Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with an estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens at the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn has several bridge and tunnel connections to the borough of Manhattan across the East River, the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connects Staten Island. Since 1896, Brooklyn has been coterminous with Kings County, the most populous county in the U. S. state of New York and the second-most densely populated county in the United States, after New York County. With a land area of 71 square miles and water area of 26 square miles, Kings County is New York state's fourth-smallest county by land area and third-smallest by total area, though it is the second-largest among the city's five boroughs. Today, if each borough were ranked as a city, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous in the U. S. after Los Angeles and Chicago. Brooklyn was an independent incorporated city until January 1, 1898, after a long political campaign and public relations battle during the 1890s, according to the new Municipal Charter of "Greater New York", Brooklyn was consolidated with the other cities and counties to form the modern City of New York, surrounding the Upper New York Bay with five constituent boroughs.
The borough continues, however. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves. Brooklyn's official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght, which translates from early modern Dutch as "Unity makes strength". In the first decades of the 21st century, Brooklyn has experienced a renaissance as an avant garde destination for hipsters, with concomitant gentrification, dramatic house price increases, a decrease in housing affordability. Since the 2010s, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, of postmodern art and design; the name Brooklyn is derived from the original Dutch colonial name Breuckelen, meaning marshland. Established in 1646, the name first appeared in print in 1663; the Dutch colonists named it after the scenic town of Netherlands. Over the past two millennia, the name of the ancient town in Holland has been Bracola, Brocckede, Brocklandia, Broikelen and Breukelen; the New Amsterdam settlement of Breuckelen went through many spelling variations, including Breucklyn, Brucklyn, Brookland, Brockland and Brookline/Brook-line.
There have been so many variations of the name. The final name of Brooklyn, however, is the most accurate to its meaning; the history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years. The settlement began in the 17th century as the small Dutch-founded town of "Breuckelen" on the East River shore of Long Island, grew to be a sizeable city in the 19th century, was consolidated in 1898 with New York City, the remaining rural areas of Kings County, the rural areas of Queens and Staten Island, to form the modern City of New York; the etymology of Breuckelen may be directly from the dialect word Breuckelen meaning buckle or from the Plattdeutsch Brücken meaning bridge. The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle Long Island's western edge, largely inhabited by the Lenape, an Algonquian-speaking American Indian tribe who are referred to in colonial documents by a variation of the place name "Canarsie". Bands were associated with place names, but the colonists thought their names represented different tribes.
The Breuckelen settlement was named after Breukelen in the Netherlands. The Dutch West India Company lost little time in chartering the six original parishes: Gravesend: in 1645, settled under Dutch patent by English followers of Anabaptist Lady Deborah Moody, named for's-Gravenzande, Netherlands, or Gravesend, England Brooklyn Heights: as Breuckelen in 1646, after the town now spelled Breukelen, Netherlands. Breuckelen was located along Fulton Street between Smith Street. Brooklyn Heights, or Clover Hill, is where the village Brooklyn was founded in 1816. Flatlands: as Nieuw Amersfoort in 1647 Flatbush: as Midwout in 1652 Nieuw Utrecht: in 1657, after the city of Utrecht, Netherlands Bushwick: as Boswijck in 1661 The colony's capital of New Amsterdam, across the East River, obtained its charter in 1653 than the village of Brooklyn; the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North America's first tide mill. It was built by the Dutch, the foundation can be seen today, but the area was not formally settled as a town.
Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furman's 1824 compilation. What is Brooklyn today left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War. New Netherland was taken in a naval action, the conquerors renamed their prize in honor of the overall English naval commander, Duke of York, brother of the monarch King Charles II of England and future king himself as King James II of England and James VII of Scotland; the English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1, 1683, one of the "original twelve counties" established in New York Pro
BMT Fourth Avenue Line
The BMT Fourth Avenue Line is a rapid transit line of the New York City Subway running under Fourth Avenue in Brooklyn. The line is served by the D, N, R at all times, a few rush-hour W trains; the R and W run local while the D and N run express at all times except late nights, when they run local. The line was built by the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company and is now internally operated as part of the New York City Subway's B Division; the underground line starts as a two-track line in Downtown Brooklyn west of Court Street, connecting to the BMT Broadway Line and BMT Nassau Street Line in Manhattan via the Montague Street Tunnel under the East River. It travels east under Montague and Willoughby Streets to DeKalb Avenue, where it turns southeast under Flatbush Avenue. At DeKalb Avenue, the express tracks, which continue from the Manhattan Bridge to the northwest, split off from the BMT Brighton Line and join the Fourth Avenue Line. At Atlantic Avenue–Barclays Center, the line curves southwest under Fourth Avenue to the end of the line at Bay Ridge–95th Street.
Going south from Atlantic Avenue, the BMT West End Line splits from both the local and express tracks south of 36th Street, while the express tracks continue as the BMT Sea Beach Line south of 59th Street. Fourth Avenue never had a streetcar line or elevated railway due to the provisions of the assessment charged to neighboring property owners when the street was widened. Construction of the line was only undertaken because of the efforts of the local communities. After the line was opened, development resulting from the line's construction transformed communities such as Dyker Heights, Fort Hamilton and Bay Ridge. One station, Myrtle Avenue, was abandoned in 1956 as part of the reconfiguration of the busy DeKalb Avenue Junction. Coming south from DeKalb Avenue and off of Fulton Street, the four-track line runs under Fourth Avenue to just past 59th Street. South of 36th Street, the West End Line the New Utrecht Avenue elevated line, branches off eastwards, running to its terminus at Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue.
Until 1954, the BMT Culver Line branched off from here, replaced by the Culver Shuttle until 1975, when it was discontinued. At 64th Street, after the Sea Beach Line branches off eastwards towards Coney Island via an open-cut right-of-way, the line becomes two-tracked and continues under Fourth Avenue to its terminus at Bay Ridge–95th Street. While this section of the line was built with two tracks, there are provisions to add two additional express tracks between 59th and 85th Streets if the need arises. In its upper section, the line serves Brooklyn Heights and Downtown Brooklyn; the central section serves Park Slope east of Fourth Avenue, on the west side, Boerum Hill Gowanus. In its lower section, it serves the communities of Fort Hamilton; the following services use the Fourth Avenue Line: The line carries the Fourth Avenue R service on the local tracks and the Sea Beach N and West End D services on the express tracks. During weekdays, three local N trains per day, in each direction, are designated as W. Manhattan-bound from DeKalb Avenue, the local tracks run via the Montague Street Tunnel to Lower Manhattan, serving either Whitehall Street on the BMT Broadway Line or Broad Street on the BMT Nassau Street Line.
The express tracks go to Manhattan via the Manhattan Bridge to either the BMT Broadway Line's Canal Street express station or the IND Sixth Avenue Line's Grand Street station. Transportation to the area was first provided in 1889 with the establishment of the 39th Street Ferry, which connected the area to Manhattan. Between 1888 and 1893, a new elevated line was opened along Fifth Avenue; the line terminated at 27th Street where people could transfer to horse cars. In 1892, the first trolley line was built in Brooklyn, starting at the ferry and running via Second Avenue to 65th Street, via Third Avenue; the Fifth Avenue Elevated was extended to Third Avenue and 65th Street. A building boom in South Brooklyn started in about 1902 and 1903. Thousands of people started coming from other places. In 1905 and 1906 realty values increased by about 100 percent, land values increased; this growth was spurred by the promise of improved transportation access. The improved transportation access transformed the community from an isolated farm community to a center of industrial and commercial life.
The Fourth Avenue Line was built as part of the Dual Contracts. It replaced the parallel elements of an old, now long-ago-demolished elevated system running above Fifth Avenue and Third Avenue. In 1902, a committee of the West End Board of Trade announced their support for a subway line from the Battery to Coney Island via Atlantic or Hamilton Avenues in front of the Rapid Transit Commission. On April 10, 1905, a citizens' committee was created to aid the creation of the subway line. In 1906, the plan for the Fourth Avenue subway included a spur via 86th Street running through Dyker Heights and Bensonhurst. At this time the spur was not authorized, but at the time it was viewed as a necessary part of the transportation plan for the area; the line was planned as a four-track line from Dean Street to Fort Hamilton, before being fed by a subway line going under the East River, by a line over the Manhattan Bridge. An additional two-track spur was to begin at 37th Street before running under private property and 38th Street, before connecting with the South Brooklyn Railway.
An additional two-track spur would branch off between 63rd and 64th Streets before connecting with the Sea Beach Railway. South
Park Slope is a neighborhood in northwest Brooklyn, New York City. Park Slope is bounded by Prospect Park and Prospect Park West to the east, Fourth Avenue to the west, Flatbush Avenue to the north, Prospect Expressway to the south; the section from Flatbush Avenue to Garfield Place is considered the "North Slope", the section from 1st through 9th Streets is considered the "Center Slope", south of 10th Street, the "South Slope". The neighborhood takes its name from its location on the western slope of neighboring Prospect Park. Fifth Avenue and Seventh Avenue are its primary commercial streets, while its east-west side streets are lined with brownstones and apartment buildings. Park Slope features historic buildings, top-rated restaurants and shops, as well as proximity to Prospect Park, the Brooklyn Academy of Music, the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, the Brooklyn Museum, the Brooklyn Conservatory of Music, the Central Library as well as the Park Slope branch of the Brooklyn Public Library system.
The neighborhood had a population of about 62,200 as of the 2000 census, resulting in a population density of 68,000/square mile, or 26,000/square kilometer. Park Slope is considered one of New York City's most desirable neighborhoods. In 2010, it was ranked number 1 in New York by New York Magazine, citing its quality public schools, nightlife, access to public transit, green space and creative capital, among other aspects, it was named one of the "Greatest Neighborhoods in America" by the American Planning Association in 2007, "for its architectural and historical features and its diverse mix of residents and businesses, all of which are supported and preserved by its active and involved citizenry." In December 2006, Natural Home magazine named Park Slope one of America's ten best neighborhoods based on criteria including parks, green spaces and neighborhood gathering spaces. Park Slope is part of Brooklyn Community District 6, its primary ZIP Codes are 11215 and 11217, it is patrolled by the 78th Precinct of the New York City Police Department.
Politically it is represented by the New York City Council's 33rd and 39th Districts. The area that today comprises the neighborhood of Park Slope was first inhabited by the Native Americans of the Lenape people; the Dutch farmed the region for more than 200 years. During the American Revolutionary War, on August 27, 1776, the Park Slope area served as the backdrop for the beginning of the Battle of Long Island. In this battle, over 10,000 British soldiers and Hessian mercenaries routed outnumbered American forces; the historic site of Battle Pass is now preserved in Prospect Park, on Fifth Avenue there is a reconstruction of the stone farmhouse where a countercharge covered the American retreat. In the 1850s, a local lawyer and railroad developer named Edwin Clarke Litchfield purchased large tracts of what was farmland. Through the American Civil War era, he sold off much of his land to residential developers. During the 1860s, the City of Brooklyn purchased his estate and adjoining property to complete the West Drive and the southern portion of the Long Meadow in Prospect Park.
However, Park Slope’s bucolic period ended soon after. By the late 1870s, with horse-drawn rail cars running to the park and the ferry, bringing many rich New Yorkers in the process, urban sprawl changed the neighborhood into a streetcar suburb. Many of the large Victorian mansions on Prospect Park West, known as the Gold Coast, were built in the 1880s and 1890s to take advantage of the beautiful park views. Today, many of these buildings are preserved within the Park Slope Historic District. Containing 2,575 buildings stretching over part or all of around 40 city blocks, the historic district is New York's largest landmarked neighborhood. Early colloquial names for the neighborhood included "Prospect Heights", "Prospect Hill", "Park Hill Side", before residents settled on Park Slope. By 1883, with the opening of the Brooklyn Bridge, Park Slope continued to boom and subsequent brick and brownstone structures pushed the neighborhood's borders farther; the 1890 census showed Park Slope to be the richest community in the United States.
In 1892, President Grover Cleveland presided over the unveiling of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Arch at Grand Army Plaza, a notable Park Slope landmark. The Park Slope Armory was completed in 1893. Nearby, Old Stone House is a 1930 reconstruction of the Vechte-Cortelyou House, destroyed in 1897, it is located beside the former Gowanus Creek. Realtors and community members saw a clear connection between Park Slope's bucolic setting and the comfort of living there; as the New York Tribune wrote in 1899, "Nature set the park down where it is, man has embellished her work in laying out great lawns and artificial lakes, in bringing together menageries and creating conservatories, in making roads and driveways, in doing everything in his power to make the place a pleasant pleasure ground and a charming resort." Baseball had played a prominent role in the history of the Park Slope area. From 1879 to 1889, the Brooklyn Atlantics played at Washington Park on 5th Avenue between 3rd and 4th Streets; when the park was destroyed by a fire, the team moved to their part-time home in Ridgewood, Queens and to a park in East New York.
In 1898, the "New" Washington Park was built between Third and Fourth Avenues and between First and Third Streets near the Gowanus Canal. Th
N (New York City Subway service)
The N Broadway Express is a rapid transit service in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored yellow; the N operates at all times between Astoria–Ditmars Boulevard in Astoria and Stillwell Avenue in Coney Island, Brooklyn. The N uses the BMT Astoria Line in Queens, the south side of the Manhattan Bridge, BMT Fourth Avenue Line and BMT Sea Beach Line in Brooklyn. North of 57th Street, limited rush hour service operates via the Second Avenue Subway to and from 96th Street on the Upper East Side, instead of Queens. During the daytime on weekdays, the N runs express between 34th Street–Herald Square in Manhattan and 36th Street in Brooklyn and local elsewhere. Local service in Manhattan is provided by the W, internally staffed and scheduled as part of the N. Weekend daytime service is the same as weekday service, except that it operates local in Manhattan between 34th and Canal Streets. During late nights, the N makes local stops along its entire route and uses the Montague Street Tunnel to travel between Manhattan and Brooklyn.
The N was the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation's 4 service, running along the BMT Sea Beach Line to the Manhattan Bridge. The 4 used the BMT Nassau Street Line in Lower Manhattan from 1915 to 1917, after which it ran express on the BMT Broadway Line; the 4 became the N in 1961. The N ran local in Queens along the IND Queens Boulevard Line to Forest Hills–71st Avenue from 1976 until 1987, when it switched terminals with the R. From 1986 to 2004, reconstruction on the Manhattan Bridge forced the N to run local on the Broadway Line via the Montague Street Tunnel; the route, now the N was BMT service 4, known as the Sea Beach Line or Sea Beach Express. On June 22, 1915, the current BMT Sea Beach Line opened, replacing a street level "el" that branched off of the Fifth Avenue El with the former BMT West End Line, it used the south tracks of the Manhattan Bridge, which at that time connected to the BMT Nassau Street Line. On September 4, 1917, the first part of the BMT Broadway Line and the north side tracks of the Manhattan Bridge opened.
Trains ran from 14th Street–Union Square to Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue, now using the bridge's northern tracks. On January 15, 1918, service was extended to Times Square–42nd Street. On May 2, 1957, service was extended north via the express tracks to 57th Street–Seventh Avenue. In 1959, trains began stopping at DeKalb Avenue during midday hours, they bypassed DeKalb Avenue at all times except late nights. Beginning on January 1, 1961, trains bypassed DeKalb Avenue during rush hours only. In addition, on weekday evenings, late nights, all day Sundays, they ran local on the BMT Fourth Avenue Line; the N designation began to appear when R27 subway cars were moved to the service in April 1961. The NX designation was used for a rush hour peak-direction "super-express" service along the express tracks of the Sea Beach Line, beginning at Brighton Beach on the BMT Brighton Line, running through Coney Island, following the N route to 57th Street–Seventh Avenue; this short-lived service ended April 12, 1968 due to low ridership.
Starting on Monday, April 15, 1968, the five NX trips instead ran as N trips. On August 30, 1976, weekday N service was extended north over the BMT 60th Street Tunnel Connection to Forest Hills–71st Avenue to replace the discontinued EE. While many N trains ran the full route from Coney Island to 71st Avenue, via the Manhattan Bridge and Broadway Express, some trains ran local during the rush hours only between Whitehall Street–South Ferry in Lower Manhattan and Forest Hills–71st Avenue, the former EE route. On August 27, 1977, N service was cut back during late nights, only operating between 36th Street and Coney Island. Reconstruction of the Manhattan Bridge between 1986 and 2004 disrupted N service rerouting it via the Montague Street Tunnel. On April 26, 1986, the north side tracks were closed and services that ran on them were moved to the south side, running via the BMT Broadway Line; because of the large amount of train traffic now running on those tracks, rush hour and midday N service was rerouted via the Montague Street Tunnel, making local stops in Manhattan and Brooklyn, though evening and weekend trains continued to use the bridge and express tracks in Brooklyn.
The M, rerouted from the BMT Brighton Line to the BMT West End Line, replaced the N as the weekday express on the Fourth Avenue Line. On May 24, 1987, the N swapped northern terminals with the R; the N was switched to Astoria -- Ditmars Boulevard. This was done to give the R direct access to Jamaica Yard; this change was intended to improve the appearance and reliability of service on the R, since all trains on the Astoria and Broadway Lines were part of the graffiti-free program. When the north side of the Manhattan Bridge reopened and the south side was closed on December 11, 1988, the N began running local in Manhattan and via the Montague Tunnel at all times. Trains continued to run express in Brooklyn between Pacific Street and 59th Street/Fourth Avenue evenings and weekends; the Transit Authority and politicians pressured the New York State Department of Transportation to resume N train service on the bridge's south side on September 30, 1990, despite warnings from engineers
B63 (New York City bus)
The Fifth Avenue Line is a public transit line in Brooklyn, New York City, United States, running along Fifth Avenue and Atlantic Avenue between Fort Hamilton and Cobble Hill. A streetcar line, it is now the B63 Fifth/Atlantic Avenues bus route, operated by the New York City Transit Authority; the B63 bus route begins at Shore Road and Fourth Avenue in Fort Hamilton, heads north on Fourth Avenue, splitting onto Fifth Avenue at 94th Street. Fifth Avenue is followed through Bay Ridge, Sunset Park, Gowanus to Park Slope, where buses turn northwest on Flatbush Avenue and west on Atlantic Avenue to South Ferry. Along the way, subway connections can be made at Bay Ridge – 95th Street, Fourth Avenue – Ninth Street, Atlantic Avenue – Barclays Center, as well as the Long Island Rail Road's Atlantic Branch at Atlantic Terminal; the Brooklyn Central and Jamaica Railroad opened the line along Fifth Avenue, from its Atlantic Avenue Line south to 24th Street at Greenwood Cemetery, on August 28, 1860. The Brooklyn and Coney Island Rail Road opened on October 5, 1863, running steam dummies from Fifth Avenue and 36th Street south to 37th Street, east on 37th Street and south towards Coney Island.
At the same time, the Central Railroad extended its Fifth Avenue Line south to 36th Street. The Atlantic Avenue Railroad, the Central's successor, gained control of the Brooklyn and West End Railroad, the BB&CI's successor, in January 1893, soon changed it to an electric trolley line; the Nassau Electric Railroad was incorporated in 1893, its plans included the east-west Church Avenue Line along 39th Street and a branch south along Fifth Avenue into New Utrecht. The Nassau Electric leased the Atlantic Avenue on April 5, 1896, opened their Fifth Avenue Line that day as an extension of the Atlantic Avenue's line all the way to Fort Hamilton. Buses were substituted for streetcars on February 20, 1949
A metro station or subway station is a railway station for a rapid transit system, which as a whole is called a "metro" or "subway". A station provides a means for passengers to purchase tickets, board trains, evacuate the system in the case of an emergency; the location of a metro station is planned to provide easy access to important urban facilities such as roads, commercial centres, major buildings and other transport nodes. Most stations are located underground, with entrances/exits leading up to street level; the bulk of the station is positioned under land reserved for public thoroughfares or parks. Placing the station underground reduces the outside area occupied by the station, allowing vehicles and pedestrians to continue using the ground-level area in a similar way as before the station's construction; this is important where the station is serving high-density urban precincts, where ground-level spaces are heavily utilised. In other cases, a station may be elevated above a road, or at ground level depending on the level of the train tracks.
The physical and economic impact of the station and its operations will be greater. Planners will take metro lines or parts of lines at or above ground where urban density decreases, extending the system further for less cost. Metros are most used in urban cities, with great populations. Alternatively, a preexisting railway land corridor is re-purposed for rapid transit. At street level the logo of the metro company marks the entrances/exits of the station. Signage shows the name of the station and describes the facilities of the station and the system it serves. There are several entrances for one station, saving pedestrians from needing to cross a street and reducing crowding. A metro station provides ticket vending and ticket validating systems; the station is divided into an unpaid zone connected to the street, a paid zone connected to the train platforms. The ticket barrier allows passengers with valid tickets to pass between these zones; the barrier may operated by staff or more with automated turnstiles or gates that open when a transit pass is scanned or detected.
Some small metro systems dispense with paid zones and validate tickets with staff in the train carriages. Access from the street to ticketing and the train platform is provided by stairs, escalators and tunnels; the station will be designed to minimise overcrowding and improve flow, sometimes by designating tunnels as one way. Permanent or temporary barriers may be used to manage crowds; some metro stations have direct connections to important nearby buildings. Most jurisdictions mandate; this is resolved with elevators, taking a number of people from street level to the unpaid ticketing area, from the paid area to the platform. In addition, there will be stringent requirements for emergencies, with backup lighting, emergency exits and alarm systems installed and maintained. Stations are a critical part of the evacuation route for passengers escaping from a disabled or troubled train. A subway station may provide additional facilities, such as toilets and amenities for staff and security services, such as Transit police.
Some metro stations are interchanges, serving to transfer passengers between lines or transport systems. The platforms may be multi-level. Transfer stations handle more passengers than regular stations, with additional connecting tunnels and larger concourses to reduce walking times and manage crowd flows. In some stations where trains are automated, the entire platform is screened from the track by a wall of glass, with automatic platform-edge doors; these open, like elevator doors, only when a train is stopped, thus eliminate the hazard that a passenger will accidentally fall onto the tracks and be run over or electrocuted. Control over ventilation of the platform is improved, allowing it to be heated or cooled without having to do the same for the tunnels; the doors add cost and complexity to the system, trains may have to approach the station more so they can stop in accurate alignment with them. Metro stations, more so than railway and bus stations have a characteristic artistic design that can identify each stop.
Some have frescoes. For example, London's Baker Street station is adorned with tiles depicting Sherlock Holmes; the tunnel for Paris' Concorde station is decorated with tiles spelling the Déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen. Every metro station in Valencia, Spain has a different sculpture on the ticket-hall level. Alameda station is decorated with fragments of white tile, like the dominant style of the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències; each of the original four stations on Line 8 of the Beijing Subway is decorated traditionally with elements of Chinese culture. On the Tyne and Wear Metro, the station at Newcastle United's home ground St James' Park is decorated in the clubs famous black and white stripes; each station of the Red Line and Purple Line subway in Los Angeles was built with different artwork and decorating schemes, such as murals, tile artwork and sculptural benches. Every station of the Mexico City Metro is prominently identified by a unique icon in addition to its name, because the city had high illiteracy rates at the time the system was designed.
Some metro systems, such as those of Naples, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kiev, Lisbon and Prague are famous for their beautiful architecture and public art; the Paris Métro is famous for its art nouveau station entrances.
W (New York City Subway service)
The W Broadway Local is a rapid transit service of the New York City Subway's B Division. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored yellow; the W operates weekdays only except late nights between Ditmars Boulevard in Astoria and South Ferry/Whitehall Street in Lower Manhattan, making local stops along its entire route. The W is internally staffed and scheduled as part of the N. Introduced on July 22, 2001, the W ran at all times on the BMT West End Line and BMT Fourth Avenue Line in Brooklyn to Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue, it was truncated in 2004 to its current service pattern until June 25, 2010, when it was eliminated due to the Metropolitan Transportation Authority's financial crisis. The route was reinstated on November 7, 2016, using its original emblem and 2004–2010 routing, as part of the updated service pattern related to the opening of the Second Avenue Subway; the W was conceived as an extra Broadway Line local service running on the Astoria and Broadway lines to Whitehall Street in Manhattan.
This service was a variant of the N route, which in the 1970s and 1980s ran express on the Broadway Line between Forest Hills–71st Avenue in Queens and Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue in Brooklyn. At the time, some trains ran local on Broadway and only traveled between Forest Hills and Whitehall Street. However, reconstruction of the Manhattan Bridge's subway tracks between 1986 and 2004 forced the N, which ran express on the Broadway Line and via the bridge, to run local via the Montague Street Tunnel; this service change precluded W local service from running as envisioned. The W bullet appeared on roll signs as a yellow diamond bullet, but on the R68s and R68As, round bullet signs were installed; the W appeared on the digital signs of the R44s and R46s with any route and destination combination that could be used for the Broadway Line. The W label was first used in 2001, when the two tracks on the Manhattan Bridge's northern side, which connected to the IND Sixth Avenue Line, were closed for repairs.
This required the suspension of Sixth Avenue B service south of 34th Street–Herald Square as it used those tracks to travel to and from Brooklyn. The W service replaced the B on the BMT West End Line and BMT Fourth Avenue Line in Brooklyn, ran on the BMT Broadway Line in Manhattan and BMT Astoria Line in Queens, it replicated the route of the Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Corporation's old 3 route named the T, that operated from 1916 until 1967, when the B replaced it. The W replicated the split in B service from 1986 to 1988, when the bridge's north tracks were first closed, although both halves of the route were labeled B. W service began on July 22, 2001, operating between Coney Island and Astoria-Ditmars Boulevard, Queens via the West End Local and Fourth Avenue Express in Brooklyn; the W ran express on the Astoria Line during rush hours in the peak direction until 9:30 PM, local at all other times. Evening service terminated at 57th Street–Seventh Avenue in Manhattan, while late night and weekend evening service operated as a shuttle within Brooklyn only, terminating at 36th Street during late nights and Atlantic Avenue–Pacific Street on weekends.
After September 11, 2001, all Broadway Line service in Lower Manhattan was suspended due to extensive damage caused by the Collapse of the World Trade Center. As a result, the entire N route was suspended, W trains ran at all times between Ditmars Boulevard and Coney Island, it made. During late nights, it ran in two sections: between Ditmars Boulevard and 34th Street, skipping 49th Street in the northbound direction, in Brooklyn between 36th Street and Coney Island. Normal service on both routes resumed on October 28, 2001; the Astoria express service was discontinued on January 15, 2002. Because it was unpopular among Astoria residents. Around that time, evening service was extended from 57th Street to Astoria. On September 8, 2002, W service was extended to Astoria during late nights and weekends, running local via the Fourth Avenue and Broadway Lines and Montague Street Tunnel; this was because ongoing reconstruction of the Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue terminal left the W as the only train serving it.
This change gave the West End Line late-night service to Manhattan for the first time. When the Manhattan Bridge's north tracks were restored to service on February 22, 2004, the W was curtailed to its current service pattern, running weekdays only from 7:00 a.m. to 9:30 p.m. as an local service between Astoria–Ditmars Boulevard and Whitehall Street–South Ferry, Lower Manhattan. The Brooklyn portion was replaced by the D, extended over the north side of the bridge and down the West End Line. W service between Manhattan and Queens remained, because of increasing ridership on the BMT Astoria Line; the first three W trains of the day entered service at 86th Street in Gravesend and the last three trains of the night continued in service to Kings Highway. These trips ran local in Brooklyn via the Montague Street Tunnel, BMT Fourth Avenue and BMT Sea Beach lines. On July 27, 2008, the W was extended to run until 11:00 p.m in response to growth in the subway system's ridership. On March 24, 2010, the MTA announced the elimination of the W due to financial shortfalls.
In its place, on weekdays, the N train ran local north of Canal Street while the Q tra