Propaganda is information, used to influence an audience and further an agenda, which may not be objective and may be presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information, presented. Propaganda is associated with material prepared by governments, but activist groups, religious organizations, the media, individuals can produce propaganda. In the 20th century, the term propaganda had been associated with a manipulative approach, but propaganda is a neutral descriptive term. A wide range of materials and media are used for conveying propaganda messages, which changed as new technologies were invented, including paintings, posters, films, radio shows, TV shows, websites. More the digital age has given rise to new ways of disseminating propaganda, for example, through the use of bots and algorithms to create computational propaganda and spread fake or biased news using social media.
Propaganda is a modern Latin word, ablative singular feminine of the gerundive form of propagare, meaning to spread or to propagate, thus propaganda means for that, to be propagated. This word derived from a new administrative body of the Catholic Church created in 1622 as part of the Counter-Reformation, called the Congregatio de Propaganda Fide, or informally Propaganda, its activity was aimed at "propagating" the Catholic faith in non-Catholic countries. From the 1790s, the term began being used to refer to propaganda in secular activities; the term began taking a pejorative or negative connotation in the mid-19th century, when it was used in the political sphere. Harold Laswell provided a broad definition to the term propaganda, writing it as: “the expression of opinions or actions carried out deliberately by individuals or groups with a view to influencing the opinions or actions of other individuals or groups for predetermined ends and through psychological manipulations.”Garth Jowett and Victoria O'Donnell theorize that propaganda is converted into persuasion, that propagandists use persuasive methods in the construction of their propagandist discourse.
This theory signifies the similarity and optimization of propaganda using persuasive techniques in the development and cultivation of propagandist materials. In a 1929 literary debate with Edward Bernays, Everett Dean Martin argues that, "Propaganda is making puppets of us. We are moved by hidden strings which the propagandist manipulates."Bernays acknowledged in his book Propaganda that “The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government, the true ruling power of our country. We are governed, our minds are molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested by men we have never heard of.”A common misconception surrounding the basis of propaganda states that it is a form of communication in which the propagandist intentionally uses false narratives and emotional based evidence based on lies and manipulation to target innocent people that are unaware that they have become the victims of the influence of propaganda.
Primitive forms of propaganda have been a human activity as far back as reliable recorded evidence exists. The Behistun Inscription detailing the rise of Darius I to the Persian throne is viewed by most historians as an early example of propaganda. Another striking example of propaganda during ancient history is the last Roman civil wars during which Octavian and Mark Antony blamed each other for obscure and degrading origins, cowardice and literary incompetence, luxury and other slanders; this defamation took the form of uituperatio, decisive for shaping the Roman public opinion at this time. Propaganda during the Reformation, helped by the spread of the printing press throughout Europe, in particular within Germany, caused new ideas and doctrine to be made available to the public in ways that had never been seen before the 16th century. During the era of the American Revolution, the American colonies had a flourishing network of newspapers and printers who specialized in the topic on behalf of the Patriots.
Barbara Diggs-Brown conceives that the negative connotations of the term “propaganda” are associated with the earlier social and political transformations that occurred during the French Revolutionary period movement of 1789 to 1799 between the and the middle portion of the 19th century, in a time where the word started to be used in a nonclerical and political context. The first large-scale and organised propagation of government propaganda was occasioned by the outbreak of war in 1914. After the defeat of Germany in the First World War, military officials such as Erich Ludendorff suggested that British propaganda had been instrumental in their defeat. Adolf Hitler came to echo this view, believing that it had been a primary cause of the collapse of morale and the revolts in the German home front and Navy in 1918. In Mein Kampf Hitler expounded his theory of propaganda, which provided a powerful base for his rise to power in 1933. Historian Robert Ensor explains. Most propaganda in Naz
Minuscule 107, ε 344, is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on parchment leaves. Palaeographically it has been assigned to the 13th century; the codex contains a complete text of the four Gospels on 351 parchment leaves. The text is written in one column per 18-22 lines per page; the initial letters in gold. The text is divided according to the κεφαλαια, whose numbers are given at the margin, the τιτλοι at the top of the pages, it contains tables of the κεφαλαια before each Gospel, pictures. It was written by more than one scribe; the first page of Matthew is written in gold. The Greek text of the codex is a representative of the Byzantine text-type. Hermann von Soden classified it to the textual family Kx. Aland placed it in Category V. According to the Claremont Profile Method it represents mixed Byzantine text in Luke 1, textual family Kx in Luke 20, in Luke 10 no profile was made, it was examined by Wettstein and Scholz. Wettsteins's and Griesbach's 107 is Gregory's minuscule 201.
Scholz dated the manuscript to the 14th century. C. R. Gregory saw it in 1883, it is housed at the Bodleian Library at Oxford. List of New Testament minuscules Biblical manuscript Textual criticism Gregory, Caspar René. Textkritik des Neuen Testaments. 1. Leipzig: Hinrichs. P. 152
The 2018–19 Montana Grizzlies basketball team represented the University of Montana during the 2018–19 NCAA Division I men's basketball season. The Grizzlies, led by fifth-year head coach Travis DeCuire, played their home games at Dahlberg Arena in Missoula, Montana as members of the Big Sky Conference. Finishing the season 26–9 overall, 16–4 in Big Sky play, the Grizzlies won the Big Sky regular season championship; as the No. 1 seed in the Big Sky Tournament, they defeated Sacramento State, Weber State, Eastern Washington to win the tournament, earned the Big Sky's automatic bid to the NCAA Tournament. Given a No. 15 seed in the West Region of the NCAA Tournament, Montana was defeated by Michigan in the first round for the second consecutive year. The Grizzlies finished the 2017–18 season 26–8, 16–2 in Big Sky play to win the Big Sky regular season championship, they defeated North Dakota, Northern Colorado, Eastern Washington to be champions of the Big Sky Tournament. They earned the Big Sky's automatic bid to the NCAA Tournament where they lost in the First Round to Michigan.
2018–19 Montana Lady Griz basketball team