The prostate is an exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals. It differs among species anatomically and physiologically; the word prostate comes from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostátēs "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian". Anatomically, the prostate can be subdivided in two ways: by lobe, it does not have a capsule. It is sheathed in the muscles of the pelvic floor; the prostate contains some smooth muscles that help expel semen during ejaculation. The function of the prostate is to secrete a fluid; this prostatic fluid is alkaline, milky or white in appearance, in humans constitutes 30% of the volume of semen, the other 70% being spermatozoa and seminal vesicle fluid. The alkalinity of semen helps neutralize the acidity of the vaginal tract, prolonging the lifespan of sperm; the prostatic fluid is expelled in the first part of ejaculate, together with most of the sperm. In comparison with the few spermatozoa expelled together with seminal vesicular fluid, those in prostatic fluid have better motility, longer survival, better protection of genetic material.
Disorders of the prostate include enlargement, inflammation and cancer. The prostate is a gland of the male reproductive system. In adults, it is about the size of a walnut; the prostate is located in the pelvis. Within it sits the urethra coming from the bladder, called the prostatic urethra and which merges with the two ejaculatory ducts; the mean weight of the normal prostate in adult males is about 11 grams ranging between 7 and 16 grams. The volume of the prostate can be estimated by the formula 0.52 × length × width × height. A volume of over 30 cm3 is regarded as prostatomegaly. A study stated that prostate volume among patients with negative biopsy is related with weight and height, so it is necessary to control for weight; the prostate surrounds the urethra just below the urinary bladder and can be felt during a rectal exam. A surrounding fibrous layer is sometimes referred to as the prostatic capsule or prostatic fascia, a surrounding fibromuscular band is integral, it is sheathed in the muscles of the pelvic floor.
The prostate can be subdivided in two ways, either by lobe. Because of the variation in descriptions and definitions of lobes, zones form the predominant division; the "lobe" classification is more used in anatomy. The prostate is incompletely divided into five lobes: The prostate has been described as consisting of three or four zones; this "zone" classification is more used in pathology. The prostate gland has four distinct glandular regions, two of which arise from different segments of the prostatic urethra: The veins of the prostate form a network – the prostatic venous plexus around its front and outer surface; this network receives blood from the deep dorsal vein of the penis, is connected via branches to the vesical plexus and internal pudendal veins. Veins drain into the vesical and internal iliac veins; the lymphatic drainage of the prostate depends on the positioning of the area. Vessels surrounding the vas deferens, some of the vessels in the seminal vesicle, a vessel from the posterior surface of the prostate drain into the external iliac lymph nodes.
Some of the seminal vesicle vessels, prostatic vessels, vessels from the anterior prostate drain into internal iliac lymph nodes. Vessels of the prostate itself drain into the obturator and sacral lymph nodes; the tissue of the prostate consists of glands and stroma. Tall column-shaped cells form the lining of the glands; these are pseudostratified. The epithelium is variable and areas of low cuboidal or squamous epithelium are present, with transitional epithelium in the distal regions of the longer ducts; the glands are found as numerous follicles, which in turn drain into long canals and subsequently 12 - 20 main ducts, which in turn drain into the urethra as it passes through the prostate. There are a small amount of basal cells, which sit next to the basement membranes of glands, act as stem cells; the stroma of the prostate is made up of smooth muscle. The fibrous tissue separates the gland into lobules, it sits between the glands and is composed of randomly orientated smooth-muscle bundles that are continuous with the bladder.
Over time, thickened secretions called. Three histological types of cells are present in the prostate gland: glandular cells, myoepithelial cells, subepithelial interstitial cells. About 20,000 protein coding genes are expressed in human cells and 75% of these genes are expressed in the normal prostate. About 150 of these genes are more expressed in the prostate with about 20 genes being prostate specific; the corresponding specific proteins are expressed in the glandular and secretory cells of the prostatic gland and have functions that are important for the characteristics of semen. Some of the prostate specific proteins are enzymes, such as the prostate specific antigen, the ACPP protein; the prostatic part of the urethra develops from the middle, part of the urogenital sinus, of endodermal origin. Around the end of the third month of embryonic life, outgrowths arise from the prostatic part of the urethra and grow into the surrounding mesenchyme; the cells lining this part of the urethra differentiate into the glandular epithelium of the prostate.
The associated mesenchyme differentiates into the dense stroma and
Jules Szymkowiak is a Dutch racing driver. After competing in the FIA Formula 3 European Championship he transferred to GT-racing in various GT3 championships. After karting in various Rotax Max powered classes Szymkowiak was selected to compete in the Formula BMW Talent Cup in 2013; the Dutch driver won four races during the season, two at the Red Bull Ring and two at the Slovakia Ring. At the championship Grand Final at Motorsport Arena Oschersleben Szymkowiak finished second in the first race, retired in the second race and placed sixth in the third race; the Dutchman had to settle for sixth in the overall standings. For 2014 Szymkowiak was announced to race with Van Amersfoort Racing in the FIA Formula 3 European Championship. Former Formula One driver Adrian Sutil advised on Szymkowiak transitioning into Formula 3. At the Hungaroring Szymkowiak scored his best result placing sixth. During the season the driver scored seventeen points placing twentieth in the series. Szymkowiak made his GT3 racing debut with HTP Motorsport in a Bentley Continental GT.
The rookie landed his HTP racing seat by filling in an application form. In the 2015 Blancpain Sprint Series the Dutch driver shared his car with three different drivers during the season, Olivier Lombard, Tom Dillmann and Max van Splunteren. In the overall classification Szymkowiak scored a couple of sixth places as his best result; as a silver graded driver he qualified for the Silver Cup. In the Silver Cup he scored nine class victories out of thirteen races dominating the championship. To qualify to race GT3 machinery in the VLN and the 24 Hours of Nürburgring Szymkowiak needed a DMSB Permit Nordschleife Grade A. To receive the permit Szymkowiak raced in the 2015 DMV Münsterlandpokal entered on two cars, one BMW M235i and one Honda Civic Type-R. With HTP Motorsport switching to the new Mercedes-AMG GT Szymkowiak got a new teammate for the Blancpain GT Sprint Series, Bernd Schneider; the duo won their first race at Brands Hatch. The duo scored; as a rising talent he won the Sean Edwards Trophy, over other finalists Dries Vanthoor and Luca Stoltz.
For 2017 Szymkowiak partnered with Fabian Schiller again qualifying to compete in the Silver Cup classification. The duo scored a second place overall finish at the season opener at Misano, they won the Silver Cup classification seven times, again winning the championship
Majlis Perbandaran Muar Football Club or MP Muar was a Malaysian football club based in Muar, Johor. The club home ground is the Sultan Ibrahim Mini Stadium in Muar; the club played in the Malaysia Premier League, the second tier of the Malaysian League from 2010 to 2012. Under new direction of Johor Football Association, all clubs from Johor including MP Muar has pulled from Malaysian League at the end of 2012 season and joining State League, the PBNJ State League. Majlis Perbandaran Muar Football Club or MP Muar is owned by the Muar Municipal Council. For the 2011 Malaysia Premier League season, the club has been using the JCorp Stadium in Pasir Gudang, Johor Bahru as their home ground; the club returned to Sultan Ibrahim Mini Stadium as their home ground for the 2012 Malaysia Premier League. At the end of 2012 league season, MP Muar finished in ninth place and had to play relegation play-off match with Betaria, the tenth place team. Although MP Muar won the match 3-0, the team decided to pull out of the league after the re-structuring plan by JFA, along with another club from Johor, MBJB.
In 2012, HRH Tunku Ismail Sultan Ibrahim, the JFA's Royal Patron, announced that JFA will take over all football clubs and associations in the state of Johor which compete in any football cup competitions in Malaysia. Hence, MP Muar technically closed by Football Association of Malaysia and withdrew from 2012 Malaysia Premier League. All selected players and managers was transferred to JFA under a club Johor Darul Ta'zim based on ability and experiences; the MP Muar President squad, the youth team was absorbed into JDT II and to JDT IV. Under Mutual of Understanding and Agreements, MP Muar will now only compete in state level competition, the PBNJ State League and served a purpose of creating talent pool for local football scene; as of 2013, the team played in the Johor state league before being dissolved. Malaysia FAM League3rd place: 2009 Mohd Fitri Omar MP Muar FC Official Site Soccerway profile
Charles IV of Spain and His Family is an oil on canvas painting by the Spanish artist Francisco Goya. He began work on this painting in 1800, shortly after he became First Chamber Painter to the royal family, completed it in the summer of 1801; the portrait features life-sized depictions of Charles IV of Spain and his family, ostentatiously dressed in fine costume and jewelry. Foremost in the painting are Charles IV and his wife, Maria Luisa of Parma, who are surrounded by their children and relatives; the family are dressed in the height of contemporary fashionable clothing, lavishly adorned with jewelry and the sashes of the order of Charles III. The painting was modeled after Louis-Michel van Loo's 1743 Portrait of Felipe V and his Family and Velázquez's Las Meninas, setting the royal subjects in a naturalistic and plausible setting as they pose for the artist, visible at his easel at the left of the canvas. Unlike these earlier depictions which sought to flatter their subjects, Goya's group portrait is unflinchingly realist, sometimes grotesquely so, both in detail and tone.
The group portrait was completed the year after Goya became first court painter, the highest position available to a Spanish artist, one occupied by Diego Velázquez. Goya did not say. Goya was motivated by the troubled times; the royal family is paying a visit to the artist's studio, while Goya can be seen to the left looking outwards towards the viewer. Goya seems to focus his attention on three figures: Charles IV, dressed in blue, his wife, Maria Luisa of Parma, standing center, their son Ferdinand. Although a formal portrait, there are indications of intimacy between the family members. In contrast to the Velázquez, the painting does not show any of the royal family's servants or attendants. More Goya omits narrative structure; as in Las Meninas, the artist is shown working on a canvas. The visible man in the background shadows at the left is Goya himself. Others are, left to right: Carlos Maria Isidro – King's 2nd son the future Fernando VII – King's 1st son Maria Josefa – King's sister Maria Antonia of Naples – it was not known whom she would be by the time the work was created María Isabel – King's daughter Maria Luisa of Parma – King's wife Francisco de Paula – King's youngest son Charles IV – King Don Antonio Pascual – King's brother Carlota Joaquina – King's eldest daughter Don Luis de Parma – King's son-in-law their baby Carlos Luis, the future Duke of Parma his wife Maria Luisa – King's daughter, holding The French writer Theophile Gautier called it a'picture of the corner grocer who has just won the lottery' and it has sometimes been believed that Goya was in some way satirising his subjects.
The idea has been dismissed however by the art critic Robert Hughes: "This is nonsense. You didn't manage to keep your job as an official court portraitist if you were satirising the people you were painting. No, this is not a send up. If anything it is an act of flattery. For instance on the left, in the blue suit, is one of the most odious little toads in the entire history of Spanish politics, the future King Ferdinand VII, whom Goya manages to make quite regal. God knows how he did it; this is much an act of respect verging on an act of flattery."
"Ol' Man River" is a show tune from the 1927 musical Show Boat that contrasts the struggles and hardships of African Americans with the endless, uncaring flow of the Mississippi River. It is sung from the point of view of a black stevedore on a showboat, is the most famous song from the show; the song is meant to be performed in a slow tempo, it is sung complete once in the musical's lengthy first scene by the stevedore "Joe" who travels with the boat, and, in the stage version, is heard four more times in brief reprises. Joe serves as a sort of musical one-man Greek chorus, the song, when reprised, comments on the action, as if saying, "This has happened, but the river keeps rolling on anyway." The song is notable for several aspects: the lyrical pentatonic-scale melody, the subjects of toil and social class, metaphor to the Mississippi, as a bass solo. Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra had a hit recording of the song in 1928, in a much faster tempo than Kern and Hammerstein intended, featuring Bing Crosby on vocals and Bix Beiderbecke on cornet.
A second version, by Paul Whiteman with bass singer Paul Robeson on vocals and sung in a dance tempo, was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 2006. In 2004, Robeson's version finished at #24 on AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs survey of top tunes in American cinema. The song was first performed in the original stage production of Show Boat on December 27, 1927, by Jules Bledsoe, who sang it in the part-talkie 1929 film, although that film version had little to do with the stage musical. Bledsoe recorded the song years later. However, the most famous rendition of it, one, still noted today, was sung by Paul Robeson in James Whale's classic 1936 film version of Show Boat; the first known recording of the song was by'Kenn' Sisson and His Orchestra, recorded on December 27, 1927, with Irving Kaufman on vocals. From the show's opening number "Cotton Blossom", the notes in the phrase "Cotton Blossom, Cotton Blossom" are the same notes as those in the phrase "Ol' Man River, dat Ol' Man River," but inverted.
However, "Cotton Blossom" was written first, "Ol' Man River" was written only after Kern and Hammerstein realized they needed a song to end the first scene in the show. Hammerstein decided to use the idea of the Mississippi River as a basis for the song and told Kern to use the melody that the stevedores sang in "Cotton Blossom" but invert some of it, slow down the tempo; this inversion gave "Ol' Man River" a tragic quality. Beginning about 1938, continuing on to the end of his career, Paul Robeson changed a few of the lyrics of "Ol' Man River" when singing it at recitals, though never in actual stage performances of Show Boat, not in the 1936 film version.. Except for the change of the word "niggers" to "darkies," the lyrics of the song as Robeson performed it in the 1936 film version of the show remain as Oscar Hammerstein II wrote them in 1927. However, after 1938, Robeson would record the song only with the lyrics that he used in his post-1936 concert recitals. In the 1978 one-man play Paul Robeson, by Phillip Hayes Dean, there is a reference to the change in the lyrics - an unseen interviewer asks Robeson about the original lyrics, he responds "No, I don't sing it that way anymore".
In the 1951 film version of Show Boat, as well as the 1962 studio recording and the 1966 Lincoln Center revival of the show, William Warfield sang only the introductory verse and the lyrics to the main section of the song, omitted what could be considered a controversial section, in contrast to both Jules Bledsoe and Robeson. The section that Warfield omitted begins: Niggers all work on de Mississippi, Niggers all work while de white folks play... In the 1936 film, the word "niggers" was changed to "darkies". Since the 1946 revival, the term has been changed to "colored folks", although there have been revivals that change the lines to Here we all work on de Mississippi,/ Here we all work while de white folks play. Al Jolson sang a version starting with "lots of folks work on the Mississippi." The phrase "feared of dyin' " has been sung in some recordings, notably Lawrence Tibbett's 1930s version, Gordon MacRae's 1950s version, Frank Sinatra's 1946 performance, first heard in the film Till the Clouds Roll By.
Robeson's own 1938 changes in the lyrics of the song are as follows: Instead of "Dere's an ol' man called de Mississippi, / Dat's de ol' man that I'd like to be...", Robeson sang "There's an ol' man called the Mississippi, / That's the ol' man I don't like to be"..." Instead of "Tote that barge! / Lift that bale! / Git a little drunk, / An' you land in jail...", Robeson sang "Tote that barge and lift dat bale!/ You show a little grit / And you lands in jail.." Instead of "Ah gits weary / An' sick of tryin'. In Scene 7 of Act II of the show, Joe does sing this verse, but rather than singing "I must keep fightin' until I'm dyin", sings "I must keep livin' until I'm dyin,/ But Ol' Man River,/ He jes' keeps rollin' along!" According to the 1988
Operation Black Vote is non-partisan and not-for-profit national organisation, established in 1996 to address the Black British and ethnic minority democratic deficit. Focusing on voter registration, lobbying politicians and mentoring schemes, OBV aims to inspire black and minority ethnic communities to engage with public institutions to address the perceived race inequalities in areas including education and employment. Between 1994 and 1996 Black communities were subject to severe political pressure; the New York-based Human Rights Watch identified Britain as the country with the highest incidence of racial attacks in Europe. Research at Southampton University by law professor Lawrence Lustgarden showed that Britain jails more Black people per head of population than the USA. In early 1996, with the last date for a General Election 18 months away - Black volunteers at Charter88 and activists at The 1990 Trust began exploring ways of using the most important event in Britain's political calendar to raise the concerns of the Black community.
OBV began by collating political and demographic data in marginal constituencies - and soon OBV realised that the Black vote was immensely powerful. In over 50 seats the number of African and Caribbean voters was greater than its marginality. In another 50, Black numbers were such that OBV had the potential to play a significant role in any fought contest. A call to action would have a solid base and an immediate focus - the power of the Black vote at the coming General Election; the challenge was to persuade the Black community to recognise that power and inspire them to participate - and to serve notice on the political parties that they ignored the Black electorate at their peril. Operation Black Vote was launched in July 1996. In just ten months OBV held over 100 meetings at schools, community centres, local party offices and town halls up and down the country. OBV distributed over 250,000 voter registration cards. In comparison to any election before 1997, the positive attention the Black electorate received from the major parties was unprecedented.
And the party leaders led from the front. In a speech that he would make a point of sending to OBV, the Prime Minister John Major said, "I don't pretend that the prospect for the young Black man in Brixton is yet as open as it is to the young white man in the Home Counties, it isn't. But OBV must try and make it so." Liberal Democrats leader Paddy Ashdown pledged to make the House of Commons more representatives, described it as "a white, middle-class club." And Tony Blair emphasised his lifetime commitment "to fight against racism." At constituency level, MPs and candidates across the country took part in OBV Question Time meetings. For the first time in British political history, every candidate OBV invited came to listen to the Black electorate and argue their case. There is little to no quantitative data on how many more Black people registered to vote and/or voted in 1997 as a direct consequence of OBV. Political rhetoric is instant; the disillusion of so many people - young Black men - would not and could not be addressed in the few months before the election.
Operation Black Vote’s work covers four main areas: Political education: to raise awareness and understanding of democratic and civic society through citizenship projects. Political participation: to improve general civic society engagement through local and national voter registration and other civic participation campaigns. Political representation: to increase political representation of Black and minority ethnic communities, through encouraging engagement. Equality promotion and Political representation: to increase political representation of Black and ethnic minorities in Britain through empowering individuals to engage in both democratic and civic society, lobbying political parties to increase BME political representations and addressing issues of race equality. Winner of the Channel 4 Political Award, 2008 Nominated for Channel 4 Political Award Supporting Local Democracy Award The Black Women in Business Award, 2006, awarded to Winsome-Grace Cornish for OBV's Shadowing Schemes in the Ethnic Organisation category Best Campaign Men & Women of Merit award The African Caribbean Positive Image Foundation awarded OBV the Prestigious Bernie Grant Award, 2002 OBV's Director Simon Woolley was voted onto the Big Issue′s top 100 "Grassroots Power list 2002" Website of the Year Award, 2001–12 OBV's official website