Wildlife reserve (Brazil)
A wildlife reserve is a type of sustainable use protected area of Brazil. As of 2016 no conservation units had been created in this category; the concept of a wildlife reserve was spelled out in Law No. 9.985 of 18 July 2000, which established the National System of Conservation Units. It is a natural area with populations of native species of fauna and aquatic, resident or migratory, suitable for technical and scientific studies of sustainable economic management of wildlife resources; the public may visit the reserve if, compatible with managing the conservation unit. Hunting is not allowed. However, products and by-products that result from the research may be marketed subject to laws concerning fauna; the area of the reserve is in the public domain, land within its boundaries may be expropriated. Federal reserves are administered by the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation. Other reserves are administered by the state or municipal environmental agency; as of 2016 Chico Mendes Institute had not created any wildlife reserves
Valley of the Dinosaurs, Paraíba
The Valley of the Dinosaurs is an area in the state of Paraíba, that contains many fossilized dinosaur tracks. It contains the Valley of the Dinosaurs Area of Relevant Ecological Interest, a sustainable use area of relevant ecological interest; this in turn contains the smaller and protected Valley of the Dinosaurs Natural Monument. In 2015–16 there was concern that renovations to the tourist attraction, delayed through lack of funding, might not be respecting the integrity of the site; the Valley of the Dinosaurs is an area in the sedimentary basin of the Peixe River that holds over 50 types of ancient animal tracks, including those of stegosaurus and iguanodons. The valley covers an area of about 700 square kilometres that includes the city of Sousa, Paraíba, ten other municipalities, it is in a Caatinga biome. Tracks have been found in about 30 locations in the valley, with fossilized footprints of over 80 species at about 20 different stratographic levels. Most of the tracks are of carnivorous dinosaurs.
The tracks the dinosaurs made in the damp earth beside ponds and rivers in rainy periods hardened over long periods of drought, gained new layers of sand and clay from floods, fossilized. Footprints are as small as 5 centimetres from dinosaurs the size of modern chickens, up to 40 centimetres long, such as that of a four-ton iguanodon; the most visited site is the island called the Passagem das Pedras in the bed of the Peixe River. This is about 7 kilometres from the urban centre of Sousa; the dinosaur tracks were discovered by a local farmer, Anísio Fausto Silva, in the late 19th century. At the start of the 20th century the engineer Luciano Jacques de Moraes began to study them scientifically. Although not a trained palaeontologist, Moraes gave detailed descriptions with drawings of the tracks for publication in the book Serras e Montanhas do Nordeste; the Área de Relevante Interesse Ecológico Vale dos Dinossauros was established on 18 December 1984 and is administered by the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation.
The protected area covers 145.79 hectares. It is in the Sousa municipality of the state of Paraíba; the Valley of the Dinosaurs Natural Monument was created in 2002 by the municipality of Souza. This is a protected natural monument of about 40 hectares. There were plans to divert the Peixe River. A R$1.3 million renovation was funded by the federal government and Petrobras, the site was reopened on 24 May 2013. Work included renovation of the museum, restructuring of the exhibition space, auditorium and bathrooms, changes to the external area including delimitation of parking spaces, paving of paths and walkways and upgrades to lookout gazebos to meet accessibility standards. Suspended walkways let the visitors view 50 fossilized footprints of the carnivorous noasauridae and 53 of the herbivore Iguanodon; the Area of Relevant Ecological Interest is classed as IUCN protected area category IV, whose purpose is to maintain natural ecosystems of regional or local importance and regulate use of these areas to make it compatible with the nature conservation objectives.
In December 2015 it was reported that the Valley of the Dinosaurs was in a state of neglect, renovations had been suspended. The replica of Tyrannosaurus Rex had been destroyed, access roads were covered by scrub, there were hundreds of cobblestones around the entrance, piles of sand and other problems. Reporters found that the work had been abandoned due to delays in releasing funding to the company charged with work on the site. In February 2016 the Federal Public Ministry in Sousa recommended that Paraíba Office of Environment Administration prepare the management plan for the natural monument within 90 days defining steps to ensure the integrity and protection of natural resources of the site, steps taken to integrate it into the social and economic life of the surrounding communities; the MPF recommended that SUDEMA give a detailed report within 30 days on the work carried out by the Sousa Prefecture in the Valley of Dinosaurs, which should be limited to protecting the integrity of the unit.
If the prefecture's work was not limited to this, MPF said that SUDEMA should take administrative measures to stop the work
National forest (Brazil)
A national forest in Brazil is a type of sustainable use protected area. The primary purpose is sustainable exploitation of the forest, subject to various limits; these include a requirement to preserve at least 50% of the original forest, to preserve forest along watercourses and on steep slopes, so on. More than 10% of the Amazon rainforest is protected by national forests or other types of conservation unit; the concept of the National Forest originated with the 1934 Forest Code. It is an area with forest cover of predominantly native species and has the basic objective of the sustainable multiple use of forest resources and scientific research, with emphasis on methods for sustainable exploitation of native forests; the forest is publicly owned, any private lands in its boundaries are expropriated when it is formed. Indigenous populations may remain in the forest. Public visits are allowed, research is encouraged, subject to the rules set out by the responsible agency; the term "national forest" is replaced by the equivalent terms "state forest" and "municipal forest" when it is created by the lower administrative level.
The responsible agency must publish a management plan for the forest. Under the Forest Code any new national forests must maintain at least 50% of the original forest coverage, although older forests may have as little as 20%. Properties in the south of Brazil in which the Paraná pine occurs cannot be deforested. Areas with slopes between 24 and 45 degrees cannot be deforested, but lumber may be extracted without clearcutting. Forests along waterways and around springs, on topographical heights, on slopes of more than 45 degrees, in salt marshes, on the edge of plateaus and above 1,800 metres may not be touched; the minimum amount of wild coverage must be preserved at each level of the property. Industries that use forest products are expected to invest in forests to meet their needs. Financial incentives envisioned in the Forest Code including tax exemptions on forest income and tax incentives for reforestation have not been implemented or have been modified; the regulations prohibit trade in wildlife products and by-products including 14 plants species and 207 species of animal.
These include the black caiman, jaguar, marsh deer, giant otter and giant anteater. However, enforcement has been hampered by lack of personnel, there is pressure from poor people who need the resources for survival, tropical plants and animals fetch high prices in the international market. Seven new national forests were created in the Amazon by presidential decree of Fernando Henrique Cardoso on 2 February 1998. According to the Socio-Environmental Institute this did not increase the protected area of the Amazon since the forests had been military areas protected from predatory exploitation, or the perimeter of the Carajás Project, the mining area of the Companhia Vale do Rio Doce. However, the decrees did let the government claim. According to Paulo Benincá of IBAMA the chosen areas had high potential for logging and were close to major rivers to transport; the goal was to create 40,000,000 hectares of national forest, which would be sufficient to meet domestic and foreign demand for wood products.
The 700,000 hectares Carajás National Forest around the Carajás project would ensure financial partnership with CVRD for environmental projects. List of Brazilian National Forests
The Amazon biome contains the Amazon rainforest, an area of tropical rainforest, other ecoregions that cover most of the Amazon basin and some adjacent areas to the north and east. The biome contains blackwater and whitewater flooded forest and montane terra firme forest and palm forest, sandy heath and alpine tundra; some areas are threatened by deforestation for timber and to make way for pasture or soybean plantations. The Amazon biome has an area of 6,700,000 square kilometres; the biome corresponds to the Amazon basin, but excludes areas of the Andes to the west and cerrado to the south, includes lands to the northeast extending to the Atlantic ocean with similar vegetation to the Amazon basin. J. J. Morrone defines the Amazonian subregion in this broader sense, divided into the biogeographical provinces of Guyana, Humid Guyana, Imeri, Amapá, Várzea, Madeira, Tapajós-Xingu, Pará, Yungas and Pantanal; the World Wildlife Fund takes a similar scope, where the Amazon biome includes the Guiana Shield rain forests in the north and the Chiquitano dry forests of Bolivia.
The biome covers parts of Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Guyana and French Guiana. In Brazil the biome covers more than 4,100,000 square kilometres and covers all or parts of the states of Acre, Roraima, Rondônia, Pará, Amapá, Maranhão, Tocantins and Mato Grosso; the Amazon biome covers 49.29% of Brazil. 16% of the biome is in Peru. As of 2015 about 23.4% of Peru's Amazon biome was protected, but of this less than half was protected. Much of the terrain of the Amazon biome around the rivers, is lowland plains; the Guiana Shield is an area of highlands along the border between Venezuela and Guyana. The southern Amazonian highlands cross parts of Rondonia and Mato Grosso and the southern parts of Amazonas and Para; the Amazon basin is crossed by ridges or "paleoarches" that connect the Guiana and Brazilian shields and divide it into geological sub-basins. They are the Iquitos or Jutai Arch in Peru and Acre, the Carauari Arch across the Rio Negro and Solimões, the Purus Arch to the west of Manaus, the Monte Alegre Arch to the west of the Tapajós and the Gurupa Arch to the west of Marajó.
Under the Paleoarch model, paleobasins between the arches form centers for biological diversification. Thus the Iquitos arch is considered the main reason for the different species of frogs and rodents and different forest types on either side of the ridge; the soil is very poor in nutrients, areas that have been deforested are unsuitable for agriculture or pasture. There are wide regional variations in soil types, thus 20% of the Rio Negro basin is covered by podzols and 55% by acrisols and ferralsols, with the remainder covered by alluvial and litholic soils and scattered areas of hydromorphic plinthosols. In the biome as a whole podzols cover just 136,000 square kilometres, or 2.7% of the area. In Brazil the average temperature of the biome is 22 to 26 °C and average rainfall is 2,300 millimetres, but there are wide variations from one region to another; the biome as a whole has annual rainfall from 1,500 to 3,000 millimetres, about half of, carried by winds from the Atlantic, the other half from evapotranspiration within the biome.
There are distribution of rainfall throughout the year. The Amazon watershed covers about 5,846,100 square kilometres; the Amazon River accounts for 15–16% of the total water discharged by rivers into the oceans of the world. Rivers may be whitewater or clearwater, thus the Rio Negro has clear, jet-black water caused by decomposition of organic matter in swamps along its margins, combined with low levels of silt. The Rio Branco and the Amazon itself have yellowish waters loaded with silt; the Tahuayo River in the Tamshiyacu Tahuayo Regional Conservation Area of Peru is classed as a blackwater river, but has similar chemistry to the whitewater rivers of the region since it is in the Amazon River floodplain, receives water from the Amazon. The Amazon and its major tributaries such as the Xingu, Tapajós, Madeira and Rio Negro form barriers to the geodispersal of plants and insects, thus the white-fronted capuchin and hairy saki are found west of the Tapajós, while the white-nosed saki is only found east of the river.
The World Wildlife Fund divides the biome into ecoregions defined as the regions lying between major tributaries of the Amazon. Most of the interior of the Amazon basin is covered by rainforest; the dense tropical Amazon rainforest is the largest tropical rainforest in the world. It covers between 5,500,000 and 6,200,000 square kilometres of the 6,700,000 to 6,900,000 square kilometres Amazon biome; the somewhat vague numbers are because the rainforest merges into similar biomes across its boundaries. The rainforest is so-called because most of the trees have broad leaves; the basin holds flooded riparian forest or várzea, seasonal forest and savanna. Seasonal forest covers much of the southeast border, with marked dry seasons when there are frequent fires; the Amazon biome contains areas of other types of vegetation including grasslands, swamps and palm forests. There are more than 600 types of land and freshwater habitat. Of the ecosystems, 34 are forest areas covering 78% of the biome, 6 are Andean covering 1.5%, 5 are floodplains covering 5.83%, 5 are savanna covering 12.75% an
Protected area mosaic (Brazil)
A protected area mosaic or conservation unit mosaic in Brazil is a mosaic of nearby, adjoining or overlapping protected areas of Brazil that are managed as a whole. The National System of Conservation Units law defines a mosaic as a collection of protected areas of the same or different categories that are near to each other, adjoin each other or overlap, that should be managed as a whole. Given the different categories of conservation unit and other protected areas in a mosaic, including protected and sustainable use units, the different conservation goals must be considered. A mosaic may include private indigenous territories; the Jacupiranga Mosaic is in the Ribeira Valley and the south coast of the state of São Paulo, with 14 conservation units of various categories. It was created to reconcile the goals of conserving the Atlantic Forest and improving the living conditions of the traditional populations of the area, it originated with the Jacupiranga State Park, created on 8 August 1969, includes the Rio Turvo and Caverna do Diabo state parks.
It includes four environmental protection areas, five sustainable development reserves and two extractive reserves. The Itatiaia National Park, created in 1937 as the first national park in Brazil, is part of the Mantiqueira Mosaic and the Mantiqueira Ecological Corridor, part of the larger Serra do Mar Ecological Corridor, which in turn is part of the UNESCO-recognised Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve; the park is a vulnerable "conservation island" due to its location between the major cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Brazil has created a mosaic of federal and state conservation units along the BR-319 highway through the Amazon rainforest in an effort to better prevent deforestation when the highway is paved through more efficient management of a larger area. However, WWF-Brazil has pointed out that it is not enough to create the protected areas on paper, they must be staffed, legal owners compensated and so on. The Terra do Meio Mosaic is in Pará state between the Tapajós rivers, it was created after the death of Sister Dorothy Stang, campaigning against illegal exploitation of the forests.
It includes the Terra do Meio Ecological Station, a protected conservation, created despite the presence of long-standing residents. The residents, who live along the Iriri River, have been placed under intense pressure to evacuate the area; the Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park in the state of Goiás, was expanded by Federal Decree in September 2001 and inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in December 2001. In 2003 the expansion was challenged and 72% of the national park lost its protection status; the park is part of the Cerrado Biosphere Reserve. Brazil has outlined plans for a mosaic of new conservation units with different management categories covering an equivalent area to the expanded National Park, but UNESCO has questioned whether the mosaic will be sufficient to ensure the statutory protection required for the World Heritage properties
An extractive reserve is a type of sustainable use protected area in Brazil. The land is publicly owned but the people who live there have the right to traditional extractive practices such as hunting and harvesting wild plants. In the broad sense, an extractive reserve is an area of land state-owned where access and use rights, including natural resource extraction, are allocated to local groups or communities. Extractive reserves limit deforestation both by the local residents preventing deforestation within their reserve, by acting as a buffer zone that keeps ranching and extractive industry out of the forests beyond."Extractive reserve" is among the types of sustainable use protected area defined by Law No. 9.985 of 18 July 2000, which established the National System of Conservation Units. The extractive reserves are of public domain but the use of the land is allowed for traditional extractive populations, they are areas used by traditional extractive populations whose livelihood is based on extraction, subsistence agriculture and small-scale livestock raising.
They are created to protect the livelihoods and culture of these people, ensuring sustainable use of natural resources. The land is in the public domain, but the people. Public visits are allowed where compatible with local interests and the provisions of the management plan for the unit. Research is encouraged, subject to prior authorization with the responsible agency. Extractive reserves in Brazil include: Marine extractive reserves in Brazil include: Marreti, Claudio C. et al.. "From pre-assumptions to a'just world conserving nature': the role of Category VI in protecting landscapes: The Chico Mendes Extractive Reserve, Brazilian Amazon". In Brown, Jessica et al; the protected landscape approach: linking nature and community. IUCN. ISBN 978-2-8317-0797-6. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in. They can be found over a range of continents. Biomes are distinct biological communities that have formed in response to a shared physical climate. "Biome" is a broader term than "habitat". While a biome can cover large areas, a microbiome is a mix of organisms that coexist in a defined space on a much smaller scale. For example, the human microbiome is the collection of bacteria and other microorganisms that are present on or in a human body. A'biota' is the total collection of organisms of a geographic region or a time period, from local geographic scales and instantaneous temporal scales all the way up to whole-planet and whole-timescale spatiotemporal scales; the biotas of the Earth make up the biosphere. The term was suggested in 1916 by Clements as a synonym for biotic community of Möbius, it gained its current definition, based on earlier concepts of phytophysiognomy and vegetation, with the inclusion of the animal element and the exclusion of the taxonomic element of species composition.
In 1935, Tansley added the climatic and soil aspects to the idea. The International Biological Program projects popularized the concept of biome. However, in some contexts, the term biome is used in a different manner. In German literature in the Walter terminology, the term is used as biotope, while the biome definition used in this article is used as an international, non-regional, terminology - irrespectively of the continent in which an area is present, it takes the same biome name - and corresponds to his "zonobiome", "orobiome" and "pedobiome". In Brazilian literature, the term "biome" is sometimes used as synonym of "biogeographic province", an area based on species composition, or as synonym of the "morphoclimatic and phytogeographical domain" of Ab'Sáber, a geographic space with subcontinental dimensions, with the predominance of similar geomorphologic and climatic characteristics, of a certain vegetation form. Both include many biomes in fact. To divide the world in a few ecological zones is a difficult attempt, notably because of the small-scale variations that exist everywhere on earth and because of the gradual changeover from one biome to the other.
Their boundaries must therefore be drawn arbitrarily and their characterization made according to the average conditions that predominate in them. A 1978 study on North American grasslands found a positive logistic correlation between evapotranspiration in mm/yr and above-ground net primary production in g/m2/yr; the general results from the study were that precipitation and water use led to above-ground primary production, while solar irradiation and temperature lead to below-ground primary production, temperature and water lead to cool and warm season growth habit. These findings help explain the categories used in Holdridge’s bioclassification scheme, which were later simplified by Whittaker; the number of classification schemes and the variety of determinants used in those schemes, should be taken as strong indicators that biomes do not fit into the classification schemes created. Holdridge classified climates based on the biological effects of temperature and rainfall on vegetation under the assumption that these two abiotic factors are the largest determinants of the types of vegetation found in a habitat.
Holdridge uses the four axes to define 30 so-called "humidity provinces", which are visible in his diagram. While this scheme ignores soil and sun exposure, Holdridge acknowledged that these were important; the principal biome-types by Allee: Tundra Taiga Deciduous forest Grasslands Desert High plateaus Tropical forest Minor terrestrial biomes The principal biomes of the world by Kendeigh: Terrestrial Temperate deciduous forest Coniferous forest Woodland Chaparral Tundra Grassland Desert Tropical savanna Tropical forest Marine Oceanic plankton and nekton Balanoid-gastropod-thallophyte Pelecypod-annelid Coral reef Whittaker classified biomes using two abiotic factors: precipitation and temperature. His scheme can be seen as a simplification of Holdridge's. Whittaker based his approach on empirical sampling, he was in a unique position to make such a holistic assertion because he had compiled a review of biome classifications. Physiognomy: the apparent characteristics, outward features, or appearance of ecological communities or species.
Biome: a grouping of terrestrial ecosystems on a given continent, similar in vegetation structure, features of the environment and characteristics of their animal communities. Formation: a major kind of community of plants on a given continent. Biome-type: grouping of convergent biomes or formations of different continents, defined by physiognomy. Formation-type: a grouping of convergent formations. Whittaker's distinction between biome and formation can be simplified: formation is used when applied to plant communities only, while biome is used when concerned with both plants and animals. Whittaker's convention of biome-type or formation-type is a broader method to categorize similar communities. Whittaker, seeing the need for a simpler way to express the relationship of community structure to the environment, used what he called "gradient analysis" of ecocline patterns to relate communities to climate on a worldwide scale. Whittaker