Project management is the practice of initiating, executing and closing the work of a team to achieve specific goals and meet specific success criteria at the specified time. The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals within the given constraints; this information is described in project documentation, created at the beginning of the development process. The primary constraints are scope, time and budget; the secondary—and more ambitious—challenge is to optimize the allocation of necessary inputs and apply them to meet pre-defined objectives. The objective of project management is to produce a complete project which complies with the client's objectives. In many cases the objective of project management is to shape or reform the client's brief to feasibly address the client's objectives. Once the client's objectives are established they should influence all decisions made by other people involved in the project – for example project managers, designers and sub-contractors.
Ill-defined or too prescribed project management objectives are detrimental to decision making. A project is a temporary endeavor designed to produce a unique product, service or result with a defined beginning and end undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives to bring about beneficial change or added value; the temporary nature of projects stands in contrast with business as usual, which are repetitive, permanent, or semi-permanent functional activities to produce products or services. In practice, the management of such distinct production approaches requires the development of distinct technical skills and management strategies; until 1900, civil engineering projects were managed by creative architects and master builders themselves, for example, Christopher Wren, Thomas Telford and Isambard Kingdom Brunel. In the 1950s organizations started to systematically apply project-management tools and techniques to complex engineering projects; as a discipline, project management developed from several fields of application including civil construction and heavy defense activity.
Two forefathers of project management are Henry Gantt, called the father of planning and control techniques, famous for his use of the Gantt chart as a project management tool. Both Gantt and Fayol were students of Frederick Winslow Taylor's theories of scientific management, his work is the forerunner to modern project management tools including work breakdown structure and resource allocation. The 1950s marked the beginning of the modern project management era where core engineering fields come together to work as one. Project management became recognized as a distinct discipline arising from the management discipline with engineering model. In the United States, prior to the 1950s, projects were managed on an ad-hoc basis, using Gantt charts and informal techniques and tools. At that time, two mathematical project-scheduling models were developed; the "critical path method" was developed as a joint venture between DuPont Corporation and Remington Rand Corporation for managing plant maintenance projects.
The "program evaluation and review technique", was developed by the U. S. Navy Special Projects Office in conjunction with the Lockheed Corporation and Booz Allen Hamilton as part of the Polaris missile submarine program. PERT and CPM are similar in their approach but still present some differences. CPM is used for projects. PERT, on the other hand, allows for stochastic activity times; because of this core difference, CPM and PERT are used in different contexts. These mathematical techniques spread into many private enterprises. At the same time, as project-scheduling models were being developed, technology for project cost estimating, cost management and engineering economics was evolving, with pioneering work by Hans Lang and others. In 1956, the American Association of Cost Engineers was formed by early practitioners of project management and the associated specialties of planning and scheduling, cost estimating, cost/schedule control. AACE continued its pioneering work and in 2006 released the first integrated process for portfolio and project management.
In 1969, the Project Management Institute was formed in the USA. PMI publishes A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, which describes project management practices that are common to "most projects, most of the time." PMI offers a range of certifications. Project management methods can be applied to any project, it is tailored to a specific type of projects based on project size and industry. For example, the construction industry, which focuses on the delivery of things like buildings and bridges, has developed its own specialized form of project management that it refers to as construction project management and in which project managers can become trained and certified; the information technology industry has evolved to develop its own form of project management, referred to as IT project management and which
The Radfan Campaign was a series of British military actions during the Aden Emergency. It took place in the mountainous Radfan region near the border with Yemen. Local tribesmen connected with the NLF began raiding the road connecting with Aden with the town of Dhala. In January 1964 the local army sent three battalions supported by the RAF to restore order. Trouble flared up again and in April British ground troops were sent in; the NLF switched its attention to Aden itself. The first operation in January was known as "Nut cracker"; the second one was "Cap Badge". The best known action of the Campaign involved a patrol led by Captain Edwards on the 29 April 1964 which came under the attack, it led to another soldier, Sapper John Warburton. They were beheaded and their heads displayed in the Yemeni Capital. British troops attacked the area and succeeded in capturing rebel positions, although two more British were killed; the British went on to use jets in the fight. Radfan at Britains Small Wars Aden Emergency at the Argylls Website Routine Adventure, a 1964 short documentary about Aden at the time of the Radfan Campaign at Colonial Film
Erik Edward Lyly was a Finnish fighter pilot and ace in the Continuation War. He flew in the LeLv 24 and LeLv 34, the most successful fighter squadrons of the Finnish Air Force flying as a wingman for the most proficient Finnish ace Air Sergeant Master Ilmari Juutilainen, he achieved a total of 8 air victories during the wars. His highest rank during the war was Sergeant Master. Erik Lyly was born in Ypäjä village, Loimaa in Finland 1914, he completed his national service as a flight engineer at Lentosotakoulu between 1931 and 1932. His youth was marked by the depression of the 1930s. He, among other things, worked in the South American Line on a steamboat, he moved to the Petsamo region and tried his luck in many different professions. Short session as engineer on a fishing boat was followed by own taxi company at Liinahamari. Next he took up the task assemble and build a mini-locomotive sent from England by Mond Nickel Ltd.. Upon completion of the railway and locomotive to the Pummanki harbour he started as Service Manager for Pohjolan Liikenne Oy.
While living in Petsamo, he met Sisko Seppi. He studied at the Tampere Technical School at the Industrial School Engineering Department, from where he graduated as a technician in 1943 due wars fragmenting the studies; the Defense Forces performed the so-called YH, Additional Exercise in Oct 1939 and Erik Lyly was called to rehearsal exercises to a Frontier Guard unit. This time performing as a military driver for car, ambulance and a motorcycle. On November 30, 1939, however, he was assigned to the Detachment Pennanen and its Machine Gun Group leader. MG groups were subjected to infantry companies and the struggle in a ruthless freezing cold with poorly organized logistics was a delusional delaying battle, reaching from the border to the Nautsijoki line, where the enemy was stopped and the war turned to a stale-mate until the 13.3.40 peace agreement. Before the Winter War Peace Agreement, Erik Lyly was commissioned to the Reserve NCO Pilot Course at the Kauhava Ilmasotakoulu, he received a pilot training at AOK 10 between 9.5.
- 11.7.1940. for several types i.e. SM, VI, SÄ, SZ and TU-types. After completing the course, he served as Inspector of the State Aircraft Factory from August 1940 to March 1941 in Tampere. With the beginning of the Continuation War additional training followed with Pyry-trainer. After training he was commenced to the Supplementary Flight Squadrons. Actual combat action, Erik Lyly did not arrive until January 1942 after being ordered to 24. Squadron and more for 3rd wing. From January 1942 he flew with the Brewster B-239 fighter Finland had bought From US during the winter War, but receiving only after the War in spring 1940, he flew with the BW-374, which he shot down the two enemy aircraft. He flew as a wingman for Flight Master Sergeant I. E. Juutilainen. In March 1943, he was transferred to the newly formed 34. Squadron, equipped with newly bought Messerschmitt Bf 109 G2 fighters; the squadron was equipped with updated G6-type in spring 1944. With them he achieved 6 air victories. In total, he completed.
Erik Lyly was never wounded and never needed to jump with a parachute during the war. The worst incident was an engine failure with DB 605 on 10.9.1943 that forced him to make a belly-landing for “AFB Jäppilä”. After the war, Lyly continued to work as a Service Manager for Pohjolan Liikenne Oy, now in Ivalo, after Petsamo was lost to the Soviet hands. Two children were born Hannele. In 1949 he moved to Rovaniemi and set up an aviation company Lentokuljetus Oy together with his war mechanics; the company acquired one Karhumäki Karhu 48B single engine plane, manufactured only in two examples. The company owned plane was OH-VKK and it was the first individual in the series; the company operated throughout Finland, but in the Lapland area, carrying out both passenger and freight. When the plane was rented in February 1950, it went over the nose, when taking off from the river and was badly damaged. Two more children were born in Erkki. Erik Lyly continued as a store manager for Aineen Autoliike Oy in Rovaniemi.
On he founded a new company Polar Auto Oy / AutoRova Oy as a shareholder and managing director of his own car store. Company had a Sisu, Land-Rover and Renault brands in Northern Finland, he drove ice racing with a Renault-Gordini car. He returned to aviation again in 1968; the company operated in Lapland with a PZL 101 Gawron type. The pilot's career continued with Tunturilento Oy as a pilot from 1968 and he moved to the company's headquarters in Haaparanta, Sweden; the company operated in Lapland carrying out passenger and freight operations with several aircraft types. Among others Cessna 185 Cessna 310 types, he maintained a VFR / IFR, multi-engine and float plane ratings. He retired from this task 1975, he liked recreational aviation as well, as he had done all his life in Rovaniemi with Lapin Lentäjät R.y with Piper PA-28 and Cessna 152 types. Erik Lyly died at his home peacefully in Haparanda, Sweden