Proprietary software

Proprietary software known as closed-source software, is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code, but sometimes patent rights. Until the late 1960s computers—large and expensive mainframe computers, machines in specially air-conditioned computer rooms—were leased to customers rather than sold. Service and all software available were supplied by manufacturers without separate charge until 1969. Computer vendors provided the source code for installed software to customers. Customers who developed software made it available to others without charge. Closed source means computer programs, it is available to be edited only by the organization. In 1969, IBM, which had antitrust lawsuits pending against it, led an industry change by starting to charge separately for mainframe software and services, by unbundling hardware and software. Bill Gates' "Open Letter to Hobbyists" in 1976 decried computer hobbyists' rampant copyright infringement of software Microsoft's Altair BASIC interpreter, reminded his audience that their theft from programmers hindered his ability to produce quality software.

According to Brewster Kahle the legal characteristic of software changed due to the U. S. Copyright Act of 1976. Starting in February 1983 IBM adopted an "object-code-only" model for a growing list of their software and stopped shipping source code. In 1983, binary software became copyrightable in the United States as well by the Apple vs. Franklin law decision, before which only source code was copyrightable. Additionally, the growing availability of millions of computers based on the same microprocessor architecture created for the first time an unfragmented and big enough market for binary distributed software. Most of the software is covered by copyright which, along with contract law and trade secrets, provides legal basis for its owner to establish exclusive rights. A software vendor delineates the specific terms of use in an end-user license agreement; the user may agree to this contract in writing, interactively on screen, or by opening the box containing the software. License agreements are not negotiable.

Software patents grant exclusive rights to algorithms, software features, or other patentable subject matter, with coverage varying by jurisdiction. Vendors sometimes grant patent rights to the user in the license agreement; the source code for a piece of software is handled as a trade secret. Software is made available with fewer restrictions on licensing or source-code access. Since license agreements do not override applicable copyright law or contract law, provisions in conflict with applicable law are not enforceable; some software is licensed and not sold, in order to avoid limitations of copyright such as the first-sale doctrine. The owner of proprietary software exercises certain exclusive rights over the software; the owner can restrict use, inspection of source code, modification of source code, redistribution. Vendors limit the number of computers on which software can be used, prohibit the user from installing the software on extra computers. Restricted use is sometimes enforced through a technical measure, such as product activation, a product key or serial number, a hardware key, or copy protection.

Vendors may distribute versions that remove particular features, or versions which allow only certain fields of endeavor, such as non-commercial, educational, or non-profit use. Use restrictions vary by license: Windows Vista Starter is restricted to running a maximum of three concurrent applications; the retail edition of Microsoft Office Home and Student 2007 is limited to non-commercial use on up to three devices in one household. Windows XP can be installed on one computer, limits the number of network file sharing connections to 10; the Home Edition disables features present in Windows XP Professional. Traditionally, Adobe licenses are limited to one user, but allow the user to install a second copy on a home computer or laptop; this is no longer true with the switching to Creative Cloud. IWork'09, Apple's productivity suite, is available in a five-user family pack, for use on up to five computers in a household. Vendors distribute proprietary software in compiled form the machine language understood by the computer's central processing unit.

They retain the source code, or human-readable version of the software, written in a higher level programming language. This scheme is referred to as closed source. While most proprietary software is distributed without the source code, some vendors distribute the source code or otherwise make it available to customers. For example, users who have purchased a license for the Internet forum software vBulletin can modify the source for their own site but cannot redistribute it; this is true for many web applications, which must be in source code form when being run by a web server. The source code is covered by a non-disclosure agreement or a license that allows, for example and modification, but not redistribution; the text-based email client Pine and certain implementations of Secure Shell are distributed with proprietary licenses that make the source code available. Some governments fear that proprietary software may include defects or malicious features which would compromise sensitive information.

In 2003 Microsoft established a Government Security Program to allow governments to view source code and Microsoft security documentation, of which the Chinese government was an early participant. The program is part of M

Józef Kowalski (supercentenarian)

Józef Kowalski was a Polish supercentenarian and the second-to-last surviving veteran of the 1919–1921 Polish-Soviet War. Kowalski served in the 22nd Uhlan Regiment of the Polish Army, he served including the battles of Warsaw and Komarów. He took part in the September Campaign during World War II. After being captured he was held in a concentration camp. On his 110th birthday, he was awarded the Officer's Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta for his war service by President Lech Kaczyński, of Poland, he lived near Sulęcin, in a care home. On 23 February 2012 Kowalski was promoted to the rank of kapitan, on 16 August 2012 he was nominated to become an honorary citizen of the city of Wołomin, having become an honorary citizen of both Warsaw and Radzymin

Space Apprentice

Space Apprentice known as Probationers, is a science fiction novel by Soviet-Russian writers Arkady and Boris Strugatsky published in 1962. It is set in the Noon Universe following The Land of Crimson Clouds and "Destination Amalthea", hundreds of years before the other Noon novels; this is the Strugatsky brothers' final hard-SF novel, it gives reasons why they decided to move into social science fiction instead. The novel's main character is a young space welder, his mother was sick and Yuri missed the spaceship, to transport him to his new work site. He gets a ride to his destination on a ship piloted by some of the characters of The Land of Crimson Clouds; when the novel starts Yurkovsky and Grisha Bykov - Bykov's son - and Dauge say goodbye to Bykov senior and leave on a mission from international spaceport Mirza-Charle. Meanwhile, Yuri Borodin is in the spaceport, trying to find a ride. Spaceport authorities direct him to the port director, but he is out of town. Disappointed Yuri wanders into a Capitalist-run bar, where the owner-cum-bartender is engaged in an ideological debate with a Russian Communist.

Yuri befriends the Russian, Ivan Zhilin, tells him of his problems. Ivan suggests Yuri to go to the spaceport hotel in the evening, try to convince the astronauts who stay there to take him along. Yuri meets Bykov and Yurkovsky. Yurkovsky serves as a Chief Inspector, he plans to make a tour of several planetoids. Bykov is piloting his ship, they agree to give Yuri a ride. Their first stop is Mars; the Earth colonists there are battling an alien life form the giant slug. As the colonists are planning a large-scale slug hunt, they realize that some of the buildings in the area are not human-made. Since the buildings look so much like the simple prefabricated structures set up by the colonists, everyone just assumed they were left there by previous expeditions; some colonists lament the lack of initiative that has descended over the colony in recent years, Yurkovsky agrees. The raid on slugs, carried out in part using the weapons brought by Yurkovsky, is reasonably successful, the colonists cheer up.

On the way to research station Eunomia, the spaceship crew runs an emergency drill, Yuri, while stressed and confused, holds up to the pressure. The station was orbiting the Sun with parameters of 15 Eunomia, a large asteroid which nearly disappeared after a few years of research. Yurkovsky and Yuri witness a scheduled experiment on propagation of gravitational waves that are created by annihilating a chunk of the asteroid the size of Everest. A lot of physicists want to work on Eunomia due to the unique research opportunities that it provides; the station is overcrowded but the scientists gladly put up with the inconveniences such as food shortages or having to sleep in an elevator. Yurkovsky gives a part of his own food supply to the hungry physicists, he says. Planetoid Bamberga has deposits of precious space pearls. Capitalists run a mine on Bamberga. In the drive to maximize profits the miners work more than six-hours a day despite health risks due to high levels of radiation in the mine; this causes premature death.

The local safety-inspector, a Hungarian Communist, protests. But he harassed. After his arrival, Yurkovsky arrests the mine's director on multiple offences including smuggling liquor and prostitutes with their possible subsequent killing, he tells the workers to elect a replacement, reminding them that the mining license is given only temporarily and may be revoked at any time. The miners emphatically protest. Despaired, Yurkovsky leaves the meeting with the miners. However, one of the miners returns the string of space pearls that Yurkovsky accidentally left behind; the returned pearls are worth a large sum of money and Yurkovsky thinks that there is still hope for the miners. Back on the spaceship and Zhilin watch an action film about the heroes of space exploration, the young Yuri becomes excited. Zhilin explains the movie oversimplifies the picture and the life is much more complicated and a lot less glamorous than how it is portrayed, he alludes to the events in The Land of Crimson Clouds. The next stop of the tour is Diona space observatory.

However, personal relationships deteriorate. Yuri gets into a fight with one of the young researchers, it turns out that two of the senior scientists were spreading rumors about the others to further their scientific careers. Yurkovsky orders them back to Earth and suggests one of them to kill himself, he says that these two men managed to deceive the rest of the crew so because many people in Communist society are not accustomed to others blatantly lying to them, they are too proud to try to figure out the truth for themselves. Yurkovksy spaceship approaches stops at Ring One space station. From there, Yuri is supposed to go to Ring Two: his worksite. Yurkovksy is getting too old for space travel. In all likelihood, this trip is the last of his space flights, he did a lot of research on the rings of Saturn and now he wants to see them close. The same is true for his navigator: Krutikov. Yurkovsky and Krutikov take a rocket to fly near the rings; as they approach the rings, Yurkovsky notices an unusual rock formation, urges Krutikov to fly closer, despite the danger of a meteorite collision.

Bykov orders them, over the radio, to stop. Yet, anxious to find out more about the discovery, Yurkovsky attacks breaks the radio. Krutikov yields and descends to the rock format