A vomitorium is a passage situated below or behind a tier of seats in an amphitheatre or a stadium, through which big crowds can exit at the end of a performance. They can be pathways for actors to enter and leave stage; the Latin word vomitorium, plural vomitoria, derives from the verb vomō, vomere, "to spew forth". In ancient Roman architecture, vomitoria were designed to provide rapid egress for large crowds at amphitheatres and stadia, as they do in modern sports stadia and large theatres. Smock Alley Theatre in Temple Bar Dublin has one stage left and one stage right; the Oregon Shakespeare Festival, for instance, has vomitoria in two of its theatres, the outdoor Elizabethan Stage and the Angus Bowmer Theatre. The voms, as they are called, allow actors to mount the stage from halls cut into the amphitheatre; the Guthrie Theatre in Minneapolis, Minnesota has two permanent vomitoria, one at stage left and one at stage right, of its thrust stage. The Circle in the Square Theatre, designed to reflect the theatres of ancient Greece and Rome, is the only Broadway theatre that has a vomitorium.
The vomitorium is still used in many of their productions as an exit for the actors. The Cockpit Theatre, built in London in the 1960s, is one of the few purpose-built theatres in the round in London, features four vomitoria as corner entrances between four banks of raked seating arranged in a square; the Chichester Festival Theatre, founded in 1962, was the first of its kind to be opened in the UK for 500 years, because there is no proscenium arch or wings. Instead the stage is a thrust with vomitaria or "voms" for the audience and performers to enter and exit. In addition the Mark Taper Forum, one of the three theatres making up the Los Angeles Music Center, has two vomitoria, it has a strong thrust stage such. Winnipeg's second largest theatre, Prairie Theatre Exchange, has two vomitoria on either side of their thrust stage, with seating on three sides; the Denver Center for the Performing Arts' Space Theatre is a theatre "in the round" with a pentagon configuration. It contains. There is a common misconception that ancient Romans designated spaces called vomitoria for the purpose of actual vomiting, as part of a binge and purge cycle.
According to Cicero, Julius Caesar once escaped an assassination attempt because he felt ill after dinner. Instead of going to the latrine, where his assassins were waiting for him, he went to his bedroom and avoided assassination; this may be the origin of the misconception. The actual term vomitorium does not appear until the 4th century CE, about 400 years after Caesar and Cicero; the dictionary definition of vomitorium at Wiktionary
In Roman times the cavea referred to the seating sections of Roman theatres and amphitheatres. The cavea is traditionally organised in three horizontal sections, corresponding to the social class of the spectators: The ima cavea is the lowest part of the cavea and the one directly surrounding the orchestra, it was preserved for the upper echelons of society. The media cavea directly follows the ima cavea and was open to the general public, though reserved for men; the summa cavea is the highest section and was open to women and children. The front row was called the prima cavea and the last row was called the cavea ultima; the cavea was further divided vertically into cunei. A cuneus was a wedge-shaped division separated by the scalae or stairways
Roman Theatre at Bosra
The Roman Theatre at Bosra is a large Ancient Roman theatre in Bosra, in the district of Dar'a in south-western Syria.:143 It was built in either the second quarter:53 or the second half of the second century AD,:143 and is constructed of black basalt.:141 It is that the theatre was built during the reign of Trajan. The theatre was built outside the walls of the town, but was completely enclosed by an Ayyūbid fortress.:141 The city of Bosra had its fortifications expanded between 481 and 1251. When integrated into the fortifications, its role was to serve as a citadel and to guard a road leading to Damascus; the theatre has seating for about 15,000 people. It is one of the best preserved both in Syria and across the Roman empire, it was restored between 1947 and 1970, before which it contained large quantities of sand, which may have helped to protect the interior.:141 As of July 2018, the site is still on the UNESCO's list of World Heritage in Danger. The theatre was added to the list in 2013.
The site has been damaged in the Syrian Civil War by various military activities conducted nearby. For instance, snipers have been active at the site. Media related to Roman Theatre at Bosra at Wikimedia Commons Video of the theatre – UNESCO/NHK Videos on Heritage
Parma is a city in the northern Italian region of Emilia-Romagna famous for its architecture, art, prosciutto and surrounding countryside. It is home to the University of Parma, one of the oldest universities in the world. Parma is divided into two parts by the stream of the same name; the district on the far side of the river is Oltretorrente. Parma's Etruscan name was adapted by Romans to describe the round shield called Parma; the Italian poet Attilio Bertolucci wrote: "As a capital city it had to have a river. As a little capital it received a stream, dry". Parma was a built-up area in the Bronze Age. In the current position of the city rose a terramare; the "terramare" were ancient villages built of wood on piles according to a defined scheme and squared form. During this age the first necropolis were constructed; the city was most founded and named by the Etruscans, for a parma was a Latin borrowing, as were many Roman terms for particular arms, Parmeal and Parmnial are names that appear in Etruscan inscriptions.
Diodorus Siculus reported that the Romans had changed their rectangular shields for round ones, imitating the Etruscans. Whether the Etruscan encampment was so named because it was round, like a shield, or whether its situation was a shield against the Gauls to the north, is uncertain; the Roman colony was founded in 183 BC, together with Mutina. Parma had a certain importance as a road hub over the Via Claudia, it had a forum, in. In 44 BC, the city was destroyed, Augustus rebuilt it. During the Roman Empire, it gained the title of Julia for its loyalty to the imperial house; the city was subsequently sacked by Attila, given by the Germanic king Odoacer to his followers. During the Gothic War, Totila destroyed it, it was part of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna and, from 569, of the Lombard Kingdom of Italy. During the Middle Ages, Parma became an important stage of the Via Francigena, the main road connecting Rome to Northern Europe. Under Frankish rule, Parma became the capital of a county. Like most northern Italian cities, it was nominally a part of the Holy Roman Empire created by Charlemagne, but locally ruled by its bishops, the first being Guibodus.
In the subsequent struggles between the Papacy and the Empire, Parma was a member of the Imperial party. Two of its bishops became antipopes: Càdalo, founder of the cathedral, as Honorius II. An independent commune was created around 1140. After the Peace of Constance confirmed the Italian communes' rights of self-governance, long-standing quarrels with the neighbouring communes of Reggio Emilia and Cremona became harsher, with the aim of controlling the vital trading line over the Po River; the struggle between Guelphs and Ghibellines was a feature of Parma too. In 1213, her podestà was the Guelph Rambertino Buvalelli. After a long stance alongside the emperors, the Papist families of the city gained control in 1248; the city was besieged in 1247–48 by Emperor Frederick II, however crushed in the battle that ensued. Parma fell under the control of Milan in 1341. After a short-lived period of independence under the Terzi family, the Sforza imposed their rule through their associated families of Pallavicino, Sanvitale and Da Correggio.
These created a kind of new feudalism, building castles throughout the city and the land. These fiefs evolved into independent states: the Landi governed the higher Taro's valley from 1257 to 1682; the Pallavicino seignory extended over the eastern part of today's province, with the capital in Busseto. Parma's territories were an exception for Northern Italy, as its feudal subdivision continued until more recent years. For example, Solignano was a Pallavicino family possession until 1805, San Secondo belonged to the Rossi well into the 19th century. Between the 14th and the 15th centuries, Parma was at the centre of the Italian Wars; the Battle of Fornovo was fought in its territory. The French held the city in 1500–1521, with a short Papal parenthesis in 1512–1515. After the foreigners were expelled, Parma belonged to the Papal States until 1545. In that year the Farnese pope, Paul III, detached Parma and Piacenza from the Papal States and gave them as a duchy to his illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, whose descendants ruled in Parma until 1731, when Antonio Farnese, last male of the Farnese line, died.
In 1594 a constitution was promulgated, the University enhanced and the Nobles' College founded. The war to reduce the barons' power continued for several years: in 1612 Barbara Sanseverino was executed in the central square of Parma, together with six other nobles charged of plotting against the duke. At the end of the 17th century, after the defeat of Pallavicini and Landi the Farnese duke could hold with firm hand all Parmense territor
Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases and solids including topics such as vibration, sound and infrasound. A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician while someone working in the field of acoustics technology may be called an acoustical engineer; the application of acoustics is present in all aspects of modern society with the most obvious being the audio and noise control industries. Hearing is one of the most crucial means of survival in the animal world, speech is one of the most distinctive characteristics of human development and culture. Accordingly, the science of acoustics spreads across many facets of human society—music, architecture, industrial production and more. Animal species such as songbirds and frogs use sound and hearing as a key element of mating rituals or marking territories. Art, craft and technology have provoked one another to advance the whole, as in many other fields of knowledge. Robert Bruce Lindsay's'Wheel of Acoustics' is a well accepted overview of the various fields in acoustics.
The word "acoustic" is derived from the Greek word ἀκουστικός, meaning "of or for hearing, ready to hear" and that from ἀκουστός, "heard, audible", which in turn derives from the verb ἀκούω, "I hear". The Latin synonym is "sonic", after which the term sonics used to be a synonym for acoustics and a branch of acoustics. Frequencies above and below the audible range are called "ultrasonic" and "infrasonic", respectively. In the 6th century BC, the ancient Greek philosopher Pythagoras wanted to know why some combinations of musical sounds seemed more beautiful than others, he found answers in terms of numerical ratios representing the harmonic overtone series on a string, he is reputed to have observed that when the lengths of vibrating strings are expressible as ratios of integers, the tones produced will be harmonious, the smaller the integers the more harmonious the sounds. If, for example, a string of a certain length would sound harmonious with a string of twice the length. In modern parlance, if a string sounds the note C when plucked, a string twice as long will sound a C an octave lower.
In one system of musical tuning, the tones in between are given by 16:9 for D, 8:5 for E, 3:2 for F, 4:3 for G, 6:5 for A, 16:15 for B, in ascending order. Aristotle understood that sound consisted of compressions and rarefactions of air which "falls upon and strikes the air, next to it...", a good expression of the nature of wave motion. In about 20 BC, the Roman architect and engineer Vitruvius wrote a treatise on the acoustic properties of theaters including discussion of interference and reverberation—the beginnings of architectural acoustics. In Book V of his De architectura Vitruvius describes sound as a wave comparable to a water wave extended to three dimensions, when interrupted by obstructions, would flow back and break up following waves, he described the ascending seats in ancient theaters as designed to prevent this deterioration of sound and recommended bronze vessels of appropriate sizes be placed in theaters to resonate with the fourth, fifth and so on, up to the double octave, in order to resonate with the more desirable, harmonious notes.
During the Islamic golden age, Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī is believed to postulated that the speed of sound was much slower than the speed of light. The physical understanding of acoustical processes advanced during and after the Scientific Revolution. Galileo Galilei but Marin Mersenne, discovered the complete laws of vibrating strings. Galileo wrote "Waves are produced by the vibrations of a sonorous body, which spread through the air, bringing to the tympanum of the ear a stimulus which the mind interprets as sound", a remarkable statement that points to the beginnings of physiological and psychological acoustics. Experimental measurements of the speed of sound in air were carried out between 1630 and 1680 by a number of investigators, prominently Mersenne. Meanwhile, Newton derived the relationship for wave velocity in solids, a cornerstone of physical acoustics; the eighteenth century saw major advances in acoustics as mathematicians applied the new techniques of calculus to elaborate theories of sound wave propagation.
In the nineteenth century the major figures of mathematical acoustics were Helmholtz in Germany, who consolidated the field of physiological acoustics, Lord Rayleigh in England, who combined the previous knowledge with his own copious contributions to the field in his monumental work The Theory of Sound. In the 19th century, Wheatstone and Henry developed the analogy between electricity and acoustics; the twentieth century saw a burgeoning of technological applications of the large body of scientific knowledge, by in place. The first such application was Sabine’s groundbreaking work in architectural acoustics, many others followed. Underwater acoustics was used for detecting submarines in the first World War. Sound recording and the telephone played important roles in a global transformation of society. Sound measurement and analysis reached new levels of accuracy and sophistication through the use of electronics and computing; the ultrasonic frequency range enabled wholly new kinds of application in industry.
New kinds of transducers were put to use. Acoustics is defined by ANSI/
An orchestra pit is the area in a theater in which musicians perform. Orchestral pits are utilized in forms of theatre that require music or in cases when incidental music is required; the conductor is positioned at the front of the orchestral pit facing the stage. An orchestra pit can be any size, but it is big enough to fit a small sized orchestra or other small ensemble. In the pit, the walls are specially designed to provide the best possible acoustics, ensuring that the sound of the orchestra flows through the entire venue without overwhelming the performance on stage. Many orchestra pits are designed to have reasonably low decibel levels, allowing musicians to work without fears of damaging their hearing. A small platform in the pit accommodates the conductor, so that he or she can be seen by all of the musicians, who may sit in chairs or on bleachers, depending on the design of the pit. Most pits are designed as a hydraulic lift, jackscrew lift, locking chain lift and pinion lift, scissors lift or other system that can be raised and lowered as needed.
The lift can be lowered all the way to a storage space under the stage, or halfway to floor level, or all the way up level with the stage. When lowered all the way, the lift can be filled with equipment or props from underneath the stage and raised and unloaded on stage; the pit can be raised so it is level with the floor of the audience seats to accommodate more seating area. This is common when the stage is being used for a rock show and the pit area is used for standing room; when the pit is raised all the way up, level with the stage, it can be used as part of the stage to give more room for larger shows. Having a lift set up this way gives the theatre much more flexibility and ability to adapt to different events that occur in the theatre, it allows each one personal to certain types of productions. An orchestra pit doesn't have to be located directly in front of the stage, although many patrons expect to see the orchestra performing in front of the stage. Earlier in theatre history from 1500–1650 the orchestra pit was called the yard and it was a lower level that lower-class members of the audience would stand to watch the show.
It was very crowded and hard to see the full stage. The amount of space in the yard varied with different stages. Everyone else would sit in the normal seating. Since the orchestra pit has been changed and enhanced to work better with modern theatre. Now orchestra pits have a lot of different uses. Sometimes when an opera or musical is being performed in the theatre and there is a need for live music the orchestra pit will be lowered all the way down and the musicians will play down in the pit in front of the stage; this way the director of the orchestra is able to see what is happening on stage and has a better feel for when to start and stop the music. Sometimes there are precise cues that director needs to give for certain sound effects and it is crucial that they are done at the right time. Having the orchestra play in the pit creates a problem because there is a lack of space and the sound quality suffers because instruments bleed into other instrument’s microphones when everyone is squeezed close together.
Before the 19th century the conductor stood at the stage edge, facing the audience and orchestra, with his back toward the onstage performers as shown in the Palais Garnier orchestra pit plan. During the late 19th century the typical conductor location changed. Now the conductor stands in front of the first row of audience, with his back to the audience, facing the orchestra and facing the performers on stage. Pit orchestra
San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.