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Protectorate

A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory, granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state. In exchange for this, the protectorate accepts specified obligations, which may vary depending on the real nature of their relationship. Therefore, a protectorate remains an autonomous part of a sovereign state, they are different from colonies as they have local rulers and people ruling over the territory and experience rare cases of immigration of settlers from the country it has suzerainty of. However, a state which remains under the protection of another state but still retains independence is known as a protected state and is different from protectorates. In amical protection, the terms are very favorable for the protectorate; the political interest of the protector is moral or countering a rival or enemy power. This may involve a weak protectorate surrendering control of its external relations.

Amical protection was extended by the great powers to other Christian states and to smaller states that had no significant importance. In the post-1815 period, non-Christian states provided amical protection towards other much weaker states. In modern times, a form of amical protection can be seen as an important or defining feature of microstates. According to the definition proposed by Dumienski: "microstates are modern protected states, i.e. sovereign states that have been able to unilaterally depute certain attributes of sovereignty to larger powers in exchange for benign protection of their political and economic viability against their geographic or demographic constraints". Examples of microstates understood as modern protected states include Andorra, Liechtenstein, San Marino, Niue, the Cook Islands, Palau. Conditions regarding protection are much less generous for areas of colonial protection; the protectorate was reduced to a de facto condition similar to a colony, but using the pre-existing native state as an agent of indirect rule.

A protectorate was established by or exercised by the other form of indirect rule: a chartered company, which becomes a de facto state in its European home state, allowed to be an independent country which has its own foreign policy and its own armed forces. In fact, protectorates were declared despite not being duly entered into by the traditional states being protected, or only by a party of dubious authority in those states. Colonial protectors decided to reshuffle several protectorates into a new, artificial unit without consulting the protectorates, a logic disrespectful of the theoretical duty of a protector to help maintain its protectorates' status and integrity; the Berlin agreement of February 26, 1885 allowed European colonial powers to establish protectorates in Black Africa by diplomatic notification without actual possession on the ground. This aspect of history is referred to as the Scramble for Africa. A similar case is the formal use of such terms as colony and protectorate for an amalgamation, convenient only for the colonizer or protector, of adjacent territories over which it held sway by protective or "raw" colonial logic.

In practice, a protectorate has direct foreign relations only with the protecting power, so other states must deal with it by approaching the protector. The protectorate takes military action on its own, but relies on the protector for its defence; this is distinct from annexation, in that the protector has no formal power to control the internal affairs of the protectorate. Protectorates differ from League of Nations mandates and their successors, United Nations Trust Territories, whose administration is supervised, in varying degrees, by the international community. A protectorate formally enters into the protection through a bilateral agreement with the protector, while international mandates are stewarded by the world community-representing body, with or without a de facto administering power. Han dynasty: Protectorate of the Western RegionsTang dynasty: Protectorate General to Pacify the West Protectorate General to Pacify the North Protectorate General to Pacify the EastYuan dynasty: Goryeo Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten Various sultanates in the Dutch East Indies Trumon Sultanate, Langkat Sultanate, Deli Sultanate, Asahan Sultanate, Siak Sultanate and Indragiri Sultanate in Sumatra Jogjakarta Sultanate, Mataram Empire and Surakarta Sunanate, Duchy of Mangkunegara and Duchy of Paku Alaman in Java.

Sumbawa Sultanate and Bima Sultanate in Lesser Sunda Islands. Pontianak Sultanate, Sambas Sultanate, Kubu Sultanate, Landak Sultanate, Mempawah Sultanate, Matan Sultanate, Sanggau Sultanate, Sekadau Sultanate, Simpang Sultanate, Sintang Sultanate, Sukadana Sultanate, Kota Waringin Sultanate, Kutai Kertanegara Sultanate (8 August 182

Hugh Nelson (congressman)

Hugh Nelson was an American politician and U. S. Representative from Virginia, he was the son of Thomas Nelson Jr. Born in Yorktown, Nelson graduated from the College of William and Mary, Virginia, in 1780, he served in the Senate of Virginia 1786-1791, in the Virginia House of Delegates 1805-1809 and 1828-1829. He was Speaker of the latter house 1807-1809. Nelson served as judge of the general court. Nelson was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the Twelfth and to the five succeeding Congresses and served from March 4, 1811, until his resignation on January 14, 1823, having received an appointment in the diplomatic service, he served as chairman of the Committee on the Judiciary. Nelson was appointed by President James Monroe as United States Minister to Spain on January 15, 1823, served until November 23, 1824. Nelson died at his home, "Belvoir," Albemarle County, March 18, 1836, he was interred in Belvoir Cemetery, Virginia. United States Congress. "Hugh Nelson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.

This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov

Canae

Canae was, in classical antiquity, a city in ancient Aeolis, on the island of Argennusa in the Aegean Sea off the modern Dikili Peninsula on the coast of modern-day Turkey, near the modern village of Bademli. Today Argennusa has joined the mainland as the Kane Promontory off the Dikili Peninsula. Canae is famous as the site of the Battle of Arginusae in 406 B. C. Canae is mentioned by the ancient writers Herodotus, Pliny, Ptolemy, Sappho and Mela. According to the first-century Greek geographer Strabo, Canae was founded by Locrians coming from Cynus in eastern Greece. Canae was built on the island of Argennusa, beside a small promontory hill variously called Mount Cane, Aega, or Argennon; the name Canae means " of Mount Cane". According to the 5th-century B. C. Greek historian Herodotus, the massive Achaemenid army of Xerxes I passed Mount Cane on its way from Sardis to the Battle of Thermopylae in 480 B. C. During the Peloponnesian War, an Athenian fleet commanded by eight strategoi unexpectedly defeated a Spartan fleet under Callicratidas off the coast of Canae in 406 B.

C. in the Battle of Arginusae. During the Roman–Seleucid War, fought between the Roman Republic and Antiochus the Great in 192–188 B. C. the Roman navy wintered in Canae on their way to Chios. Livy writes that "the ships were hauled on shore and surrounded with a trench and rampart."By the time of Pliny the Elder in the first century A. D. the city was deserted. Arginusae Battle of Arginusae List of ancient Greek cities "Lost Island of Ancient Greece Discovered in Aegean Sea"