abolished, replaced by the Consell General de les Valls, with a syndic and vice-syndic The franchise was extended to all heads of families Regular elections were laid down.
The General Council was dissolved on their order in June 1933, a special election called to re-elect it. The opportunity was taken to change the voting laws. In 1970, the vote was extended to women over twenty-five. Women gained the right to run for office in 1973, in 1978 a referendum was held on the matter of further reform; that year, a seventh parish was formed, bringing the numbers of councillors to twenty-eight. In 1982, the Executive Council was created, comprising the Executive Council President and four councillors with ministerial duties. In 1984 Mercè Bonell was the first female Councilor. List of First Syndics of the General Council of the Valleys List of General Syndics of the General Council of the Valleys Politics of Andorra List of legislatures by country
Dode was a steamboat that ran on Hood Canal and Puget Sound from 1898 to 1900. Dode was the schooner William J. Bryant. Prior to construction as the Dode, the Bryant had been one of a flotilla of Gold Rush ships sent to Alaska. Most of the vessels were older, some had been pulled off mud flats and given a paint job, which led a newspaper of the time to call them "floating coffins." In 1898, following return from Alaska, the Bryant was rebuilt into a propeller steamer for Capt. Dan Troutman's Hood Canal service; the rebuilt vessel was named Dode after his nickname for his wife, Dora Wells Troutman, a licensed captain. The Troutmans owned a farm at the small Hood Canal town of Lilliwaup. Captain Dan Troutman is reported to have mysteriously disappeared in 1899, forcing Dora Troutman to take over full management the Dode. By 1900, Dode was the only boat on the Hood Canal route, which started at Seattle and included landings at Kingston, Port Gamble, Brinnon, Dewatto, Lilliwaup Falls and Union City.
Dode left Pier 3 on a Tuesday, made all the stops on the run on that day, returned on the same route the next day to Seattle. In 1902, Captain C. E. Curtis acquired Dode, with plans to run the vessel with another steamer, the Willapa, which Curtis had acquired from the Canadian Pacific steamship service. Curtis, doing business as the Bellingham Bay Transportation Company, renamed Willapa as Bellingham. During 1903, the growing Puget Sound Navigation Co. acquired Bellingham Transportation Company, but Dode and Willapa did not go to PSN operational control until the spring of 1904. On December 6, 1903, in heavy fog, Willapa, by renamed Bellingham, was towing Dode to Whatcom for repairs, the vessels still being run by the Bellingham Bay company; the fast steamer Flyer pulled away from the Seattle dock en route to Tacoma and five minutes Bellingham collided with Flyer. Dode, under tow and unable to maneuver collided with Flyer. Flyer was badly, but not irreparably damaged. No one was injured. Flyer's passengers were taken off by boats from nearby vessels.
Shortly after Dode was taken over by PSN, the company was hit by a seaman's strike. The workers, who were seeking pay of $45 per month, shut down operation of all the company's boats for a while, but in the end they obtained their raise and returned to work. In 1904, with PSN now in control of the Bellingham company's boats, Dode was placed on routes connecting the various lumber company ports. On May 4, 1907, while proceeding in a heavy fog, Dode ran aground on Marrowstone Island near Fort Flagler; this proved to be not serious. On July 20, 1910, Dode was lost permanently, striking a rock and sinking, again off Marrowstone Island. Faber, Steamer's Wake, Enetai Press, Washington ISBN 0-9615811-0-7 Newell, Gordon R. ed. H. W. McCurdy Marine History of the Pacific Northwest, Superior Publishing Co. Seattle, Washington Newell, Gordon R. Ships of the Inland Sea, Superior Publishing Co. Seattle, Washington Newell, Gordon R, Williamson, Pacific Steamships, Superior Publishing, Washington U. S. Dept. of the Treasury, Bureau of Statistics, Annual List of Merchant Vessels of the United States
College Football on USA refers to the USA Network's cable television coverage of the college football regular season. USA's coverage ran from 1980-1986. During USA's first three seasons, they broadcast several games a week; these broadcasts were shown on a tape delayed basis as much as two days later. For USA's final four seasons, they narrowed their coverage to only one game a week; the games were selected from every conference. However, in the years, USA would air games involving Pittsburgh, Penn State, Notre Dame, Boston College and Maryland. More to the point, by 1984, USA aired games from the Big Eight Conference. 1981 Liberty Bowl - This was the first college bowl game to be broadcast on cable television. "The Play" - The Play refers to a last-second kickoff return during a college football game between the University of California Golden Bears and the Stanford University Cardinal on Saturday, November 20, 1982. After Stanford had taken a 20-19 lead on a field goal with four seconds left in the game, the Golden Bears used five lateral passes on the ensuing kickoff return to score the winning touchdown and earn a 25-20 victory.
Members of the Stanford Band had come onto the field midway through the return, believing that the game was over, which added to the ensuing confusion and folklore. There remains disagreement over the legality of two of the laterals, adding to the passion surrounding the traditional rivalry of the annual "Big Game." The biggest highlight of University of Maryland quarterback Frank Reich's college career was the comeback he led against the University of Miami Hurricanes on November 10, 1984 at the Orange Bowl Stadium. Reich came off the bench to play for Stan Gelbaugh, who had replaced him as the starter after Reich separated his shoulder in the fourth week of the season against Wake Forest. Miami quarterback Bernie Kosar had led the'Canes to a 31-0 lead at halftime. At the start of the third quarter, Reich led. Three touchdowns in the third quarter and a fourth at the start of the final quarter turned what was a blowout into a close game. With the score 34-28 Miami, Reich hit Greg Hill with a 68-yard touchdown pass which deflected off the hands of Miami safety Darrell Fullington to take the lead.
Maryland scored once more to cap a 42-9 second half, won the game 42-40, completing what was the biggest comeback in NCAA history. 1985 Cherry Bowl - The end of NCAA control over television rights resulted in a major increase in televised games, TV rights fees dropped amid the resulting glut, something not anticipated by the Cherry Bowl organizers. 1985 Holiday Bowl 1985 Freedom Bowl 1985 Independence Bowl 1985 Bluebonnet Bowl 1986 Independence Bowl 1986 Peach Bowl Eddie Doucette Harry Kalas Ray Lane Barry Tompkins John Beasley Jim Brandstatter Jeff Logan Kyle Rote, Jr. Joe Theismann Johnny Holliday