The Prose Edda known as the Younger Edda, Snorri's Edda or simply as Edda, is an Old Norse work of literature written in Iceland during the early 13th century. The work is assumed to have been written, or at least compiled, by the Icelandic scholar and historian Snorri Sturluson c. 1220. It is considered the most detailed source for modern knowledge of Germanic mythology, it begins with a euhemerized Prologue, a section on the Norse cosmogony and myths. This is followed by three distinct books: Gylfaginning, Skáldskaparmál, Háttatal. Seven manuscripts, dating from c. 1300 to 1600, have independent textual value. Snorri planned the collection as a textbook, it was to enable Icelandic poets and readers to understand the subtleties of alliterative verse, to grasp the meaning behind the many kenningar that were used in skaldic poetry. The Prose Edda was referred to as Edda, but was titled the Prose Edda in modern collections to distinguish it from the collections titled Poetic Edda that are based on Codex Regius, a collection of poetry composed after Edda in 13th century Iceland.
At that time, versions of the Edda were well known in Iceland, but scholars speculated that there once was an Elder Edda which contained the poems which Snorri quotes in his Edda. The etymology of "Edda" remains uncertain; some argue that the word derives from the name of Oddi, a town in the south of Iceland where Snorri was raised. Edda could therefore mean "book of Oddi." However, this assumption is rejected. Faulkes in his English translation of the Prose Edda commented that this is "unlikely, both in terms of linguistics and history" since Snorri was no longer living at Oddi when he composed his work. Another connection was made with the word "óðr", which means "inspiration" in Old Norse. According to Faulkes, though such a connection is plausible semantically, it is unlikely that "Edda" could have been coined in the 13th century on the basis of "óðr", because such a development "would have had to have taken place gradually", "Edda" in the sense of "poetics" is not to have existed in the preliterary period.
Edda means "great-grandparent", a word used by Snorri himself in the Skáldskaparmál. That is, with the same meaning, the name of a character in the Rigsthula and other medieval texts; this hypothesis has attracted François-Xavier Dillmann, author of a French translation of the Edda, who said "it seems that this person's name was chosen as the title of the work due to the fact that it was a collection of ancient knowledge" or, in the words of Régis Boyer, the "grandparent of all sacred knowledge". A final hypothesis is derived from the Latin "edo", meaning "I write", it relies on the fact that the word "kredda" is certified and comes from the Latin "credo", "I believe." It seems Snorri would have been able to invent the word. Edda in this case could be translated as "Poetic Art"; this is the meaning that the word was given in the Middle Ages. The name Sæmundar Edda was given by the Bishop Brynjólfur Sveinsson to the collection of poems contained in the Codex Regius, many of which are quoted by Snorri.
Brynjólfur, along with many others of his time incorrectly believed that they were collected by Sæmundr fróði, so the Poetic Edda is known as the Elder Edda. Seven manuscripts of the Edda have survived: six copies from the Middle Ages and another dating to the 1600s. No one manuscript is complete, each has variations. In addition to three fragments, the four main manuscripts are Codex Regius, Codex Wormianus, Codex Trajectinus, the Codex Upsaliensis. Codex Upsaliensis was composed in the first quarter of the fourteenth century and is the oldest manuscript preserved of the Edda of Snorri, it has the advantage of providing some variants that are not found in any of the three other major manuscripts. It is preserved in the library of the University of Uppsala; the Codex Regius was written in the first half of the fourteenth century. It is the most comprehensive of the four manuscripts, seems closer to the original; this is why it is the basis for translations of the Edda. Its name is derived from its conservation in the Royal Library of Denmark for several centuries.
From 1973 to 1997, hundreds of ancient Icelandic manuscripts were returned from Denmark to Iceland, including, in 1985, the Codex Regius, now preserved by the Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies in Reykjavík. Codex Wormianus was written in the mid-fourteenth century, it is still part of the Arnamagnæan Manuscript Collection created by Árni Magnússon, in Copenhagen. Codex Trajectinus was written c. 1600. It is a copy of a manuscript, made in the second half of the thirteenth century, it is preserved in the library of the University of Utrecht. Although some scholars have doubted whether a sound stemma of the manuscripts can be created, due to the possibility of scribes drawing on multiple exemplars or from memory, recent work has found that the main sources of each manuscript can be readily ascertained; the Edda remained unknown outside of Iceland until the publication of the Edda Islandorum in 1665. The assumption that Snorri Sturluson is responsible for writing the Edda is based on the following paragraph from a portion of Codex Upsaliensis, an early 14th-century manuscript containing the
This is the list of awards and nominations received by Taiwanese singer Jay Chou. The Golden Horse Awards are presented annually by the Government Information Office of Republic of China, it recognises achievement in filmmaking and is Taiwan's equivalent to Academy Awards and BAFTA. The Golden Melody Awards are presented annually by the Government Information Office of Republic of China, it is Taiwan's equivalent to the Grammy Awards. Since his debut in 2000, he has received 15 awards from 49 nominations; the Hong Kong Film Awards, founded in 1982 and presented annually in April, recognizes achievement in filmmaking and is Hong Kong's equivalent to Academy Awards and BAFTA. The MTV Movie & TV Awards is a film and television awards show presented annually on MTV; the World Music Awards is an international awards show founded in 1989 that annually honors recording artists based on worldwide sales figures provided by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. MTV VMAJ was started in 2002
Milan Todorović is a Serbian film director and producer, best known as the creator of the first Serbian zombie movie, Zone of the Dead. He finished film school for directing at the Center for Visual Communications Kvadrat in Belgrade and on graduated with a degree in Film and TV Production from the Faculty of Dramatic Arts in Belgrade in 2006. Todorović worked as the producer and the director on several short films prior to founding his own production company. Since 2005, he is the head of Talking Wolf Productions, a film production company, which he co-founded with Vukota Brajovic. In 2009, he conceived, produced and co-directed with Milan Konjević feature horror film Zone of the Dead, starring Ken Foree, for which he has been awarded as the best producer of the year at the "Producers' Day" ceremony held by the Faculty of Dramatic Arts, Belgrade. Zone of the Dead Mamula Tapavica "The Outpost" Luconosa best producer of the year
Fun on Earth is the fifth studio album by English musician Roger Taylor, best known as the drummer in British rock band Queen, released on 11 November 2013 through Virgin EMI in the United Kingdom and Hollywood Records in America. It was recorded in late 2008 and throughout 2009, after the conclusion of Queen + Paul Rodgers' Rock the Cosmos Tour, was continued after the collaboration ended, it was the first album he had worked on since 2008's The Cosmos Rocks with Queen + Paul Rodgers, his first solo album since 1998's Electric Fire. Taylor began recording his new studio album in late 2008, a few months before the breakup of Queen + Paul Rodgers. News was first published regarding the new album on Queen's website on 17 November 2009. Regarding the release of the album's lead single, Taylor said: "What happened to the protest song? Music is now so polished and predictable, we have forgotten to try and say something with it. I am getting old and like everyone, have the right to say something about the "state of control" we live under - powerless to do anything about it.
In case you hadn't noticed. The high street is full of holes. We are fighting a pointless negative war, killing our young soldiers and which we cannot afford; this war prolongs terrorism. This is our Vietnam. Unwinnable. Pointless. We are taxed and retaxed while the nation is not only broke but utterly bankrupt, being propped up with tax payers' money and money, printed. We are spied upon by 5 million cameras. We have thousands of petty rules and regulations more than before – no wonder people are bewildered and confused; as a nation we own nothing including water, gas and major manufacturers. Personal privacy is non-existent. We are directionless. I'm pissed off – you should be too."Taylor confirmed in an interview in 2011 that The Unblinking Eye would be released in 2012. The album did not appear in 2012, Taylor announced that it would see release in 2013, with the fans choosing which songs will appear on the album in late 2012. Taylor stated that the album is recorded and mastered but the release date is set in October along with his solo collection, The Lot.
In a press announcement on 11 October 2013, it was announced that both Fun On Earth and The Lot would be released on 11 November 2013. All tracks are written except where noted. MusiciansRoger Taylor – vocals, percussion, piano, bass guitar, stylophone Jeff Beck – guitar Spike Edney – keyboards Jason Falloon – guitar Steve Hamilton – saxophone Kevin Jefferies – bass Jonathan Perkins – organ, backing vocals Nicola Robins – violin Steve Stroud – bass Rufus Taylor – drums, piano Technical personnelRoger Taylor – production Josh Macrae – production, engineering Official music video on YouTube
Evander Holyfield vs. Riddick Bowe was a professional boxing match that took place on November 13, 1992 in Las Vegas, Nevada; the fight was contested for the undisputed world heavyweight championship, which consisted of the WBA, WBC, IBF and Lineal championships. On October 25, 1990, world #1 contender Holyfield fought Buster Douglas in the first defense of the title Douglas won eight months earlier by upsetting Mike Tyson in Tokyo. Holyfield defeated an out-of-shape Douglas by knocking him out in the third round, had made three defenses of his title entering this fight; the first was against George Foreman, the former champion, attempting a comeback and to become the oldest heavyweight champion ever. After winning a unanimous decision Holyfield signed to fight Tyson on November 8, 1991, but Tyson pulled out with an injury. Instead, Holyfield took on journeyman Bert Cooper and suffered his first career knockdown, nearly falling to defeat before rallying to knock out the regarded contender in a fight the WBC refused to sanction as a title fight.
The Tyson fight was scuttled altogether after Tyson was convicted of rape and incarcerated in early 1992. With Holyfield in need of an opponent, undefeated Riddick Bowe emerged as the frontrunner to land the next shot at Holyfield's Undisputed championship. Holyfield's manager Shelly Finkel and Bowe's manager Rock Newman were nearly able to get a deal done shortly after Tyson's conviction, but it fell apart after the two sides could not agree on financial issues. Bowe landed a number-one contendership match with Pierre Coetzer, which he won by seventh round technical knockout, earning the right to challenge Holyfield for his Undisputed Heavyweight championship. Meanwhile, Holyfield took a tune up fight in June 1992 against another aging former champion in Larry Holmes. Although the 43-year-old Holmes had won six consecutive fights after recording what were his only career losses to that point and went the distance with the champion, Holyfield emerged with another unanimous decision win. Afterwards he faced criticism for taking the title from an uninterested Douglas and defending it against two past-their-prime fighters in Foreman and Holmes and nearly getting knocked out by the journeyman Cooper.
As a result, some in the boxing world looked at Holyfield's match with Bowe as a way for the champion to legitimize his championship reign and earn the respect of his doubters despite his two-year reign as champion. In what would become one of the greatest heavyweight boxing matches of all time, Bowe defeated Holyfield by unanimous decision, winning all three judge's scorecards by scores of 117–110, 117–110 and 115–112. Though he had been a 7–5 favorite, Holyfield had difficulty trading punches with the bigger and younger Bowe, Bowe landed 53% of his 248 thrown punches while Holyfield only managed to land 39% of his 161 thrown; the fight is best known for its round 10. In round 10 Bowe came out strong. Holyfield, was able to weather the storm and dominated the second half of the round, landing several combinations of his own. Bowe would dominate round 11, hitting an exhausted Holyfield with more combinations hitting Holyfield with a right hook before knocking Holyfield down with a right hand to the side of the head.
Though announcer Jim Lampley claimed it would "seem like a miracle" for Holyfield to finish the round, Holyfield somehow managed to survive the remainder of the round. Knowing he was behind in the scorecards and would need a knockout to win the fight, Holyfield was aggressive in round 12, Bowe was able to withstand Holyfield's offense throughout the round and was named the new Heavyweight champion via unanimous decision thereafter; the match was critically acclaimed, winning The Ring magazine's Fight of the Year with round 10 of the fight winning the magazine's Round of the Year. Only a month Bowe would vacate his WBC Heavyweight Championship after refusing to fight number one contender Lennox Lewis after the two sides coundn't agree on a split for the fight's $32 million purse, as a result this marked the last time that the Undisputed Heavyweight Championship was contested for 6 years & 4 months until Lewis and Holyfield met in 1999, he would keep his WBA and IBF Heavyweight titles and would defend them in easy victories against Michael Dokes and Jesse Ferguson.
After much anticipation and Holyfield would meet in a rematch on November 6, 1993 for Bowe's Heavyweight championship. The duo again went 12 rounds with Holyfield earning the victory via majority decision
Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site is a 9.65-acre United States National Historic Site located 10 miles southwest of Downtown St. Louis, Missouri within the municipality of Grantwood Village; the site known as White Haven, commemorates the life, military career, Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant. Five historic structures are preserved at the site including the childhood home of Julia Dent Grant, wife of Ulysses S. Grant. White Haven was a plantation worked by slaves at the time Grant was married to his wife in 1848 and remained so until the end of the American Civil War. After his marriage to Julia, Grant was stationed in New York. Julia traveled with him to these posts, returning to White Haven in 1850 for the birth of their first child, Fred, in 1850; when Ulysses was sent west in 1852, Julia was not able to go with him, being pregnant with their second child. She returned to her parents' home after stopping at Ulysses' parents' home in Ohio, where Ulysses Jr. was born. Grant's army pay was insufficient to bring his family out to the West Coast, he tried several business ventures to supplement his income.
Suffering from depression and loneliness after being separated for two years, Grant resigned from the army in 1854 and returned to White Haven. Grant farmed the White Haven property for his father-in-law, working with the slaves owned by Julia's father. Two more children were born, born on July 4, 1855, Jesse, in February 1858. Due to a financial panic in 1857, along with bad weather that destroyed many farmer's crops, Ulysses worked for a short time in the city of St. Louis in real estate and as an engineer. In 1860, Ulysses and their four children moved to Galena, Illinois. Ulysses worked with his brothers selling leather goods made in their father's tannery. Many visitors to Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site are surprised to learn that slaves lived and worked on the nineteenth century farm known as White Haven. According to the National Park Service, during the 1850s slave labor "was used extensively in the farming and maintenance of the 850-acre plantation." From 1854 to 1859 Grant lived here with his wife and their children, managing the farm for his father-in-law, Colonel Dent.
At that time no one suspected that Grant would rise from obscurity to achieve the success he gained during the Civil War. However, his experience working alongside the White Haven slaves may have influenced him in his roles as the Union general who won the war which abolished that "peculiar institution," and as President of the United States; the interpretation of slavery at White Haven is therefore an important part of the mission of this historic site. Most slaveholders in Missouri owned few slaves. In the southeastern Bootheel area and along the fertile Missouri River valley known as "little Dixie," large, single-crop plantations predominated, with an intensive use of slave labor. Elsewhere in the state, large farms produced a variety of staples, including hemp, oats and corn. On many of these estates the owner worked alongside his slaves to harvest the greatest economic benefit from the land. Slavery was less entrenched in the city of St. Louis, where the African American population was 2% in 1860, down from 25% in 1830.
Slaves were "hired out" by their masters in return for an agreed upon wage. A portion of the wage was sometimes paid to slaves, allowing a measure of self-determination and in some cases the opportunity to purchase their freedom; each of the farm's early residents owned slaves during their tenure on the Gravois property. When Theodore and Anne Lucas Hunt purchased William Lindsay Long's home in 1818, there existed "several good log cabins" on the property—potential quarters for the five slaves purchased earlier by Hunt; the work of Walace, Lydia and Adie would be an important part of the Hunts' farming venture. The Hunts sold the Gravois property to Frederick Dent in 1820, for the sum of $6,000. Naming the property "White Haven" after his family home in Maryland, Colonel Dent considered himself a Southern gentleman with slaves to do the manual labor of caring for the plantation. By the 1850s, eighteen slaves worked at White Haven. In 1830, half of the Dent slaves were under the age of ten. Henrietta, Sue and Jeff, among others, played with the Dent children.
Julia Dent recalled that they fished for minnows, climbed trees for bird nests, gathered strawberries. However, the slave children had chores such as feeding chickens and cows, they mastered their assigned tasks as the white children went off to school. Returning home from boarding school, Julia noted the transition from playmate to servant, she noted that the slave girls had "attained the dignity of white aprons." These aprons symbolized slave servitude, a departure from the less structured days of childhood play. Adult slaves performed many household chores on the Dent plantation. Kitty and Rose served as nurses to Emma, while Mary Robinson became the family cook; the wide variety of foods prepared in her kitchen were praised by Julia: "Such loaves of beautiful snowy cake, such plates full of delicious Maryland biscuit, such exquisite custards and puddings, such omelettes, gumbo soup, fritters." A male slave named "Old Bob," who traveled with the Dents from Maryland in 1816, had the responsibility to keep the fires going in White Haven's seven fireplaces.
Julia thought Bob was careless to allow the embers to die out, as this forced him "to walk a mile to some neighbors and bring home a brand of fire from their backlog." Such "carelessness" provided many other slaves an opportunity to escape their masters' eyes. Slave labor was used extensively in the farming and maintenance of the 850-acre plantati