Promiscuity is the practice of engaging in sexual activity with different partners or being indiscriminate in the choice of sexual partners. The term can carry a moral judgment if the social ideal for sexual activity is monogamous relationships. A common example of behavior viewed as promiscuous by many cultures is the one-night stand, its frequency is used by researchers as a marker for promiscuity. What sexual behavior is considered promiscuous varies between cultures, as does the prevalence of promiscuity. Different standards are applied to different genders and civil statutes. Feminists have traditionally argued a significant double standard exists between how men and women are judged for promiscuity. Stereotypes of the promiscuous woman have tended to be pejorative, such as "the slut" or "the harlot", while male stereotypes have been more varied, some expressing approval, such as "the stud" or "the player", while others imply societal deviance, such as "the womanizer" or "the philanderer".
A scientific study published in 2005 found that promiscuous men and women are both prone to derogatory judgment. Promiscuity is common in many animal species; some species have promiscuous mating systems, ranging from polyandry and polygyny to mating systems with no stable relationships where mating between two individuals is a one-time event. Many species still mate with other individuals outside the pair. In biology, incidents of promiscuity in species that form pair bonds are called extra-pair copulations. Assessing people's sexual behavior is difficult, since strong social and personal motivations occur, depending on social sanctions and taboos, for either minimizing or exaggerating reported sexual activity. American experiments in 1978 and 1982 found the great majority of men were willing to have sex with women they did not know, of average attractiveness, who propositioned them. No woman, by contrast, agreed to such propositions from men of average attractiveness. While men were in general comfortable with the requests, regardless of their willingness, women responded with shock and disgust.
The number of sexual partners people have had in their lifetimes varies within a population. A 2007 nationwide survey in the United States found the median number of female sexual partners reported by men was seven and the median number of male partners reported by women was four; the men exaggerated their reported number of partners, women reported a number lower than the actual number, or a minority of women had a sufficiently larger number than most other women to create a mean higher than the median, or all of the above. About 29% of men and 9% of women reported to have had more than 15 sexual partners in their lifetimes. Studies of the spread of sexually transmitted diseases demonstrate a small percentage of the studied population has more partners than the average man or woman, a smaller number of people have fewer than the statistical average. An important question in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections is whether or not these groups copulate at random with sexual partners from throughout a population or within their social groups.
A 2006 systematic review analyzing data from 59 countries worldwide found no association between regional sexual behavior tendencies, such as number of sexual partners, sexual-health status. Much more predictive of sexual-health status are socioeconomic factors like mobility. Other studies have suggested that people with multiple casual sex partners are more to be diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections. Severe and impulsive promiscuity, along with a compulsive urge to engage in illicit sex with attached individuals is a common symptom of borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder but most promiscuous individuals do not have these disorders. In 2008, a U. S. university study of international promiscuity found that Finns have had the largest number of sex partners in the industrialized world, British people have the largest number among big western industrial nations. The study measured one-night stands, attitudes to casual sex, number of sexual partners.
A 2014 nationwide survey in the United Kingdom named Liverpool the country's most promiscuous city. Britain's position on the international index "may be linked to increasing social acceptance of promiscuity among women as well as men". Britain's ranking was "ascribed to factors such as the decline of religious scruples about extramarital sex, the growth of equal pay and equal rights for women and a sexualised popular culture"; the top-10-ranking OECD nations with a population over 10 million on the study's promiscuity index, in descending order, were the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, the United States, Turkey and Canada. A nonscientific survey conducted in 2007 by condom-maker Durex measured promiscuity by a total number of sexual partners; the survey found Austrian men had the highest number of sex partners of males globally with 29.3 sexual partners on average. New Zealand women had the highest number of sex partners for females in the world with an average of 20.4 sexual partners.
In all of the countries surveyed, except New Zealand, men reported more sexual partners than women. The data can differ quite drastically between studies due to the small number of people that participate. A study funded by Durex, published in 2009 shows in all counties surveyed, except New Zealand, men reported fewer sexual partners than women. In this case, New Zealand women were the only country to report a lower average number of partners than men. One review found the people from d
Pras Michel is a Haitian-American rapper, record producer and actor. He is best known as one of the founding members of the influential hip hop group Fugees, which included Wyclef Jean and Lauryn Hill. Together the three were able to win awards for their grammy winning album, "The Score", he is being indicted by the United States Department of Justice, on May 10, 2019, for his part in a criminal conspiracy that alleges, between June 2012 and November 2012, he aided in the illegal transfer of $865,000 from foreign entities into the Barack Obama 2012 presidential campaign as purportedly legitimate contributions, stolen from the Malaysian sovereign wealth fund 1MDB. Born in Brooklyn, New York and raised in Irvington, New Jersey, Pras cultivated an early interest in music; when he was 15, Pras met Lauryn Hill, while both attended Columbia High School, New Jersey. In 1988, Pras introduced Lauryn to Wyclef Jean. Pras Michel, Wyclef Jean and Lauryn Hill began to rehearse under the guidance of Kool and the Gang's producer, Ronald Khalis Bell, subsequently they formed a musical group called The Rap Translators in 1989 In 1994, before and during the time that The Fugees were recording their first album Blunted on Reality, under the supervision of Ronald Khalis Bell, Pras attended Rutgers University and Yale University, pursuing a double major in Philosophy and Psychology.
In 1996, The Fugees achieved historic crossover success with The Score. Pras has forged a successful solo career, beginning with an international hit single from his first full-length solo LP, "Ghetto Supastar", featuring Mýa and Ol' Dirty Bastard. "Ghetto Superstar" became a top ten single in 1999, the eighth most played single. The hit single was included in the soundtrack for the film Bulworth. "Ghetto Supastar" spent eight weeks in the UK Top 5, peaking at No. 2 in July 1998, reached US No. 15 a month later. "Blue Angels", from the same album, was a UK Top 10 hit. Pras featured on the track "Turn You On" by Swedish artist DeDe, released in 2007. "Turn You On" was written and produced by Pras Michél. After nine weeks on Sweden's single chart, it peaked at No. 2. He featured "Pushin'" from the album Equalize by Swami, released in 2007. After his cameo debut in the 1999 film, Mystery Men, Pras gained an interest in Hollywood. In 2000, Pras starred in the New Line film. In early 2002, he appeared in the Sony and Urban World release Higher Ed, Go for Broke in which he starred and produced.
He co-starred in three 20th Century Fox films in 2007. These included The Mutant Chronicles. In 2006, Pras created Skid Row, Los Angeles, a documentary account of his nine-day experience posing as a homeless person living in downtown Los Angeles. Using a hidden camera, Pras captured the reality of homelessness; the film was produced by Teryn Fogel. Skid Row was released on August 2007 to widespread critical acclaim. In 2009, Pras travelled to Somalia to film a documentary entitled Paper Dreams to highlight piracy off the African coast. During filming pirates invaded the ship he was on, the MV Maersk Alabama, took the captain of the ship hostage. Due to be released in 2014, the documentary remains unfinished due to a legal dispute. In 2015, Pras completed a documentary entitled Sweet Micky For President; the documentary chronicled the rise of Haitian musician Michel Martelly, through his election to fight corruption as President of Haiti, an election campaign, endorsed by Pras. The film had its World premiere at the 2015 Slamdance Film Festival.
In 2013, Michel became a "top initial donor" to Organizing for Action, a political advocacy group formed by Obama associates in January 2013. In 2019, Michel was indicted for illegally helping to funnel $21 million in foreign campaign contributions into the 2012 U. S. presidential election to benefit political candidate "A". The Washington Post identified "Candidate A" as B. Obama. Mystery Men – Tony C Turn It Up – Denzel/Diamond Higher Ed – Ed Green Go For Broke – Jackson/Jackie Nora's Hair Salon Careful What You Wish For – Zen Salesman Feel The Noise – Electric First Night – himself Skid Row – himself The Mutant Chronicles – Captain Michaels Paper Dreams – himself Sweet Mickey For President – himself Jho Low Elliott Broidy MTV artist page Pras on IMDb
Campanula zoysii, known as Zois' bellflower, Zoysi's harebell, or crimped bellflower, is a flower in the genus Campanula. The flower is endemic to Austria, northern Italy, Slovenia, it grows most in limestone crevices in the Julian, Kamnik–Savinja Alps and the Peca Mountain, as well as in the Alps of Italy and Austria. Campanula zoysii can survive in temperatures as low as −35 to −40 °C. Garden pests include snails; the plant tends to grow low, reaching anywhere from 5 to 7 cm in height, though some plants may grow as tall as 23 cm. Tufts of the plant tend to creep outward. Seedlings require two years to grow to flower; the species is unique among its genus of bellflowers. The mouth of C. zoysii's bell-shaped flower narrows, ending in a five-pointed star, while the flowers of other Campanula species are bell-shaped, but open. The flowers are arranged one to three for each stem; the plant's pale sky blue- to lavender-colored flowers bloom in June over a three- to four-week period. Leaves are crowded at the root, stalked and blunt.
Campanula zoysii is held in high regard in Slovenia. It is considered a symbol of the Slovene Alps, was called "the true daughter of the Slovene mountains" by the renowned botanist Viktor Petkovšek, it is the symbol of the oldest alpine garden in Slovenia, Alpinum Juliana, established in 1926. Campanula zoysii is esteemed as an ornamental plant in rock gardens; the September 1905 issue of Gardeners' Chronicle praises C. zoysii as "choicest and most distinct... of a genus comprising flowers of the greatest beauty and of the highest merit in the garden". The plant was named by the botanist Franz Xaver von Wulfen in honor of its discoverer, the botanist Karl von Zois, who introduced it to him, it was first described by Nikolaus Joseph von Jacquin in 1789. List of Campanula species Notes References Data related to Campanula zoysii at Wikispecies Media related to Favratia zoysii at Wikimedia Commons