Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, providing structure to cells, organisms, transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another in their sequence of amino acids, dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, which results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are considered to be proteins and are called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides; the individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues. The sequence of amino acid residues in a protein is defined by the sequence of a gene, encoded in the genetic code.
In general, the genetic code specifies 20 standard amino acids. Shortly after or during synthesis, the residues in a protein are chemically modified by post-translational modification, which alters the physical and chemical properties, stability and the function of the proteins. Sometimes proteins have non-peptide groups attached, which can be called prosthetic groups or cofactors. Proteins can work together to achieve a particular function, they associate to form stable protein complexes. Once formed, proteins only exist for a certain period and are degraded and recycled by the cell's machinery through the process of protein turnover. A protein's lifespan covers a wide range, they can exist for years with an average lifespan of 1 -- 2 days in mammalian cells. Abnormal or misfolded proteins are degraded more either due to being targeted for destruction or due to being unstable. Like other biological macromolecules such as polysaccharides and nucleic acids, proteins are essential parts of organisms and participate in every process within cells.
Many proteins are enzymes that are vital to metabolism. Proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as actin and myosin in muscle and the proteins in the cytoskeleton, which form a system of scaffolding that maintains cell shape. Other proteins are important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, the cell cycle. In animals, proteins are needed in the diet to provide the essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized. Digestion breaks the proteins down for use in the metabolism. Proteins may be purified from other cellular components using a variety of techniques such as ultracentrifugation, precipitation and chromatography. Methods used to study protein structure and function include immunohistochemistry, site-directed mutagenesis, X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Most proteins consist of linear polymers built from series of up to 20 different L-α- amino acids. All proteinogenic amino acids possess common structural features, including an α-carbon to which an amino group, a carboxyl group, a variable side chain are bonded.
Only proline differs from this basic structure as it contains an unusual ring to the N-end amine group, which forces the CO–NH amide moiety into a fixed conformation. The side chains of the standard amino acids, detailed in the list of standard amino acids, have a great variety of chemical structures and properties; the amino acids in a polypeptide chain are linked by peptide bonds. Once linked in the protein chain, an individual amino acid is called a residue, the linked series of carbon and oxygen atoms are known as the main chain or protein backbone; the peptide bond has two resonance forms that contribute some double-bond character and inhibit rotation around its axis, so that the alpha carbons are coplanar. The other two dihedral angles in the peptide bond determine the local shape assumed by the protein backbone; the end with a free amino group is known as the N-terminus or amino terminus, whereas the end of the protein with a free carboxyl group is known as the C-terminus or carboxy terminus.
The words protein and peptide are a little ambiguous and can overlap in meaning. Protein is used to refer to the complete biological molecule in a stable conformation, whereas peptide is reserved for a short amino acid oligomers lacking a stable three-dimensional structure. However, the boundary between the two is not well defined and lies near 20–30 residues. Polypeptide can refer to any single linear chain of amino acids regardless of length, but implies an absence of a defined conformation. Proteins can interact with many types of molecules, including with other proteins, with lipids, with carboyhydrates, with DNA, it has been estimated. Smaller bacteria, such as Mycoplasma or spirochetes contain fewer molecules, on the order of 50,000 to 1 million. By contrast, eukaryotic cells are larger and thus contain much more pr
Divinka is a village and municipality in Žilina District in the Žilina Region of northern Slovakia. The modern village of Divinka consists of two parts, which were two separate villages: Divinka and Lalinok, which merged in 1911. During the Austro-Hungarian period, the village was a part of Trencsén County and belonged to the district of Kysucké Nové Mesto; the Veľký Vrch hill was fortified with ramparts of a vast hillfort, that rise up majestically above the village Divinka, thanks to its strategic location, has been inhabited since ancient times. This place, which gave many important testimonies of settlement in the times long before the first written mention of Divinka or Lalinok, is today a well-known cultural and natural site; the castle occupies an area of 12 hectares. Pieces of ceramics, iron and gold objects have been found there; the most famous discovery is the Celtic cointype "Divinka". The first written mention of Lalinok dates back to April 4, 1325, in the document dealing with the property transfers of the noble Borčický family, Lalinok is referred to as Lylihng.
The earliest direct written record of Divinka is preserved in the letter of the Nitra Cathedral chapter, dated to March 19, 1393. The Chapter announced not only King Sigismund of Luxembourg but all the villages of the Lietava estate, including Divinka and Lalinok, that the new lawful overlord of Lietava castle and the estate had become Dezider from Kapla. Local residents have retained traditional folk costumes as well as dialect, but they are no longer worn. In the middle of the 19th century and tinker trade were the two most widespread crafts. A typical feature of this region was emigration. Local people traveled to the United States, Belgium and Germany to work there; the municipality lies at an altitude of 327 metres and covers an area of 5.174 km². It has a population of about 1 024 people. Divinka is surrounded by a number of hills: Veľký vrch, Prašivá, Všivák and Bok. Lalinok is surrounded by Hradisko; the highest point in the land area is the peak of Prašivá, with an altitude of 626 m above sea level.
The village has a strong Roman Catholic tradition. From the point of view of church autonomy and Lalinok have never formed a separate parish, they have always been in the administration of other parishes since their creation. The municipalities alternately belonged to Kysucké Nové Mesto. After the establishment of a separate parish in the nearby village called Divina in 1771, Divinka and Lalinok joined it. Today, the village belongs to the administration of the Diocese of Žilina. An integral part of the history and demography of Divinka and Lalinok was the Jewish ethnicity; the Jews moved to Divinka and Lalinok sometime in the first half of the 19th century and devoted themselves to timber trade and tavern services. The Jews left voluntarily in 1918, after selling out their possessions to local residents. Former Ancient fortress Veľký vrch – Archaeological site registered in the Central List of the Slovak Memorial Fund. Renaissance Suňogs´ mansion from the 16th century. Mansion is registered in the Central List of the Slovak Memorial Fund.
Chapel of St. John of Nepomuk from 1742, built by Agnes Suňog. Chapel is registered in the Central List of the Slovak Memorial Fund. St. Anna's Chapel at the local cemetery, built in the middle of the 18th century by Steven Višňovský. Observation tower in Malý vrch. Walled cross from 1907 with the Art Nouveau elements. Small chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Bell tower with the bell from 1819. Memorial dedicated to WWI victims from Lalinok village; the memorial is located at the local cemetery. In Lalinok, old wooden folk houses from the 19th century have been preserved. A single track railway, which does not exist anymore, was the curiosity of Lalinok, it was used to transport material from the stone quarry in Divinka to construct the county road from Budatín to Kotešová. In the past, there were two mills in Divinka, one of, now used as the Municipal office building; the records for genealogical research are available at the state archive "Štátny archív v Žiline so sídlom v Bytči". Roman Catholic church records: 1690 – 1898 Ski jumping is the most popular among sporting activities, locally.
The origin of the skiing sport in Lalinok can be dated to 1940. Legendary were the biking races that arose in 1991 and had a long tradition in the village. Like everywhere in the surrounding villages and Lalinok have their own football history. At first football was played on natural playing fields with handball balls while the cattle grazed. Since 1939, Easter football tournaments have been played in nearby Svederník. Today there is a large football field in Divinka. Vojtech Križan Sr. was a prominent beekeeper – expert, the author of professional literature, an innovator. After Vojtech Križan became the caretaker and headmaster of the elementary school in the village in 1940, bee-keeping increased in popularity, with Divinka becoming the destination for visitors and beekeeping specialists from all over Slovakia. Beekeeping has a long tradition in the village, with the first records of beekeepers going back to the early 20th century, he and his wife Valéria worked as teachers at the local school for a long time.
Martin Medňanský. Medňanský was a member of the noble family and he was a Catholic priest, poet and journalist. List of municipalities and towns in Slovakia https:/
Machang is one of the ten districts in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia. It is situated at the centre of the state, bordering with Kelantanese territories of Kota Bharu to the north, Pasir Puteh to the east, Tanah Merah to the west and Kuala Krai to the south, its major town and administrative centre is Bandar Machang. Part of Ulu Kelantan, around 1949, Machang was delineated as an autonomous sub-district of Kelantan. Owing to its rapid pace of development and active economic sector, Machang was upgraded as a full District on January 1, 1952; the territory is still agrarian, home to a lot of paddy fields and rubber plantations. Among the attractions that get frequented a lot in Machang District are the hot springs that are situated in Kampung Rengas Tok Bok, Hutan Lipur Bukit Bakar, Air Terjun Jeram Linang and Hutan Lipur Cabang Tongkat; the district is the host for the Universiti Teknologi Mara, 9 national secondary schools, 1 residential school, 3 State-Funded Islamic religious school and 20 national primary schools which include a Chinese vernacular national type primary school.
Universiti Teknologi Mara Machang Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Machang Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Hamzah 1 Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Hamzah 2 Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Bandar Machang Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Abdul Samad Sekolah Menengah Kebangsan Agama Wataniah Machang Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Sri Intan Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Temangan Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Pangkal Meleret Sekolah Menengah Sains Machang Maahad Tahfiz Al Quran Wal Qiraat Maahad Syamsul Maarif Lelaki Maahad Syamsul Maarif Perempuan Sekolah Kebangsaan Ayer Merah Sekolah Kebangsaan Bandar Sekolah Kebangsaan Bukit Tiu Sekolah Kebangsaan Belukar Sekolah Kebangsaan Dewan Besar Sekolah Kebangsaan Hamzah Sekolah Kebangsaan Hamzah Sekolah Kebangsaan Kampung Pek Sekolah Kebangsaan Labok Sekolah Kebangsaan Machang Sekolah Kebangsaan Machang Sekolah Kebangsaan Mata Ayer Sekolah Kebangsaan Pulai Chondong Sekolah Kebangsaan Pak Roman Sekolah Kebangsaan Pangkal Gong Sekolah Kebangsaan Pangkal Meleret Sekolah Kebangsaan Pangkal Nering Sekolah Kebangsaan Pangkal Jenereh Sekolah Kebangsaan Pulai Chondong Sekolah Kebangsaan Temangan Sekolah Kebangsaan Tok Bok Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan Pei Hwa As of 2010, Machang has a population of 92,149 people.
Ranking Population of Jajahan Machang. Highways 4 and 8 intersect in Machang. KTM Intercity does not serve Machang town; the halt is the only railway station operating in the Machang constituency
The 19th Commonwealth of Independent States Cup was the nineteenth edition of the competition between the champions of former republics of Soviet Union. It was won by Inter Baku; this was the last edition of the Cup as a club tournament, before the format was changed to a youth national teams event in 2012. 1 Zenit Saint Petersburg were represented by its reserve squad. 2 Dynamo Kyiv were represented by their reserve team Dynamo-2 Kyiv. They replaced Shakhtar Donetsk. 3 Shakhtyor Soligorsk replaced BATE Borisov. 4 Iskra-Stal Rîbnița replaced Sheriff Tiraspol. 5 Mika Yerevan replaced Pyunik Yerevan. 6 HJK Helsinki invited by the organizing committee to replace Olimpi Rustavi, who declined to participate along with other Georgian teams due to 2008 South Ossetian War. Russian Football Union Official web-site Commonwealth of Independent States Cup 2011 at rsssf 2011 CIS Cup at kick-off.by
Rhodopseudomonas palustris is a rod-shaped gram-negative purple non-sulfur bacterium, notable for its ability to switch between four different modes of metabolism. R. Palustris is found extensively in nature and has been isolated from swine waste lagoons, earthworm droppings, marine coastal sediments and pond water. Although purple non-sulfur bacteria are photoheterotrophic, R. palustris can flexibly switch among any of the four modes of metabolism that support life: photoautotrophic, photoheterotrophic and chemoheterotrophic. R. palustris is found as a wad of slimy masses and cultures appear from pale brown to peach-colored. Etymologically, rhodum is a Greek noun meaning rose, pseudes is the Greek adjective for false and monas refers to a unit in Greek. Therefore, which implies a unit of false rose, describes the appearance of the bacteria. Palustris is Latin for marshy, indicates the common habitat of the bacterium. R. palustris can grow with or without oxygen, or it can use light, inorganic or organic compounds for energy.
It can acquire carbon from either carbon dioxide fixation or green plant-derived compounds. R. palustris is capable of fixing nitrogen for growth. This metabolic versatility has raised interest in the research community, it makes this bacterium suitable for potential use in biotechnological applications. Efforts are being made to understand how this organism adjusts its metabolism in response to environmental changes; the complete genome of the strain Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009 was sequenced in 2004 to get more information about how the bacterium senses environmental changes and regulates its metabolic pathways. It was found that R. palustris can deftly acquire and process various components from its environment, as necessitated by fluctuations in the levels of carbon, nitrogen and light. R. palustris has genes that encode for proteins that make up light-harvesting complexes and photosynthetic reaction centres. LH complexes and photosynthetic reaction centers are found in photosynthetic organisms like green plants.
Moreover, R. palustris can modulate photosynthesis according to the amount of light available, like other purple bacteria. For instance, in low-light circumstances, it responds by increasing the level of these LH complexes that allow light absorption. However, the wavelengths of the light absorbed by R. palustris differ from those absorbed by other phototrophs. R. palustris has genes that encode for the protein ruBisCO, an enzyme, necessary for carbon dioxide fixation in plants and other photosynthetic organisms. The genome of CGA009 reveals the existence of proteins involved in nitrogen fixation. In addition, this bacterium can combine oxygen-sensitive and oxygen-requiring enzyme reaction processes for metabolism and thus, it can thrive under varying and very little levels of oxygen; the genome of R. palustris consists of a variety of genes. R. palustris can metabolize lignin and acids found in degrading plant and animal waste by metabolizing carbon dioxide. In addition, it can degrade aromatic compounds found in industrial waste.
This bacterium is an efficient biodegradation catalyst in both anaerobic environments. Purple phototrophic bacteria generate interest due to their biotechnological applications; these bacteria can be used for bioplastic hydrogen production. R. palustris has the unique characteristic of encoding for a vanadium-containing nitrogenase. It produces, as a byproduct of nitrogen fixation, three times more hydrogen than do molybdenum-containing nitrogenases of other bacteria; the potential to manipulate R. palustris to be used as a reliable hydrogen production source or for biodegradation still lacks detailed knowledge of its metabolic pathways and regulation mechanisms. A strain of R. palustris is one of the few microorganisms and the first Alphaproteobacteria found to generate electricity at high power densities in low-internal resistance microbial fuel cells. DX-1 produces electric current in MFCs in the absence of a catalyst, without light or hydrogen production; this strain is exoelectrogenic, meaning.
Other microorganisms isolated from MFCs cannot produce power densities higher than mixed cultures of microbes can under the same fuel cell conditions. However, R. palustris DX-1 can produce higher power densities. The Rhodopseudomonas species is found in wastewaters, DX-1 generates electricity using compounds that Rhodopseudomonas is known to degrade. Therefore, this technology can be harnessed to produce bioelectricity from biomass as well as for wastewater treatment. However, the energy generated through this process is not sufficient for large-scale wastewater treatment. A 2014 research explained the cellular processes that allow the strain R. palustris TIE-1 to obtain energy through extracellular electron transfer. TIE-1 curiously takes in electrons from materials rich in iron and other minerals found in the sediment beneath the surface. In an extraordinary strategy, as the microbes pull electrons away from iron, iron oxide crystallizes in the soil becomes conductive, facilitates TIE-1 in oxidizing other minerals.
TIE-1 converts these electrons into energy using carbon dioxide as an electron receptor. A gene that produces ruBisCo helps this strain of R. palustris to achieve energy generation through electrons. TIE-1 uses ruBisCo to convert carbon dioxide into nutrition for itself; this metabolism has phototrophic aspects, since the gene and the ability to uptake electrons are stimulated by sunlight. Therefore, R. palustris TIE-1 charges itself using miner
From the Wreck is a 2017 historical and science fiction novel by Australian writer Jane Rawson. It was first published as a paperback original in March 2017 in Australia by Transit Lounge Publishing; the book is based on the 1859 shipwreck of the Australian steamship, the SS Admella and is a fictionalised account of Rawson's great-great-grandfather George Hills, a survivor from the wreck, his encounter with a shapeshifting alien. From the Wreck was well received by Australian critics, it won the 2017 Aurealis Award for best science fiction novel, was shortlisted for several other awards. In April 2019 the book was published in hardcover in the United Kingdom by Picador; the steamship Admella smashes into a reef off the coast of South Australia. George Hills, a ship's steward, is one of a number of survivors clinging to the remains of the ship for eight days with no food and water, he is protected from the bitter cold by Bridget Ledwith, an elusive passenger he had seen earlier on the boat. Many die.
George recovers in hospital. An octopus-like shapeshifting alien flounders in Earth's unfamiliar waters, it seeks refuge on Earth. Alone and lost, it boards the Admella and assumes the shape of the first creature it sees, a passenger named Bridget Ledwith; when the ship is wrecked, "she" finds herself with George, protects him by wrapping herself around him. The real Bridget drowns, but George is rescued, the alien goes into hiding. George is haunted by images of the woman from the wreck, tries unsuccessfully to find her, he marries his fiancée Eliza and has three children, but George is sure that the midwife at the birth of his firstborn, Henry, is the woman from the wreck. He is convinced Bridget put curse on him, he notices a large birthmark on Henry's back, believes that to be her work. The alien is hiding in plain sight in George's household disguised as a cat, when Henry is born, attaches itself to his back; as Henry grows up, the alien periodically infiltrates his mind and gives him glimpses of her lost world.
When George sees Henry's unusual behaviour and his obsession with the ocean, he is sure the boy is cursed. In an attempt to ease his torment, the alien reveals itself to George as Bridget, but when George sees the woman from the wreck, he attacks her, the alien morphs back into a cat and flees. A distressed George goes to the shore, takes off his clothes, floats in the water, he wishes. The alien returns to the ocean and touches George with its tentacles, it sends him images of Bridget wrapped around him on the wrecked ship, explains who it is and where it came from. It shows George how its world was ruined by colonists, how the survivors fled to another dimension and ended up in Earth's oceans, it tells him it can not find any of the others. George tells her there used to be similar cephalopod-like creatures a long time ago that attacked ships; when George explains they disappeared long ago, the alien realises it arrived here "a million years too late". George makes peace with the alien, it attaches itself to his back.
When George returns home, the alien becomes the cat again and enjoys the attention of Henry and his father. From the Wreck is based on the 1859 shipwreck of the Australian steamship, the SS Admella, that ran aground on Carpenters Reef in South Australia. For eight days survivors clung to the remains of the ship and died from exposure and lack of food and water. Rescue attempts from the shore were hampered by bad weather, but 24 of the 113 passengers and crew were saved. Among those rescued were George Hills, Rawson's great-great-grandfather, Bridget Ledwith, the only female survivor. George Hills went on to marry his fiancée Eliza, with. George died at 86 in 1916. Ledwith's identity remained "a source of controversy" for years after the wreck. Rawson said; the wreck of the Admella has been cited as "one of the worst maritime disasters in Australian history". Rawson began working on From the Wreck in 2009, she had discovered that her great-great-grandfather was a survivor of the Admella shipwreck, had attended the 150th anniversary commemoration of the event in August 2009.
She said, "When I saw all the descendants of the people who had either died or survived the wreck of the Admella, I thought,'Wow, there's a story in here. This has affected a lot of people,'" The novel started out as a work of historical fiction, but after a few failed drafts Rawson shelved it. "I don't write realist fiction and I struggled... It just wasn't my style", she began working on another book about an alien exiled from its home world. It occurred to her that the two stories could be combined: an octopus-like alien looking for a new home meeting her great-great-grandfather on a shipwreck. Rawson said the novel takes place in Australia in the mid-19th century, when white settlers did not know what they would find in the unexplored bush and oceans. Finding an alien would have been no more surprising than a marsupial. Having an alien as one of the book's characters enabled Rawson to explore writing from the point of view of another species, she said it was "technically difficult", but added that her alien "is a metaphor... she stands in for all the other species that humans just don't give a rat's arse about."
She said writing a novel like this was a risk because it exposed her preoccupation with the environment. She was therefore surprised at the attention the book received, in particular winning the Aurealis