New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
In Christianity, evangelism is the commitment to or act of publicly preaching of the Gospel with the intention of spreading the message and teachings of Jesus Christ. Christians who specialize in evangelism are known as evangelists, whether they are in their home communities or living as missionaries in the field, although some Christian traditions refer to such people as missionaries in either case; some Christian traditions consider evangelists to be in a leadership position. Christian groups who encourage evangelism are sometimes known as evangelist; the scriptures do not use the word evangelism, but evangelist is used in Acts 21:8, Ephesians 4:11, 2 Timothy 4:5. The word evangelist comes from the Koine Greek word εὐαγγέλιον via Latinised evangelium as used in the canonical titles of the Four Gospels, authored by Matthew, Mark and John; the Greek word εὐαγγέλιον meant a reward given to the messenger for good news and "good news" itself. The verb form of euangelion, occurs in older Greek literature outside the New Testament, making its meaning more difficult to ascertain.
Parallel texts of the Gospels of Luke and Mark reveal a synonymous relationship between the verb euangelizo and a Greek verb kerusso, which means "to proclaim". Some Christians distinguish between evangelism and proselytism, the latter viewed as unethical because it is taken to involve the abuse of people's freedom and the distortion of the gospel of grace by means of coercion, deception and exploitation; the term "proselytize" might be used when one group does not approve of the missional activities of another when one group is losing members to another group. Different denominations follow different theological interpretations which reflect upon the point of, doing the actual conversion, whether the evangelist or the Holy Spirit or both. Calvinists, among other Christian denominations, believe the soul is converted salutary to Christ only if the Holy Spirit is effective in the act. Catholic missionary work in Russia is seen as evangelism, not proselytism. Archbishop Kondrusiewicz stated, "that proselytism is unacceptable and cannot constitute a strategy for the development of our structures either in Russia or in any other country in the world".
Regarding claims by the Orthodox church that spreading the faith and receiving converts amounts to proselytism, the Catholic Church's Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith issued a document called "Doctrinal Note on some Aspects of Evangelization" which states that evangelism is "an inalienable right and duty, an expression of religious liberty...", added, "The incorporation of new members into the Church is not the expansion of a power group, but rather entrance into the network of friendship with Christ which connects heaven and earth, different continents and age. It is entrance into the gift of communion with Christ...." In recent history, certain Bible passages have been used to promote evangelism. William Carey, in a book entitled,'An Enquiry into the Obligations of Christians to Use Means for the Conversion of the Heathens' popularised a quotation, according to the Bible, during his last days on earth Jesus commanded his eleven disciples as follows: Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you.
And I am with you always, to the end of the age. However, recent scholarship by Chris Wright and others has suggested that such activity is promoted by the entire Bible, or at least the wider term'mission', although the meaning of the word'mission' and its relationship to'evangelism' is disputed amongst Christians. Breaking from tradition and going beyond television and radio a wide range of methods have been developed to reach people not inclined to attend traditional events in churches or revival meetings. Dramas such as Heaven's Gates, Hell's Flames have gained enormous popularity since the 1980s; these dramas depict fictional characters who die and learn whether they will go to heaven or hell. The child evangelism movement is a Christian evangelism movement that originated in the 20th century, it focuses on the 4/14 Window which centers on evangelizing children between the ages of 4 and 14 years old. Beginning in the 1970s, a group of Christian athletes known as The Power Team spawned an entire genre of Christian entertainment based on strong-man exploits mixed with a Christian message and accompanied by an opportunity to respond with a prayer for salvation.
Other entertainment-based Christian evangelism events include live theater and music. The Christian music industry has played a significant role in modern evangelism. Rock concerts in which the artist exhort non-believing attendees to pray a prayer for salvation have become common, just as common are concerts that are focused on activity not on prayer and conversion, thus forming an environment, not driven by conversion, but instead relaying of a message. Evangelists such as Reinhard Bonnke conduct mass evangelistic crusades around the world. Hundreds of church denominations and organizations participate in an evangelism movement known as the Billion Soul Harvest, a comprehensive initiative to convert a billion people to Christianity. New opportunities for evangelization have been provided in recen
Barcelona is a city in Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within city limits, its urban area extends to numerous neighbouring municipalities within the Province of Barcelona and is home to around 4.8 million people, making it the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, Madrid, the Ruhr area and Milan. It is one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of, 512 metres high. Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. After merging with the Kingdom of Aragon, Barcelona continued to be an important city in the Crown of Aragon as an economic and administrative centre of this Crown and the capital of the Principality of Catalonia.
Barcelona has a rich cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination. Renowned are the architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner, which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites; the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean are located in Barcelona. The city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and many international sport tournaments. Barcelona is one of the world's leading tourist, trade fair and cultural centres, its influence in commerce, entertainment, fashion and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities, it is a major cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world and a financial centre. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union and 35th in the world with GDP amounting to €177 billion. In 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion. In 2009 the city was ranked one of the world's most successful as a city brand.
In the same year the city was ranked Europe's fourth best city for business and fastest improving European city, with growth improved by 17% per year, the city has been experiencing strong and renewed growth for the past three years. Since 2011 Barcelona has been a leading smart city in Europe. Barcelona is a transport hub, with the Port of Barcelona being one of Europe's principal seaports and busiest European passenger port, an international airport, Barcelona–El Prat Airport, which handles over 50 million passengers per year, an extensive motorway network, a high-speed rail line with a link to France and the rest of Europe; the name Barcelona comes from the ancient Iberian Barkeno, attested in an ancient coin inscription found on the right side of the coin in Iberian script as, in ancient Greek sources as Βαρκινών, Barkinṓn. Some older sources suggest that the city may have been named after the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca, supposed to have founded the city in the 3rd century BC, but there is no evidence that Barcelona was a Carthaginian settlement, or that its name in antiquity, had any connection with the Barcid family of Hamilcar.
During the Middle Ages, the city was variously known as Barchinona, Barçalona and Barchenona. Internationally, Barcelona's name is wrongly abbreviated to'Barça'. However, this name refers only to the football club; the common abbreviated form used by locals is Barna. Another common abbreviation is'BCN', the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport; the city is referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan, Ciudad Condal in Spanish, owing to its past as the seat of the Count of Barcelona. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear; the ruins of an early settlement have been found, including different tombs and dwellings dating to earlier than 5000 BC. The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends; the first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. The second legend attributes the foundation of the city directly to the historical Carthaginian general, Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal, who named the city Barcino after his family in the 3rd century BC, but there is no historical or linguistic evidence that this is true.
In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum centred on the "Mons Taber", a little hill near the contemporary city hall. Under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. Pomponius Mela mentions it among the small towns of the district as it was eclipsed by its neighbour Tarraco, but it may be gathered from writers that it grew in wealth and consequence, favoured as it was with a beautiful situation and an excellent harbour, it enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens. The city minted its own coins. Important Roman vestiges are displayed in Plaça del Rei underground, as a part of the Barcelona City History Museum; some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have been incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have been founded in 343; the city
The Trail to Oregon!
The Trail to Oregon! is a musical with music and lyrics by Jeff Blim, book by Jeff Blim, Matt Lang, Nick Lang. The musical parodies the series The Oregon Trail; the characters' names are picked from suggestions shouted from the audience, at the end the audience chooses which character dies. The musical was performed between August 10, 2014, at Stage 773 in Chicago, Illinois, it ran for a total of 24 performances, was performed in repertory with Ani, both being produced by StarKid Productions. The group put the entire musical up on YouTube on February 14, 2015; the musical's cast recording was released on iTunes the same day. The musical had a limited run at the Cherry Lane Theatre off-Broadway in New York City from May 26–31, 2015, running for eight performances; the original Chicago cast returned for this production. This marks the first time; the most recent production took place with a new cast through Stage 2 Theater Company, run out of Duluth, MN, directed by Katie Keller. The show ran for one weekend from January 24-27, 2019.
The show begins with the father greeting the audience and introducing his wife, teenage daughter, seven-year-old son, grandpa. Father leads the audience in choosing the name of each character, after Grandpa convinces the audience to name them all'stupid things'. Father tries to convince the kids that the journey to Oregon will be fun and educational, while Mother passive-aggressively points fingers at Father after he burned down their farm; the journey begins in Independence, as the family walks through the town, they come across many different people giving them honest but depressing advice. They decide to go down to the general store to buy bullets and only bullets, while Daughter worries about the dangers of the trip. Mother tries to convince Son to go along with Father; as the song ends, another citizen gives the family a bit of advice: "Friends don't let friends ford the river!" As the family disperses, Daughter is approached by a man who introduces himself as Mr. McDoon, taken by her beauty.
As they flirt, he warns her about the famous outlaws The Bandit King, his sidekick, Cletus Jones. Upon hearing his name, Cletus appears to assist McDoon with catching Daughter, unaware that this handsome stranger is The Bandit King. Mother arrives in the nick of time to save her from his advances, much to the dismay of Daughter, looking for love; as the women leave, The Bandit King vows revenge. Grandpa reprimands Mother for leaving Father in the General Store with all the money, knowing how Father can be fooled by salespeople. Mother expresses her belief in him; the general store manager has swindled Father into purchasing a wagon in terrible condition for an outrageous price, along with a deformed ox that could die at any minute. They begin their journey, while Mother, Daughter and Grandpa complain, Father enjoys the fun of the family road trip; the days turn into months, when the wagon breaks for the tenth time, Father sends Daughter and Grandpa to go hunting after Son ate all the grass reserve while he was throwing supplies out of the wagon.
After Daughter fails to hit small game, Grandpa hands the gun over the Son and tells his outlandish story about his war against the lobsters in 1812. Son is faced with a family of buffalo, a tough moral decision while Daughter and Grandpa try to convince him to kill for the first time. After Son guns down the family, they drag the little meat. Mother rations out the food. After Daughter tells Mother that she thinks she is overbearing, Mother fakes death so that Daughter admits that she needs Mother; when Mother'wakes up', Daughter wishes that she didn't have a family to care about, that The Bandit King would just take her away. After she leaves, Mother laments her baby's sadness, expresses her love. With the rest of the family asleep, Father tries to convince Mother to come to bed with him. After a long while, Mother decides to slide under the covers only to be bitten by a snake. Father saves Mother by sucking out the poison, but accidentally swallows the poison himself. While in a coma, he hallucinates that a mysterious voice tells him that the'watchers' will kill off one of them in an unpleasant way.
After the family has arranged a funeral for Father, he miraculously awakens and tells them of the fate the voice described. The family is unaware that The Bandit King is watching them from afar, planning to take Daughter away and make her his child bride, upsetting Cletus Jones, who has his own feeling for the thief; the Bandit King sets the family wagon on fire. The show restarts with Daughter in the wagon of The Bandit King, her family arrives at a pub, while the owner is astonished that anyone was stupid enough to be out in the snow. Mother enjoys a drink, pays with her wedding ring. Mother compares having Father around to having a dog—a cute dog, but a biter, who isn't safe around her family. Mother leaves the pub to walk to Oregon, while Father is left with Grandpa. Grandpa gives him a pep talk to get himself back up just as The General Store Guy enters the pub
Bruce William Boxleitner is an American actor, science fiction and suspense writer. He is known for his leading roles in the television series How the West Was Won, Bring'Em Back Alive and Mrs. King, Babylon 5, he is known for his dual role as the characters Alan Bradley and Tron in the 1982 Walt Disney Pictures film Tron, a role which he reprised in the 2003 video game Tron 2.0, the 2006 Square-Enix/Disney crossover game Kingdom Hearts II, the 2010 film sequel, Tron: Legacy and the animated series Tron: Uprising. He co-starred in most of the Gambler films with Kenny Rogers, where his character provides comic relief. Boxleitner was born in Elgin, the son of a certified public accountant, he attended Prospect High School in Mount Prospect and the Goodman Theater School of Drama of the Art Institute of Chicago. Boxleitner is best known for his leading roles in the television series How the West Was Won, Bring'Em Back Alive and Mrs. King, Babylon 5, he starred in The Gambler and in such TV movies as Judith Krantz's Till We Meet Again and Danielle Steel's Zoya.
In 2005, he co-starred as Captain Martin Duvall in Young Blades. He has starred in several films within the Babylon 5 universe, including Babylon 5: In the Beginning, Babylon 5: Thirdspace, Babylon 5: A Call to Arms, the direct-to-DVD Babylon 5: The Lost Tales, he has appeared in many other TV shows, including an appearance in 1973 as Rick Welsh, a University of Minnesota Track Star, in the season four episode, "I Gave at the Office" in The Mary Tyler Moore Show. Other appearances include Gunsmoke, Tales from the Crypt, Touched by an Angel, The Outer Limits and She Spies, in 1982, he played Chase Marshall in the TV film Bare Essence, with Genie Francis, he was a member of the cast of Heroes for seasons three and four, playing New York Governor Robert Malden in three episodes. He appears on the television series Chuck as the father of Devon Woodcomb, he was in such made-for-television films as The Secret, Hope Ranch, Falling in Love with the Girl Next Door, Pandemic and Aces'n Eights. Boxleitner was a guest-star on NCIS in the fall of 2010.
He played Vice Admiral C. Clifford Chase, a high-ranking Navy official. Boxleitner lends his voice to the animated version of his iconic character Tron in the animated series Tron: Uprising; the series premiered on Disney XD on June 7, 2012. He reprises the character Alan Bradley/Tron from the films Tron and Tron: Legacy. From 2013-2015, he played Bob Beldon, the owner of the local bed and breakfast, in the Hallmark Channel series Cedar Cove. Boxleitner recurred on Supergirl portraying Baker, the Vice-President of the United States, sworn in as the new President after Lynda Carter's character Olivia Marsdin is outed as a Durlan by Mercy Graves and Otis Graves, he gained the role. He has appeared in several films, including Tron and The Baltimore Bullet with James Coburn, he reprised his role in the Tron sequel Tron: Legacy and in the video game Tron: Evolution, released alongside the film Tron: Legacy, as he did for sequel video game named Tron 2.0, Disney/Square Enix crossover video game Kingdom Hearts II.
Boxleitner voice as Col. John Konrad in video game Spec Ops: The Line, he starred as Confederate General James Longstreet in the 2003 film Gods and Generals. He provides the voice of Colin Barrow in the animated science fiction horror film Dead Space: Downfall, based on the video game Dead Space. Other films he has been in include Kuffs, The Babe, Snakehead Terror, Legion of the Dead, King of the Lost World, Shadows in Paradise and Transmorphers: Fall of Man. In 2011, he announced that he will reprise his role as Alan Bradley/Tron in Tron 3. July 2015 Boxleitner said that he is done with the franchise, as "it's been too down for me. I would rather not just keep going. I don't want to repeat my career anymore." From 1986 to 1989, Boxleitner appeared in advertisements for Estee Lauder's "Lauder For Men". Boxleitner has written two science fiction novels with a Western setting, Frontier Earth and Searcher. Boxleitner played a major role in the audio dramatization of The Great Secret, part of the Golden Age of Fiction series by L. Ron Hubbard.
He played Captain Gavin Blaire in the unabridged version of World War Z. Boxleitner's first marriage was to American actress Kathryn Holcomb, who co-starred with him on How The West Was Won, they had two sons together: Lee. Holcomb went on to marry English actor Ian Ogilvy. Boxleitner's second marriage was to American actress Melissa Gilbert, they had one son together: Michael. Gilbert guest-starred as Boxleitner's on-screen wife, Anna Sheridan, during Season 3 of Babylon 5. On March 1, 2011, Gilbert announced. On August 25 of the same year the Associated Press reported that, based on court records, Gilbert had filed for divorce. On February 8, 2016, Boxleitner and his girlfriend of three years, publicist Verena King, announced their engagement. On October 5, 2016, they were married in Kapolei on the island of Hawaii. In 2003, Boxleitner was appointed to the Board of Governors of the National Space Society, a nonprofit, educational space advocacy organization founded by Dr. Wernher von Braun, he was friends w
A knight is a man granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political or religious leader for service to the monarch or a Christian church in a military capacity. In Europe, knighthood was conferred upon mounted warriors. During the High Middle Ages, knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility. By the Late Middle Ages, the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry, a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior. A knight was a vassal who served as an elite fighter, a bodyguard or a mercenary for a lord, with payment in the form of land holdings; the lords trusted the knights. Knighthood in the Middle Ages was linked with horsemanship from its origins in the 12th century until its final flowering as a fashion among the high nobility in the Duchy of Burgundy in the 15th century; this linkage is reflected in the etymology of chivalry and related terms. The special prestige accorded to mounted warriors in Christendom finds a parallel in the furusiyya in the Muslim world, the Greek hippeis and Roman eques of classical antiquity.
In the late medieval period, new methods of warfare began to render classical knights in armour obsolete, but the titles remained in many nations. The ideals of chivalry were popularized in medieval literature the literary cycles known as the Matter of France, relating to the legendary companions of Charlemagne and his men-at-arms, the paladins, the Matter of Britain, relating to the legend of King Arthur and his Round Table. Today, a number of orders of knighthood continue to exist in Christian Churches, as well as in several Christian countries and their former territories, such as the Roman Catholic Order of the Holy Sepulchre and Order of Malta, the Protestant Order of Saint John, as well as the English Order of the Garter, the Swedish Royal Order of the Seraphim, the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav; each of these orders has its own criteria for eligibility, but knighthood is granted by a head of state, monarch, or prelate to selected persons to recognise some meritorious achievement, as in the British honours system for service to the Church or country.
The modern female equivalent in the United Kingdom is Dame. The word knight, from Old English cniht, is a cognate of the German word Knecht; this meaning, of unknown origin, is common among West Germanic languages. Middle High German had the phrase guoter kneht, which meant knight; the meaning of cniht changed over time from its original meaning of "boy" to "household retainer". Ælfric's homily of St. Swithun describes a mounted retainer as a cniht. While cnihtas might have fought alongside their lords, their role as household servants features more prominently in the Anglo-Saxon texts. In several Anglo-Saxon wills cnihtas are left either money or lands. In his will, King Æthelstan leaves his cniht, eight hides of land. A rādcniht, "riding-servant", was a servant on horseback. A narrowing of the generic meaning "servant" to "military follower of a king or other superior" is visible by 1100; the specific military sense of a knight as a mounted warrior in the heavy cavalry emerges only in the Hundred Years' War.
The verb "to knight" appears around 1300. An Equestrian was a member of the second highest social class in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire; this class is translated as "knight". In the Roman Empire, the classical Latin word for horse, was replaced in common parlance by the vulgar Latin caballus, sometimes thought to derive from Gaulish caballos. From caballus arose terms in the various Romance languages cognate with the English cavalier: Italian cavaliere, Spanish caballero, French chevalier, Portuguese cavaleiro, Romanian cavaler; the Germanic languages have terms cognate with the English rider: German Ritter, Dutch and Scandinavian ridder. These words are derived from Germanic rīdan, "to ride", in turn derived from the Proto-Indo-European root reidh-. In ancient Rome there was a knightly class Ordo Equestris; some portions of the armies of Germanic peoples who occupied Europe from the 3rd century AD onward had been mounted, some armies, such as those of the Ostrogoths, were cavalry.
However, it was the Franks who fielded armies composed of large masses of infantry, with an infantry elite, the comitatus, which rode to battle on horseback rather than marching on foot. When the armies of the Frankish ruler Charles Martel defeated the Umayyad Arab invasion at the Battle of Tours in 732, the Frankish forces were still infantry armies, with elites riding to battle but dismounting to fight. In the Early Medieval period any well-equipped horseman could be described as a knight, or miles in Latin; the first knights appeared during the reign of Charlemagne in the 8th century. As the Carolingian Age progressed, the Franks were on the attack, larger numbers of warriors took to their horses to ride with the Emperor in his wide-ranging campaigns of conquest. At about this time the Franks remained on horseback to fight on the battlefield as true cavalry rather than mounted in
Dr. Teeth and The Electric Mayhem
Dr. Teeth and The Electric Mayhem are a fictional musical group that debuted on The Muppet Show in 1975, they are the house band for The Muppet Show, with personalities and appearances inspired by prominent real-life rock music and jazz performers. Following The Muppet Show, they appeared in various Muppet movies and television specials and have recorded album tracks and covered numerous songs. Dr. Teeth and Animal were designed by Jim Henson, Zoot was designed by Bonnie Erickson, while the rest of the original band members were designed by Michael K. Frith, they made their debut in 1975's the pilot for The Muppet Show. The band consists of Dr. Teeth on vocals and keyboards, Animal on drums, Floyd Pepper on bass, Janice on guitar and Zoot on saxophone. In season five of the show, Lips joined the band on trumpet. Animal and Zoot played in the Muppet Show pit band, performing the opening and closing themes and underscoring most of the Muppet Show performances. Lips and Janice appeared in the orchestra in episodes.
Though Lips made some appearances with the group after The Muppet Show ended production, the group reverted to its original line-up. The original pilot episode featured "Jim", a Muppet caricature of Jim Henson on banjo; the band's first film role was performing the song "Can You Picture That?" in The Muppet Movie. They performed "Night Life" and participated in "The Happiness Hotel" in The Great Muppet Caper and performed "Jingle Bell Rock" in A Muppet Family Christmas, they appeared in The Muppets Take Manhattan where Dr. Teeth sang "You Can't Take No For An Answer". Following the deaths of two of the group's puppeteers, Jim Henson and Richard Hunt, they were limited to brief instrumental background music for years. However, Dr. Teeth and The Electric Mayhem backed Miss Piggy for a song in The Muppets' Wizard of Oz and performed alongside Miley Cyrus in the Studio DC: Almost Live television special, they have been a mainstay in the Muppets' viral video efforts of the 2010s and have a featured role on The Muppets as the house band on the show-within-a-show Up Late with Miss Piggy.
In 2015, they released two music videos for "Jungle Boogie" and "Kodachrome". An Electric Mayhem "survive" tour with audio-animatronic versions of the puppets and rock band My Morning Jacket performing the characters was proposed by The Walt Disney Company but abandoned; the band performed a live five-song set at the Outside Lands Music and Arts Festival on August 6, 2016. Performed by Jim Henson, John Kennedy, Bill Barretta Dr. Teeth is the keyboard player and gravelly-voiced leader of the band, he is green-skinned and red-haired with a large grinning mouth of teeth including a gold tooth fashioned by melting down his gold records. He sports a scruffy red beard with no mustache, a fur vest, a striped shirt and a floppy purple top hat, he has arms so long. His self-introduction in The Muppet Movie was grandiose: "Golden teeth and golden tones. Welcome to my presence." He misuses long words and mangles verb conjugation. Jim Henson performed him, basing the character on New Orleans musician Dr. John.
He was built by Don Sahlin. He debuted in The Muppet Show: Violence. Dr. Teeth only sings lead vocals on the second Muppet pilot and during the first season and these songs were only written before Rowlf the Dog had become established as the regular Muppet pianist. Performances feature lead vocals by Floyd or Janice and only a few featured Dr. Teeth, his speaking roles got smaller after his performer Jim Henson's death. He performed Dr. Teeth from 1991 to 2003 but made only brief appearances with little dialogue, some examples being the 1999 film Muppets from Space and once in the music video for the We Are Family charity song in 2002. Bill Barretta took over the role beginning with The Muppets' Wizard of Oz so that Kennedy could start performing Floyd instead following the retirement of Jerry Nelson, Floyd's original performer. Dr. Teeth's first major speaking role since Henson's death was in Statler and Waldorf's own show and Waldorf: From the Balcony where Victor Yerrid performed him. Bill Barretta, has been performing Dr. Teeth since 2005.
Although being the band leader, Dr. Teeth is never featured in the regular orchestra playing at The Muppet Show like the rest of the group. Instead, Rowlf plays the piano in the orchestra pit. Jim Henson once said that Dr. Teeth was one of the most difficult characters to play due to the harshness of the character's voice. Although he appeared in Muppet Treasure Island, he was absent from Muppets Tonight and did not appear in the first episode. Performed by Frank Oz, Eric Jacobson Animal is the primitive wildman and the most published member of the band being the only member to appear in every feature film and the only member in the regular cast of the Muppet Babies spin-off cartoon, he is named for his wild drumming. Some speculate the character is based on either Keith Moon, John Bonham, Ginger Baker, or Levon Helm while others have suggested Mick Fleetwood. In the April 8, 2002, episode of Inside the Actors Studio, Billy Joel clai