The Royal Navy is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France; the modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century. From the middle decades of the 17th century, through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century, it was the world's most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War; the Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the unmatched world power during the 19th and first part of the 20th centuries. Due to this historical prominence, it is common among non-Britons, to refer to it as "the Royal Navy" without qualification. Following World War I, the Royal Navy was reduced in size, although at the onset of World War II it was still the world's largest.
By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the world's largest. During the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines and active in the GIUK gap. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, its focus has returned to expeditionary operations around the world and remains one of the world's foremost blue-water navies. However, 21st century reductions in naval spending have led to a personnel shortage and a reduction in the number of warships; the Royal Navy maintains a fleet of technologically sophisticated ships and submarines including two aircraft carriers, two amphibious transport docks, four ballistic missile submarines, six nuclear fleet submarines, six guided missile destroyers, 13 frigates, 13 mine-countermeasure vessels and 22 patrol vessels. As of November 2018, there are 74 commissioned ships in the Royal Navy, plus 12 ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary; the RFA replenishes Royal Navy warships at sea, augments the Royal Navy's amphibious warfare capabilities through its three Bay-class landing ship vessels.
It works as a force multiplier for the Royal Navy doing patrols that frigates used to do. The total displacement of the Royal Navy is 408,750 tonnes; the Royal Navy is part of Her Majesty's Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, an admiral and member of the Defence Council of the United Kingdom; the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The Royal Navy operates three bases in the United Kingdom; as the seaborne branch of HM Armed Forces, the RN has various roles. As it stands today, the RN has stated its 6 major roles as detailed below in umbrella terms. Preventing Conflict – On a global and regional level Providing Security At Sea – To ensure the stability of international trade at sea International Partnerships – To help cement the relationship with the United Kingdom's allies Maintaining a Readiness To Fight – To protect the United Kingdom's interests across the globe Protecting the Economy – To safe guard vital trade routes to guarantee the United Kingdom's and its allies' economic prosperity at sea Providing Humanitarian Aid – To deliver a fast and effective response to global catastrophes The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the kingdom's power in the 10th century.
At one point Aethelred II had an large fleet built by a national levy of one ship for every 310 hides of land, but it is uncertain whether this was a standard or exceptional model for raising fleets. During the period of Danish rule in the 11th century, the authorities maintained a standing fleet by taxation, this continued for a time under the restored English regime of Edward the Confessor, who commanded fleets in person. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Following the Battle of Hastings, the Norman navy that brought over William the Conqueror disappeared from records due to William receiving all of those ships from feudal obligations or because of some sort of leasing agreement which lasted only for the duration of the enterprise. More troubling, is the fact that there is no evidence that William adopted or kept the Anglo-Saxon ship mustering system, known as the scipfryd. Hardly noted after 1066, it appears that the Normans let the scipfryd languish so that by 1086, when the Doomsday Book was completed, it had ceased to exist.
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in 1068, Harold Godwinson's sons Godwine and Edmund conducted a ‘raiding-ship army’ which came from Ireland, raiding across the region and to the townships of Bristol and Somerset. In the following year of 1069, they returned with a bigger fleet which they sailed up the River Taw before being beaten back by a local earl near Devon. However, this made explicitly clear that the newly conquered England under Norman rule, in effect, ceded the Irish Sea to the Irish, the Vikings of Dublin, other Norwegians. Besides ceding away the Irish Sea, the Normans ceded the North Sea, a major area where Nordic peoples traveled. In 1069, this lack of naval presence in the North Sea allowed for the invasion an
North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, Virginia to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east. North Carolina is the 28th-most extensive and the 9th-most populous of the U. S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties; the capital is Raleigh, which along with Durham and Chapel Hill is home to the largest research park in the United States. The most populous municipality is Charlotte, the second-largest banking center in the United States after New York City; the state has a wide range of elevations, from sea level on the coast to 6,684 feet at Mount Mitchell, the highest point in North America east of the Mississippi River. The climate of the coastal plains is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the state falls in the humid subtropical climate zone. More than 300 miles from the coast, the western, mountainous part of the state has a subtropical highland climate. Woodland-culture Native Americans were in the area around 1000 BCE.
During this time, important buildings were constructed as flat-topped buildings. By 1550, many groups of American Indians lived in present-day North Carolina, including Chowanoke, Pamlico, Coree, Cape Fear Indians, Waxhaw and Catawba. Juan Pardo explored the area in 1566–1567, establishing Fort San Juan in 1567 at the site of the Native American community of Joara, a Mississippian culture regional chiefdom in the western interior, near the present-day city of Morganton; the fort lasted only 18 months. A expedition by Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe followed in 1584, at the direction of Sir Walter Raleigh. In June 1718, the pirate Blackbeard ran his flagship, the Queen Anne's Revenge, aground at Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina, in present-day Carteret County. After the grounding her crew and supplies were transferred to smaller ships. In November, after appealing to the governor of North Carolina, who promised safe-haven and a pardon, Blackbeard was killed in an ambush by troops from Virginia.
In 1996 Intersal, Inc. a private firm, discovered the remains of a vessel to be the Queen Anne's Revenge, added to the US National Register of Historic Places. North Carolina became one of the English Thirteen Colonies and with the territory of South Carolina was known as the Province of North-Carolina; the northern and southern parts of the original province separated in 1729. Settled by small farmers, sometimes having a few slaves, who were oriented toward subsistence agriculture, the colony lacked cities or towns. Pirates menaced the coastal settlements. Growth was strong in the middle of the 18th century, as the economy attracted Scots-Irish, Quaker and German immigrants. A majority of the colonists supported the American Revolution, a smaller number of Loyalists than in some other colonies such as Georgia, South Carolina, New York. During colonial times, Edenton served as the state capital beginning in 1722, New Bern was selected as the capital in 1766. Construction of Tryon Palace, which served as the residence and offices of the provincial governor William Tryon, began in 1767 and was completed in 1771.
In 1788 Raleigh was chosen as the site of the new capital, as its central location protected it from coastal attacks. Established in 1792 as both county seat and state capital, the city was named after Sir Walter Raleigh, sponsor of Roanoke, the "lost colony" on Roanoke Island; the population of the colony more than quadrupled from 52,000 in 1740 to 270,000 in 1780 from high immigration from Virginia and Pennsylvania plus immigrants from abroad. North Carolina made the smallest per-capita contribution to the war of any state, as only 7,800 men joined the Continental Army under General George Washington. There was some military action in 1780–81. Many Carolinian frontiersmen had moved west over the mountains, into the Washington District, but in 1789, following the Revolution, the state was persuaded to relinquish its claim to the western lands, it ceded them to the national government so that the Northwest Territory could be organized and managed nationally. After 1800, cotton and tobacco became important export crops.
The eastern half of the state the Tidewater region, developed a slave society based on a plantation system and slave labor. Many free people of color migrated to the frontier along with their European-American neighbors, where the social system was looser. By 1810, nearly 3 percent of the free population consisted of free people of color, who numbered more than 10,000; the western areas were dominated by white families Scots-Irish, who operated small subsistence farms. In the early national period, the state became a center of Jeffersonian and Jacksonian democracy, with a strong Whig presence in the West. After Nat Turner's slave uprising in 1831, North Carolina and other southern states reduced the rights of free blacks. In 1835 the legislature withdrew their right to vote. On May 20, 1861, North Carolina was the last of the Confederate states to declare secession from the Union, 13 days after the Tennessee legislature voted for secession; some 125,000 North Carolinians served in the military.
The Bermuda Garrison was the military establishment maintained on the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda by the regular British Army, its local militia and voluntary reserves from 1701 to 1957. The garrison evolved from an independent company, to a company of Royal Garrison Battalion during the American War of Independence, a growing and diversifying force of artillery and infantry with various supporting corps from the French Revolution onwards, it was at one time fell under the military Commander-in-Chief of North America, was part of the Newfoundland Command in the early 19th Century, an independent command from 1868s'til its closure in 1957. From the 1790s onwards, the garrison existed to defend the Royal Naval Dockyard and other facilities in Bermuda that were important to Imperial security until the HM Dockyard was reduced to a base. Although the last professional soldiers were withdrawn in 1957, the Garrison ceased to exist, two part-time components - the Bermuda Militia Artillery and the Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps - continued to exist until 1965, when they amalgamated to create the current Bermuda Regiment.
The English colony of Bermuda was settled accidentally in 1609 by the Virginia Company, when its flagship, the Sea Venture was wrecked off the archipelago. Although most of the settlers completed their journey to Jamestown, the company remained in possession of Bermuda, with Virginia's borders extended far enough out to sea to include Bermuda in 1612. In the same year, a Governor and more settlers arrived to join the three men left behind from the Sea Venture. From until 1701, Bermuda's defence was left in the hands of her own militias. Bermuda's militia included a standing body of artillery men to garrison the forts built by the local government; the earliest of these forts built were the first stone fortifications in the English New World, the first coastal artillery, are today the oldest English New World fortifications still standing. Together with St. George's town, the forts near the town are today a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In addition to the full-time artillerymen, all of the colony's men of military age were obliged to turn out for militia training and in case of war.
They mounted units. In 1701, the threat of war led the English government to post an Independent Company of regular soldiers to Bermuda, where the militia continued to function as a standby in case of war or insurrection; the company, a detachment of the 2nd Foot of the English Army, arrived in Bermuda along with the new Governor, Captain Benjamin Bennett, aboard HMS Lincoln, in May 1701, was composed of Captain Lancelot Sandys, Lieutenant Robert Henly, two sergeants, two corporals, fifty private soldiers, a drummer. General William Selwyn had objected to their detachment. Despite this small regular detachment, the militia remained Bermuda's primary defence force. Following the conclusion of the Seven Years' War in 1763, the Independent Company was removed. A company of the 9th Foot was detached from Florida, reinforced with a detachment from the Bahamas Independent Company, but this force was withdrawn in 1768, leaving only the militia. Regular soldiers invalided from continental battlefields as part of the Royal Garrison Battalion had been stationed in Bermuda between 1778 and 1784 during the American War of Independence, but were withdrawn following the Treaty of Paris.
US independence cost the Royal Navy all of her continental bases between the Canadian Maritimes and the West Indies. As a result, the Admiralty began purchasing land around Bermuda at the under-developed West End, with a view to establishing a dockyard and naval base there; the Royal Naval establishment began with facilities in the town of St. George's in 1795, by 1812 the island hosted an Admiralty and a dockyard, as well as a naval squadron during the winter; these facilities were to play a major role in the American War of 1812, Bermuda would develop into the Royal Navy's largest and most important base in the Western Hemisphere. Following the French Revolution, a detachment of the 47th Foot was detached to Bermuda in 1793. Regular soldierss would continue to be stationed in Bermuda from then'til 1957. With a regular garrison, Bermudians lost interest in maintaining militias; the Militia Acts were allowed to lapse and, other than a brief resurgence during the American War of 1812, the Bermuda Government would not raise local forces until pressed by the Secretary of State for War to create the Bermuda Militia Artillery and the Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps eight decades later.
With the buildup of the Dockyard, there was a corresponding increase in the size of the Army garrison, to protect it. This included the construction of numerous fortifications and coastal artillery batteries, manned by the Royal Artillery, camps where infantry troops were stationed. From the beginning, the Royal Engineers were an important part of the Garrison, improving pre-existing fortifications and batteries, like Fort St. Catherine's, building new ones, surveying the island, building a causeway to link St. George's Island to the Main Island, a lighthouse at Gibb's Hill, various other facilities. A system of military roads was built as the rudimentary roads that had existed before had been used by islanders to take the shortes
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve personnel; the modern British Army traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army, created during the Restoration in 1660. The term British Army was adopted in 1707 after the Acts of Union between Scotland. Although all members of the British Army are expected to swear allegiance to Elizabeth II as their commander-in-chief, the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a peacetime standing army. Therefore, Parliament approves the army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years; the army is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. The British Army has seen action in major wars between the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War and the First and Second World Wars.
Britain's victories in these decisive wars allowed it to influence world events and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers. Since the end of the Cold War, the British Army has been deployed to a number of conflict zones as part of an expeditionary force, a coalition force or part of a United Nations peacekeeping operation; until the English Civil War, England never had a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants. It relied on militia organized by local officials, or private forces mobilized by the nobility, or on hired mercenaries from Europe. From the Middle Ages until the English Civil War, when a foreign expeditionary force was needed, such as the one that Henry V of England took to France and that fought at the Battle of Agincourt, the army, a professional one, was raised for the duration of the expedition. During the English Civil War, the members of the Long Parliament realised that the use of county militia organised into regional associations commanded by local members of parliament, while more than able to hold their own in the regions which Parliamentarians controlled, were unlikely to win the war.
So Parliament initiated two actions. The Self-denying Ordinance, with the notable exception of Oliver Cromwell, forbade members of parliament from serving as officers in the Parliamentary armies; this created a distinction between the civilians in Parliament, who tended to be Presbyterian and conciliatory to the Royalists in nature, a corps of professional officers, who tended to Independent politics, to whom they reported. The second action was legislation for the creation of a Parliamentary-funded army, commanded by Lord General Thomas Fairfax, which became known as the New Model Army. While this proved to be a war winning formula, the New Model Army, being organized and politically active, went on to dominate the politics of the Interregnum and by 1660 was disliked; the New Model Army was paid off and disbanded at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660. For many decades the excesses of the New Model Army under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell was a horror story and the Whig element recoiled from allowing a standing army.
The militia acts of 1661 and 1662 prevented local authorities from calling up militia and oppressing their own local opponents. Calling up the militia was possible only if the king and local elites agreed to do so. Charles II and his Cavalier supporters favoured a new army under royal control; the first English Army regiments, including elements of the disbanded New Model Army, were formed between November 1660 and January 1661 and became a standing military force for Britain. The Royal Scots and Irish Armies were financed by the parliaments of Ireland. Parliamentary control was established by the Bill of Rights 1689 and Claim of Right Act 1689, although the monarch continued to influence aspects of army administration until at least the end of the nineteenth century. After the Restoration Charles II pulled together four regiments of infantry and cavalry, calling them his guards, at a cost of £122,000 from his general budget; this became the foundation of the permanent English Army. By 1685 it had grown to 7,500 soldiers in marching regiments, 1,400 men permanently stationed in garrisons.
A rebellion in 1685 allowed James II to raise the forces to 20,000 men. There were 37,000 in 1678. After William and Mary's accession to the throne England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance to prevent a French invasion restoring James II. In 1689, William III expanded the army to 74,000, to 94,000 in 1694. Parliament was nervous, reduced the cadre to 7000 in 1697. Scotland and Ireland had theoretically separate military establishments, but they were unofficially merged with the English force. By the time of the 1707 Acts of Union, many regiments of the English and Scottish armies were combined under one operational command and stationed in the Netherlands for the War of the Spanish Succession. Although all the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment, they remained under the old operational-command structure and retained much of the institutional ethos and traditions of the standing armies created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 47 years earlier.
The order of seniority of the most-senior British Army line regiments is based on that of the English army
Warwick Camp (Bermuda)
'Warwick Camp' was the rifle ranges and a training area used by units of the Bermuda Garrison based elsewhere in the colony. Today, the Camp is the home of the Royal Bermuda Regiment; the base was located on a strip of land obtained during the mid-Nineteenth century by the War Office along the south shore of Warwick and Southampton, in Bermuda. The army garrison in Bermuda was being re-organised, with the headquarters moving from St. George's to Prospect Camp, near Hamilton. Most of the Regular Army infantry relocated to Prospect Camp leaving the St. George's Garrison in the hands of the Royal Regiment of Artillery. Prospect Camp was usefully located in the centre of the colony, near the capital, but had no area suitable for a rifle range. In January, 1869, F Company of the 61st Foot was moved to Warwick to work on the Military Road, following which they constructed the rifle ranges at Warwick Camp. Two companies of the 15th Foot continued working on the road, west of Warwick Camp, built a new battery for the coastal artillery at Whale Bay.
The Camp enclosed Warwick Long Bay and Horseshoe Bay, today, are Bermuda's two most popular public beaches, all the land between. The rifle ranges were placed here, on the south side of the road, between the beaches; the Camp included an area to the north of the road where permanent buildings were erected. No barracks were built until after the Great War, however, as the Camp had no permanent establishment of its own. Use of the camp was allotted for different periods throughout the year to any, or several, of the army units comprising the military garrison; the regular troops used the Camp for riflery and for tactical training, as did the Volunteers/Territorials, who used it for annual camps. The part-time units had no camps of their own, their sub-units being divided amongst a number of drill halls, or attached to the regular complements of coastal artillery batteries. In addition to the military units that used the Camp, the Royal Marines detachment guarding the Dockyard trained there, as did RM detachments from ships in the dockyard.
During the Great War, the Bermuda Militia Artillery and the Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps were embodied in August 1914 to fulfill their wartime role on a full-time basis. Despite their vital responsibilities to the garrison, both units soon began planning to send contingents of volunteers to the Western Front. Nicknamed Bullock's Boys, the first of these units was raised as a detachment by the BVRC, embodied at Warwick Camp in December, 1914. Many of its members had enlisted for the Front, although others were serving when the war began; the contingent trained full-time at Warwick Camp until it was dispatched to the Royal Lincolnshire Regiment in Europe, arriving on the Western Front in June, 1915. A second contingent was sent to the Lincolns by the BVRC the following year. Between the two World Wars, barracks were built on the northern side of the Military Road. Prior to units training at Warwick Camp had lived under canvas. By 1939, the numerous coastal artillery installations in Bermuda had been reduced to one active battery, comprising the two 6-inch guns of the St. David's Battery, tasked in wartime as the Examination Battery, on St. David's Head.
Sensing the approach of war, realising that the dockyard, located some miles to the north of Warwick Camp, was vulnerable to naval bombardment, it was decided to build a new battery at the highest point within Warwick Camp. This comprised two 6" guns, lying disused in other Bermudian batteries. Both guns were refurbished, only one was operational when local forces were mobilised on 3 September 1939; the other was fitted the following year. Although the guns of most naval ships at that time outranged the elderly 6" guns of Bermuda, it was thought that the Warwick Camp battery's position was far enough to the south of the dockyard to prevent ships coming near enough from that direction to shell it. From that location, the guns could repel any raiding parties that attempted to cross the reefline in small boats to land on the beaches below; the last Regular artillery units had been withdrawn before the War, the two batteries were operated by the gunners of the BMA, with the Bermuda Volunteer Engineers providing detachments to operate the search lights and provide signals.
Warwick Camp continued to be used by all units in its training role, but housed Territorial infantry units, embodied for the duration of the war. Prior to the December, 1941, entry of the United States into the war, the United States Army and the United States Marines Corps were permitted to deploy forces to Bermuda, ostensibly to guard base sites to which the United States had been granted leases by the British Government, but with the intent of allowing the neutral US to covertly reinforce the colony's defences. Among the American units deployed to Bermuda was a battery of two 155mm GPF artillery guns deployed to Ackermann's Hill, on the northern side of the South Shore Road, in Southampton Parish; the two guns arrived as field guns on wheeled carriages, but were fixed on Panama Mounts by October, 1941. As with other US Army defences outside the leased baselands, this battery was withdrawn from B
St. George's Harbour, Bermuda
St. George's Harbour is a natural harbour in the north of Bermuda, it serves as the port for the town of St. George's, located to its north. To its south is St. David's Island; the harbour and both islands lie within St. George's Parish, it was for two centuries the primary harbour of the British Overseas Territory. The harbour separates St. George's Island in the north and west from St. David's Island in the south and east. Several other islands lie to the south and east, closing the harbour from the open sea to the east, separating it from Smith's Sound, to the South, it is open to the Atlantic Ocean at Gunner Bay in the northeast, where its mouth is guarded by numerous islands, notably Smith's and Paget Islands. The waters of Bermuda are protected by coral reef, which can be perilous to sailors. Several other islands lie within the harbour, notably the important Ordnance Island. In the south, a long channel, Ferry Reach, links the harbour with another opening to the Atlantic Ocean and the picturesque Castle Harbour.
The original channel used by shipping to access the harbour lies to the south of Paget Island. This was replaced a century ago by dredging out the passage to the north of Paget Island. At the time, the dredging of that passage had been necessary for St. George's to remain a viable port as steam replaced sail. Most freight, today, is offloaded at Hamilton, but St. George's is still used for offloading of gravel and other consignments, by cruise ships visiting the Old Town, it is the only port of entry for yachts, which must clear H. M. Customs and Bermuda Immigration at Ordnance Island before visiting other parts of the archipelago. To enter St. George's Harbour, sailors must fly a yellow quarantine flag, navigate the ship towards the Customs dock. Boaters who don't bring their vessel through customs will be fined. Before passing through Bermuda customs, visitors must declare all medicines, cannot bring fruits or vegetables into the country. Animals are only allowed to be brought to Bermuda if they have proof of health and a permit from the Bermuda Department of Environmental Protection.
The shore of St. George's Harbour was the site of the first settlements in Bermuda, which occurred in the early 17th century; the crew and passengers of the Sea Venture, driven onto the reefs off St. Catherine's Point in 1609, stayed on St. George's Island for nearly a year; when most departed, two men remained behind on Smith's Island. When the first intentional settlers arrived from England in 1609, they settled briefly on St. David's Island, before moving across the Harbour to create St. George's, the oldest continuously-inhabited English settlement in the New World; the harbour was well fortified during this time, as can still be seen in the several period forts located nearby. The 19th Century saw the establishment of a Royal Naval base in Bermuda; this was in St. George's Harbour, with the Royal Navy operating from facilities in Convict Bay and within St. George's town; this build up began in 1795, but a decade the Royal Navy was developing the dockyard on Ireland Island, it soon withdrew from St. George's completely.
The buildup of the dockyard at the West End of the archipelago still resulted in considerable defence infrastructure around St. George's, at the East End, however, as this was the gateway through the surrounding reefs to all of Bermuda. In addition to the 17th and 18th century forts built by the militia, there are many 19th and 20th Century forts and batteries built by the regular British Army on the islands surrounding the harbour, for which Ordnance Island was the primary ammunition depot; the various surviving East End forts and other military structures, together with the old capital, have been declared by the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization as a World Heritage Site, the Historic Town of St George and Related Fortifications, Bermuda. Castle Harbour, Bermuda Hamilton Harbour, Bermuda
Hamilton is the capital of the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda. It is a major port and tourist destination, its population of 1,010 is one of the smallest of any capital cities. The history of Hamilton as a British city began in 1790 when the government of Bermuda set aside 145 acres for its future seat incorporated in 1793 by an Act of Parliament, named for Governor Henry Hamilton; the colony's capital relocated to Hamilton from St George's in 1815. The city has been at the political and military heart of Bermuda since. Government buildings include the parliament building, the Government House to the north, the former Admiralty House of the Royal Navy to the west, the British Army garrison headquarters at Prospect Camp to its east; the Town of Hamilton became a city in 1897, ahead of the consecration in 1911 of the Cathedral of the Most Holy Trinity, under construction at the time. A Catholic cathedral, St. Theresa's, was constructed. Today, the city overlooking Hamilton Harbour is a business district, with few structures other than office buildings and shops.
The City of Hamilton has long maintained a building height and view limit, which states that no buildings may obscure the Cathedral. In the 21st century, buildings have been planned and some are under construction that are as high as ten storeys in the area. Bermuda's local newspaper, The Royal Gazette, reports, "If you don't recognise the city, from 15 years ago, we don't blame you as it has changed so much". Hamilton is located on the north side of Hamilton Harbour, is Bermuda's main port. Although there is a parish of the same name, the city of Hamilton is in the parish of Pembroke; the city is named after Sir Henry Hamilton, governor of the territory from 1786 to 1793. Hamilton Parish antedates the city; the administrative capital of Bermuda, has a limited permanent population around 1,010. The only incorporated city in Bermuda, Hamilton is smaller than the historic town of St. George's. A more representative measure of Bermuda's local residential populations tends to be by parish; as the offshore domicile of many foreign companies, Bermuda has a developed international business economy.
Finance and international business constitute the largest sector of Bermuda's economy, all of this business takes place within the borders of Hamilton. Numerous leading international insurance companies are based in Hamilton, as it is a global reinsurance centre. Around 400 internationally owned and operated businesses are physically based in Bermuda, many are represented by the Association of Bermuda International Companies. In total, over 1,500 exempted or international companies are registered with the Registrar of Companies in Bermuda; the city is the registered headquarters of the spirits manufacturer Bacardi, semiconductor manufacturer Marvell Technology, outsourcing company Genpact, telecommunications company Global Crossing, reinsurance company Tokio Millennium Re Ltd. Hamilton is known as the headquarters of international shipping companies, such as DryShips Inc, Frontline Ltd. and Dockwise. Its low corporate tax rate makes it attractive to US companies. In addition, the corporate headquarters of the Bermuda grocery store chain The MarketPlace is located within the chain's Hamilton MarketPlace location, the largest grocery store in Bermuda.
Hamilton was named the city with the highest cost of living index in the world. The coat of arms of the city of Hamilton incorporate a shield featuring a golden sailing ship, representing the Resolution, surrounded by three cinquefoils, two above the ship and one below in gold, all on a plain blue background; this shield is supported by a mermaid and heraldic sea horse, is placed on a mount in front of, a scroll containing the motto "Sparsa Collegit". The shield is topped by a crest featuring a closed helm topped with a torque above which an heraldic seahorse is emerging from the sea holding a flower; the city's full motto is Hamilton sparsa collegit. The city's flag is a banner of arms, featuring the same details as on the shield of the city's coat of arms, but with the flowers in white rather than gold; the city of Hamilton has many parks for its size. The most notable park in the city is Victoria Park; this park was named after Queen Victoria. Other parks in the city are Par La Ville Park, Barr's Park, All Buoy's Point Park, the hidden Cedar Park.
Although located some distance north of the geographic tropics, Hamilton has a warm trade-wind tropical rainforest climate. It is warm enough for coconut palms and other tropical palms to grow, although they may not fruit properly due to the lack of heat or sunshine during the winter months because of latitude. Hamilton has uncharacteristically warm temperatures for its latitude because of the moderating influence of the North Atlantic and nearby Gulf Stream. Hamilton features warm and humid summers and semi-warm "winters"; as temperatures are moderated by the Atlantic Ocean, it gets hot or cold in the city. Precipitation is plentiful throughout the year and Hamilton does not have a dry season month, a month where on average less than 60 mm of precipitation falls. Summer precipitation is from showers and tropical disturbances or tropical cyclones. Meanwhile, winter precipitation is derived from westerly moving extra-tropical cyclones and their associated fronts