Peugeot is a French automotive manufacturer, part of Groupe PSA. The family business that preceded the current Peugeot company was founded in 1810, manufactured coffee mills and bicycles. On 20 November 1858, Émile Peugeot applied for the lion trademark. Armand Peugeot built the company's first car, an unreliable steam tricycle, in collaboration with Léon Serpollet in 1889. Due to family discord, Armand Peugeot founded the Société des Automobiles Peugeot, in 1896; the Peugeot company and family are from Sochaux, France. Peugeot retains a large manufacturing plant and Peugeot museum there. In February 2014, the shareholders agreed to a recapitalisation plan for Groupe PSA, in which Dongfeng Motors and the French government each bought a 14% stake in the company. Peugeot has received many international awards for its vehicles, including five European Car of the Year awards. In 2013 and 2014, Peugeot ranked the second lowest for average CO2 emissions among generalist brands in Europe, the Renault car maker group being ranked first, with 114.9g CO2/km.
Peugeot is known as a reliable brand, citing how its 1950s and 1960s models are still running in Africa and Cuba in the 2010s, where Peugeot is called "the lion". Peugeot has been involved in motor sport for more than a century. Peugeot Sport won the World Rally Championship five times, the Dakar Rally seven times, the 24 Hours of Le Mans three times, the World Endurance Championship twice, the Intercontinental Le Mans Cup twice surpassing Toyota and Audi and the Intercontinental Rally Challenge Championship three times. During the last year, Peugeot Sport has surpassed the record set in the ascent to Pikes Peak with the Peugeot 208 T16 driven by Sébastien Loeb; the Peugeot family of Valentigney, Montbéliard, Franche-Comté, began in the manufacturing business in the 19th century. In 1842, they added production of coffee and salt grinders; the company's entry into the vehicle market was by means of crinoline dresses, which used steel rods, leading to umbrella frames, saw blades, wire wheels, bicycles.
Armand Peugeot introduced his "Le Grand Bi" penny-farthing in 1882, along with a range of other bicycles. The company's logo a lion walking on an arrow, symbolized the speed and flexibility of the Peugeot saw blades; the car company and bike company parted ways in 1926 but Peugeot bicycles continued to be built until recently. Armand Peugeot became interested in the automobile early on and, after meeting with Gottlieb Daimler and others, was convinced of its viability; the first Peugeot automobile, a three-wheeled, steam-powered car designed by Léon Serpollet, was produced in 1889. Steam power required lengthy warmup times. In 1890, after meeting Daimler and Émile Levassor, steam was abandoned in favour of a four-wheeled car with a petrol-fuelled internal combustion engine built by Panhard under Daimler licence; the car was more sophisticated than many of its contemporaries, with a three-point suspension and a sliding-gear transmission. An example was sold to the young Alberto Santos-Dumont. More cars followed, 29 being built in 1892, 40 in 1894, 72 in 1895, 156 in 1898, 300 in 1899.
These early models were given "type" numbers. Peugeot became the first manufacturer to fit rubber tyres to a petrol-powered car. Peugeot was an early pioneer in motor racing, with Albert Lemaître winning the world's first motor race, the Paris–Rouen, in a 3 hp Peugeot. Five Peugeots qualified for the main event, all finished. Lemaître finished 3 min 30 sec behind the Comte de Dion whose steam-powered car was ineligible for the official competition. Three Peugeots were entered in the Paris–Bordeaux–Paris, where they were beaten by Panhard's car (despite an average speed of 20.8 km/h and taking the 31,500 franc prize. This marked the debut of Michelin pneumatic tyres in racing on a Peugeot; the vehicles were still much horseless carriages in appearance and were steered by a tiller. In 1896, the first Peugeot engines were built. Designed by Rigoulot, the first engine was an 8 hp horizontal twin fitted to the back of the Type 15, it served as the basis of a nearly exact copy produced by Rochet-Schneider.
Further improvements followed: the engine moved to the front on the Type 48 and was soon under a bonnet at the front of the car, instead of hidden underneath. In 1896, Armand Peugeot broke away from Les Fils de Peugeot Frères to form his own company, Société Anonyme des Automobiles Peugeot, building a new factory at Audincourt to focus on cars. In 1899, sales hit 300; the same year, Lemaître won the Nice-Castellane-Nice Rally in a special 5,850 cc 20 hp racer. At the 1901 Paris Salon, Peugeot debuted a tiny shaft-driven 652 cc 5 hp one-cylinder, dubbed "Bébé", shed its conservative image, becoming a style leader. After placing 19th in the 1902 Paris-Vienna Rally with a 50 hp 11,322 cc racer, failing to finish with two similar cars, Peugeot quit racing. In 1898, Peugeot Motocycles presents at the Paris Motorshow the first motorcycle equipped with a Dion-Bouton motor. Peugeot Motocycles remains the oldest motorcycle manufacturer in the world. Peugeot added motorcycles to it
1997 Canadian Grand Prix
The 1997 Canadian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Circuit Gilles Villeneuve on 15 June 1997. The race was marred by a big crash involving Olivier Panis, who broke his legs and would be unable to start the next seven Grands Prix; the race ended under red flag conditions on lap 54 due to this crash. Michael Schumacher won ahead of Jean Alesi in the Giancarlo Fisichella in the Jordan. David Coulthard had been leading, but was delayed for over a lap by a clutch problem during his second pit stop, shortly before Panis's crash. On lap 2, local hero Jacques Villeneuve crashed into the wall on the exit of the final corner; this wall would be known as the'Wall of Champions', after three former World Champions, including Villeneuve, crashed into it separately in the 1999 race. It marked the debut of Alexander Wurz, driving for Benetton in place of his compatriot Gerhard Berger. Berger had been suffering from a sinus illness for some time and during his time off his father was killed in a light aircraft accident.
Lap leaders: Michael Schumacher 34, David Coulthard 20 First Podium For: Giancarlo Fisichella. First Point For: Shinji Nakano. Note: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings. "GRAND PRIX RESULTS: CANADIAN GP, 1997". Www.grandprix.com. Archived from the original on 2007-07-09. Retrieved 8 October 2007
Alain Marie Pascal Prost OBE is a retired French racing driver and a four-time Formula One Drivers' Champion. From 1987 until 2001 Prost held the record for most Grand Prix victories and is considered as one of the greatest F1 drivers ever. Michael Schumacher surpassed Prost's total of 51 victories at the 2001 Belgian Grand Prix. In 1999, Prost received the World Sports Awards of the Century in the motor sport category. Prost discovered karting at the age of 14 during a family holiday, he progressed through motor sport's junior ranks, winning the French and European Formula Three championships, before joining the McLaren Formula One team in 1980 at the age of 24. He finished in the points on his Formula One début at the San Martin Autodrome in Buenos Aires and took his first race victory at his home Grand Prix in France a year driving for the factory Renault team. During the 1980s and early 1990s, Prost formed a fierce rivalry with Ayrton Senna, but Nelson Piquet and Nigel Mansell. In 1986, at the last race of the season, he beat Mansell and Piquet of Williams to the title after Mansell retired late on in the race, Piquet was pulled in for a late precautionary pit stop.
Senna joined Prost at McLaren in 1988 and the two had a series of controversial clashes, including a collision at the 1989 Japanese Grand Prix that gave Prost his third Drivers' Championship. A year at the same venue they collided again, but this time Prost, driving for Ferrari, lost out. Before the end of a winless 1991 season Prost was fired by Ferrari for his public criticism of the team. After a sabbatical in 1992, Prost joined the Williams team, prompting reigning Drivers' Champion Mansell to leave for CART. With a competitive car, Prost won the 1993 championship and retired from Formula One driving at the end of the year. In 1997, Prost took over the French Ligier team, running it as Prost Grand Prix until it went bankrupt in 2002. From 2003 to 2012 he competed in the Andros Trophy, an ice racing championship, taking 38 race victories and winning the championship 3 times. Prost employed a smooth, relaxed style behind the wheel, deliberately modelling himself on personal heroes like Jackie Stewart and Jim Clark.
He was nicknamed "The Professor" for his intellectual approach to competition. Though it was not a name he cared for, he would admit that it was an appropriate summation of his approach to his racing. Skilled at setting up his car for race conditions, Prost would conserve his brakes and tyres early in a race, leaving them fresher for a challenge at the end. Alain Prost was born near the town of Saint-Chamond, close to the cities of Lyon and Saint-Etienne in the département of Loire, France, to André Prost and Marie-Rose Karatchian, born in France of Armenian descent. Prost had one younger brother called Daniel, who died of cancer in September 1986. Although short, standing at 1.67 m Prost was an active, athletic child, who enthusiastically took part in diverse sports, including wrestling, roller skating and football. In doing so he broke his nose several times, he considered careers as a gym instructor or a professional footballer before he discovered kart racing at the age of 14 while on a family holiday.
This new sport became his career of choice. Prost was married to Anne-Marie, they have two sons and Sacha Prost. Prost has a daughter, Victoria. From 2014 to 2018, Nicolas raced in Formula E for e.dams Renault, a team run by his father. Prost lived in his hometown, Saint-Chamond, until he and his Renault team fell out in the early 1980s. In April 1983 the Prost family moved to Sainte-Croix and shortly after to Yens, Switzerland, they moved to Switzerland after Renault workers went to Prost's house in France and burned his Mercedes-Benz and another one of his road cars. They lived there until November 1999. In December 2015, Prost became a grandfather with the birth of Nicolas Prost's son Kimi. In 1985 Prost was awarded the Légion d'Honneur by President François Mitterrand. Prost won several karting championships in his teens. In 1974 he left school to become a full-time racer, supporting himself by tuning engines and becoming a kart distributor, his prize for winning the 1975 French senior karting championship was a season in French Formula Renault, a category in which he won the title and all but one race in 1976.
Prost went on to win the 1977 Formula Renault European championship before moving up to Formula Three in 1978. In 1979 he won both the French and European F3 championships, by which time he was on the shopping lists of several Formula One teams. After considering his options, he chose to sign with McLaren for 1980, he surprised the British team by declining their offer of a race drive in a third car at the final race of the 1979 season at Watkins Glen — reasoning that the token effort would benefit neither him nor the team. Prost began his career with McLaren in 1980 alongside Ulsterman John Watson. On his debut in Buenos Aires he finished in sixth place earning one point, something achieved by only a handful of drivers. Prost added four more points to his tally during the season, scoring points at Interlagos, Brands Hatch and Zandvoort. Prost finished the year 15th in the Drivers' Championship, equalling points with former world champion Emerson Fittipaldi. Despite the encouraging debut season, Prost had several accidents, breaking his wrist during practice at Kyalami and suffering a concussion during practice at Watkins Glen.
He retired from the Canadian round in Montreal a week earlier because of rear suspensio
The Prost JS45 was the Formula One racing car with which the Prost team competed in the 1997 Formula One season, the first Prost-badged car following Alain Prost's acquisition of Ligier in February 1997. The acquisition of Ligier from Flavio Briatore by Prost, its subsequent renaming after him, marked the end of the Ligier name in F1 after involvement in the sport since 1976. However, the car had been designed and built beforehand, so retained its Ligier designation of JS45. Retained were Mugen Honda engines and Gauloises sponsorship, though the team opted for Bridgestone tyres in the Japanese's company's first year of F1. Prost's lead driver was Olivier Panis, who had driven for Ligier since 1994, while the second seat was taken by Japanese rookie Shinji Nakano due to pressure from engine suppliers Mugen. In the first six races of the season, the JS45 proved promising; the problems of braking and pitch sensitivity with the previous year's Ligier JS43 had been solved, this, allied with Panis' skill and the durability of the Bridgestones, enabled the French driver to finish fifth in Australia, third in Brazil, fourth in Monaco and second in Spain, just six seconds behind eventual World Champion Jacques Villeneuve.
These results put him third in the Drivers' Championship, after the Spanish Grand Prix Villeneuve said that he regarded Panis as one of his main threats for the rest of the season. However, a suspected suspension failure or puncture caused Panis to crash into a concrete wall at the next race in Canada, breaking both his legs and putting him out of action for the next seven Grands Prix. Nonetheless, the car remained competitive due to Panis' replacement Jarno Trulli, recruited from Minardi. Trulli finished fourth in Germany before leading the first half of the Austrian Grand Prix after qualifying third, these achievements impressed Prost enough for him to sign the Italian full-time for 1998. Panis returned for the final three races of the season and picked up one final point for sixth in his first race back, at the Nürburgring; the inexperienced Nakano, proved solid if not spectacular, scoring two points for sixth places at Canada and Hungary. However, he did not retain his seat for 1998, as Panis stayed on alongside Trulli and the team took on Peugeot engines, swapping with Jordan.
At the end of the season, Panis was tenth in the Drivers' Championship with 16 points, while Trulli was 16th with his three points from Germany and Nakano was 19th with his two. With a total of 21 points, Prost placed sixth in the Constructors' Championship. AUTOCOURSE 1997-98, Alan, Hazleton Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-874557-47-0
Acer Inc. is a Taiwanese multinational hardware and electronics corporation, specializing in advanced electronics technology, headquartered in Xizhi, New Taipei City, Taiwan. Acer's products include desktop PCs, laptop PCs, servers, storage devices, virtual reality devices, displays and peripherals. Acer sells gaming PCs and accessories under its Predator brand. In the early 2000s, Acer implemented a new business model, shifting from a manufacturer to a designer and distributor of products, while performing production processes via contract manufacturers. In 2015, Acer was the sixth-largest personal computer vendor in the world. In addition to its core IT products business, Acer has a new business entity that focuses on the integration of cloud services and platforms, the development of smartphones and wearable devices with value-added IoT applications. Acer was founded by Stan Shih, his wife Carolyn Yeh, a group of five others as Multitech in 1976, headquartered in Hsinchu City, Taiwan; the company began with US$25,000 in capital.
It was a distributor of electronic parts and a consultant in the use of microprocessor technologies. It produced the Micro-Professor MPF-I training kit two Apple II clones; the company was renamed Acer in 1987. In 1998, Acer reorganized into five groups: Acer International Service Group, Acer Sertek Service Group, Acer Semiconductor Group, Acer Information Products Group, Acer Peripherals Group. To dispel complaints from clients that Acer competed with its own products and to alleviate the competitive nature of the branded sales vs. contract manufacturing businesses, in 2000 the company spun off the contract business, renaming it Wistron Corporation. The restructuring resulted in two primary units: brand name sales and contract manufacturing. In 2001 the company got rid of its manufacturing units, BenQ and Wistron to focus resources on design and sales. Acer increased worldwide sales while reducing its labor force by identifying and using marketing strategies that best utilized their existing distribution channels.
By 2005, Acer employed a scant 7,800 people worldwide. Revenues rose from US$4.9 billion in 2003 to US$11.31 billion in 2006. Acer's North American market share has slipped over the past few years, while in contrast, the company's European market share has risen. In the mid-2000s years, consumer notebooks have been the sole growth drivers for the PC industry, Acer's exceptionally low overheads and dedication to the channel had made it one of the main beneficiaries of this trend. Acer grew in Europe in part by embracing the use of more traditional distribution channels targeting retail consumers when some rivals were pursuing online sales and business customers. In 2007 Acer bought Gateway in the USA and Packard Bell in Europe and became the Number 3 world provider of computers and number 2 for notebooks, achieved significant improvement in profitability. Acer has been striving to become the world's largest PC vendor, in the belief that the goal can help it achieve economy of scale and garner higher margin.
But such a reliance on the high-volume, low-value PC market made Acer exposed when buying habits changed. In November 2013 Chairman and CEO J. T. Wang, President Jim Wong, both resigned due to the company's poor financial performance. Wang had been due to leave Acer at year end, was supposed to have been succeeded by Wong. Acer co-founder Stan Shih took over as board chairman and interim president after the departure of Wang and Wong and began to search for new candidates to assume the roles of CEO and president. On 23 December, Acer named Jason Chen, vice president of worldwide sales and marketing at Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing, as its new president and CEO, effective 1 January. In 1988, Acer acquired Counterpoint Computers. In 1990, Acer acquired Altos Computer Corporation. In 1993, Acer acquired the PC division of Commodore International. In 1997, Acer acquired Texas Instruments notebook computer business. On 27 August 2007, Acer announced plans to acquire its US-based rival Gateway, Inc. for US$710 million.
Acer's former chairman, J. T. Wang, stated that the acquisition "completes Acer's global footprint, by strengthening our United States presence". Included in this acquisition was the eMachines brand. In January 2008, Acer announced. In March 2008, Acer acquired: E-TEN. In 2009, Acer acquired 29.9% of Olidata. In August 2010, Acer and Founder Technology signed a memorandum of mutual understanding to strengthen their long term PC business cooperation. In July 2011, Acer Inc. bought iGware Inc. for $320 million to try to enter the lucrative cloud market. IGware creates cloud infrastructure tools for devices. In September 2015, Acer acquired GPS cycling computer brand Xplova. In September 2015, Acer invested in robotics start-up company Jibo. In March 2016, Acer made an equity investment in grandPad, a provider of technology solutions designed for senior citizens. In June 2016, Acer's Board of Directors approved the establishment of a joint venture with Starbreeze AB to design, promote and sell StarVR Virtual Reality Head-Mounted Displays.
In 2016, Acer acquired wireless pet camera maker Pawbo. In 2017, Acer became largest corporate shareholder of AOPEN Inc. Acer has 7,000+ employees worldwide, operates in 70 countries, has a
1997 Formula One World Championship
The 1997 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 51st season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1997 FIA Formula One World Championship, which commenced on 9 March and ended on 26 October after seventeen races; the Drivers' Championship was won by Jacques Villeneuve and the Constructors' Championship was awarded to Williams-Renault. The 1997 Formula One calendar featured two new events in the Luxembourg Grand Prix, as well as the Austrian Grand Prix, the latter of which returned to the calendar after a ten-year absence; the only race exiting the calendar was the Portuguese Grand Prix after 12 years raced at the Autodromo do Estoril. The championship was decided under controversial circumstances as championship leader Michael Schumacher deliberately rammed Villeneuve whilst trying to defend his race lead in the final round of the championship at the European Grand Prix at Jerez, Spain. Schumacher came to a halt in the gravel trap and was deemed at fault for the accident by FIA – being punished by being stripped of his 2nd place in the championship.
Villeneuve finished third in the race in spite of the contact. Schumacher still kept his five race wins. Villeneuve won seven races, but would never win a Formula One Grand Prix again before his 2006 retirement. 1997 saw the retirement of Gerhard Berger after many years in the sport, as well as the first race wins for Heinz-Harald Frentzen and Mika Häkkinen. As of 2018, this was the last time; the following teams and drivers competed in the 1997 FIA Formula One World Championship. Three new teams came into Formula One in 1997: Prost. Footwork reverted to the name "Arrows" and switched from the Hart engines used the previous year to Yamaha engines. Tyrrell changed their engines as well, swapping the Yamaha engines in preference to the Ford engines. Jordan-Peugeot signed up rated British engineer Dr John Davis, he helped the team with its new windtunnel facility at Brackley, the tunnel itself was funded by Ferrari in exchange for Eddie Irvine who moved to Ferrari the previous year. Sauber, in partnership with new sponsor Petronas, formed Sauber Petronas Engineering and through the newly established engineering company secured the licensing rights to engine and gearbox components from Ferrari, allowing them to build and run nearly identical units to those used in the Ferraris.
The engines were branded as Petronas, in deference to the role the company played in their development. Bridgestone entered into F1 and supplied tyres to Arrows, Minardi and Lola. Pre-season changesArrows: The biggest news at the beginning of the 1997 season was Damon Hill, 1996 champion, being dropped by Williams in favour of Heinz-Harald Frentzen. Hill was partnered with Brazilian Pedro Diniz, signed from Ligier. Ricardo Rosset joined the newly formed Lola team, while Jos Verstappen found a home at Tyrrell Racing. Williams: The Champion team dismissed the 1996 World Champion Damon Hill and employed Heinz-Harald Frentzen, the German whom the team had wanted to sign for several years, to partner Jacques Villeneuve. Prost: Reliant on their Japanese engine partners Mugen-Honda, Shinji Nakano, a Japanese driver, joined Prost to partner Olivier Panis for the season. Sauber: Thanks in part to the deal allowing Sauber to license and utilise Ferrari's engine and gearbox components, Ferrari test driver Nicola Larini signed with Sauber where he would partner existing driver Johnny Herbert.
Larini replaced Heinz-Harald Frentzen. Jordan: The Irish team changed their driver line-up for 1997. Ralf Schumacher, Michael's younger brother, was given the team leader's seat. Instead, Jordan went for Giancarlo Fisichella, who had raced for the Alfa Romeo factory team in the International Touring Car Championship the previous year, as well as making some appearances for Minardi. Rubens Barrichello went to a new team, Stewart Grand Prix, while Martin Brundle was unable to find a seat and reluctantly retired. Tyrrell: Ukyo Katayama left Tyrrell for Minardi and was replaced by Jos Verstappen of Footwork. Mika Salo was retained. Minardi: Minardi ran Italian rising star Jarno Trulli alongside Ukyo Katayama, who had moved from Tyrrell, for the 1997 season; the announcement of the Italian filled the final seat in the 1997 Formula 1 World Championship. The decision was made after Minardi released his promising countryman Giancarlo Fisichella from his contract so that he could join Jordan. Having signed Ukyo Katayama, his Mild Seven sponsorship, for one seat, owner Giancarlo Minardi felt that his team needed a young Italian and Trulli was the obvious choice for Minardi.
Katayama replaced Pedro Lamy. Stewart: The first of the two new teams, hired Rubens Barrichello from Jordan, partnered him with Jan Magnussen. Magnussen had raced in CART in 1996, but had appeared in one F1 race in 1995 for McLaren, substituting for an unwell Mika Häkkinen. Lola: Lola, as the other new team, recruited Ricardo Rosset from Footwork and Benetton's test driver Vincenzo Sospiri. Forti: The Italian team ceased to exist midway through 1996, neither of their drivers, Luca Badoer and Andrea Montermini, were able to find a seat for 1997. Badoer moved into the FIA GT Championship. Badoer would return to F1 in 1999 with Minardi. Ferrari (Michae
In motorsport the pole position is the position at the inside of the front row at the start of a racing event. This position is given to the vehicle and driver with the best qualifying time in the trials before the race; this number-one qualifying driver is referred to as the pole sitter. Grid position is determined by a qualifying session prior to the race, where race participants compete to ascend to the number 1 grid slot, the driver, pilot, or rider having recorded fastest qualification time awarded the advantage of the number 1 grid slot ahead of all other vehicles for the start of the race; the fastest qualifier was not the designated pole-sitter. Different sanctioning bodies in motor sport employ different qualifying formats in designating who starts from pole position. A starting grid is derived either by current rank in the championship, or based on finishing position of a previous race. In important events where multiple qualification attempts spanned several days, the qualification result was segmented or staggered, by which session a driver qualified, or by which particular day a driver set his qualification time, only drivers having qualified on the initial day eligible for pole position.
In a phenomenon known as race rigging, where race promoters or sanctioning bodies invert their starting grid for the purpose of entertainment value, the slowest qualifier would be designated as pole-sitter. In contrast to contemporary motorsport, where only a race participant is designated pole-sitter, prior to World War II, the pace car was designated as official pole-sitter for the Indianapolis 500; the term has its origins in horse racing, in which the fastest qualifying horse would be placed on the inside part of the course, next to the pole. In Grand Prix racing, grid positions, including pole, were determined by lottery among the drivers. Prior to the inception of the Formula One World Championship, the first instance of grid positions being determined by qualifying times was at the 1933 Monaco Grand Prix. Since the FIA have introduced many different qualifying systems to Formula One. From the long-standing system of one session on each of Friday and Saturday, to the current knockout-style qualifying leaving 10 out of 20 drivers to battle for pole, there have been many changes to qualifying systems.
Between 1996 and 2006, the FIA made 6 significant changes to the qualifying procedure, each with the intention of making the battle for pole more interesting to viewers at home. Traditionally, pole was always occupied by the fastest driver due to low-fuel qualifying; the race-fuel qualifying era between 2003 and 2009 changed this. Despite the changing formats, drivers attempting pole were required between 2003 and 2009 to do qualifying laps with the fuel they would use to start the race the next day. An underfuelled slower car and driver would therefore be able to take pole ahead of a better but heavier-fueled car. In this situation, pole was not always advantageous to have in the race as the under-fueled driver would have to pit for more fuel before their rivals. With the race refueling ban introduced, low-fuel qualifying returned and these strategy decisions are no longer in play; when Formula One enforced the 107% rule between 1996 and 2002, a driver's pole time might affect slower cars posting times for qualifying, as cars that could not get within 107% of the pole time were not allowed start the race unless the stewards decided otherwise.
Since the reintroduction of the rule in 2011, this only applies to the quickest first session time, not the pole time. From 2014 to 2017, the FIA awarded a trophy to the driver who won the most pole positions in a season without sponsorship. From 2018, the FIA Pole Trophy has been renamed the Pirelli Pole Position Award, with the polesitter at each race winning a Pirelli wind tunnel tyre with the name of the polesitter and their time; the driver with the most pole positions at the end of the season wins a full-size engraved Formula 1 tyre. indicates that the driver won the World Championship in the same season. IndyCar uses four formats for qualifying: one for most oval tracks, one for Iowa Speedway, one for the Indianapolis 500, another for road and street circuits. Oval qualifying is like the Indianapolis 500, with two laps, instead of four, averaged together with one attempt, although with just one session. At Iowa, each car takes one qualifying lap, the top six cars advance to the feature race for the pole position.
Positions from 7th onward are assigned to their races, based on time, with cars in the odd-numbered finishing order starting in one race, cars in the even-numbered finishing order starting in the second race. The finishing order for the odd-numbered race starts on the inside, starting in Row 6, even-numbered race on the outside based on finishing position, again from Row 6, except for the top two in each race, which start in the inside and outside of the race for the pole position; the result of the feature race determines positions 1–10. All three races are 50 laps. On road and street courses, cars are drawn randomly into two qualifying groups. After each group has one twenty-minute session, the top six cars from each group qualify for a second session; the cars that finished seventh or worse are lined up by their times, with the best of these times starting 13th. The twelve remaining cars run a 15-minute session, after which the top six cars move on to a final 10-minute session to determine positions one through six on the grid.
The Iowa format was instituted in 2012 with major modifications (times set based on open qualifying session in second pract