A protest song is a song, associated with a movement for social change and hence part of the broader category of topical songs. It may be classical, or commercial in genre. Among social movements that have an associated body of songs are the abolition movement, women's suffrage, the labour movement, the human rights movement, civil rights, the anti-war movement and 1960s counterculture, the feminist movement, the sexual revolution, the gay rights movement, animal rights movement and veganism, gun control, environmentalism. Protest songs are situational, having been associated with a [ through context. "Goodnight Irene", for example, acquired the aura of a protest song because it was written by Lead Belly, a black convict and social outcast, although on its face it is a love song. Or they may be abstract, expressing, in more general terms, opposition to injustice and support for peace, or free thought, but audiences know what is being referred to. Ludwig van Beethoven's "Ode to Joy", a song in support of universal brotherhood, is a song of this kind.
It is a setting of a poem by Friedrich Schiller celebrating the continuum of living beings, to which Beethoven himself added the lines that all men are brothers. Songs which support the status quo do not qualify as protest songs. Protest song texts may have significant cognitive content; the labour movement musical Pins and Needles summed up the definition of a protest song in a number called "Sing Me a Song of Social Significance." Phil Ochs once explained, "A protest song is a song that's so specific that you cannot mistake it for BS."An 18th-century example of a topical song intended as a feminist protest song is "Rights of Woman", sung to the tune of "God Save the King", written anonymously by "A Lady" and published in the Philadelphia Minerva, October 17, 1795. There is no evidence that it was sung as a movement song, however; the sociologist R. Serge Denisoff saw protest songs rather narrowly in terms of their function, as forms of persuasion or propaganda. Denisoff saw the protest song tradition as originating in the "psalms" or songs of grassroots Protestant religious revival movements, terming these hymns "protest-propaganda", as well.
Denisoff subdivided protest songs as either "magnetic" or "rhetorical". "Magnetic" protest songs were aimed at attracting people to the movement and promoting group solidarity and commitment – for example, "Keep Your Eyes on the Prize" and "We Shall Overcome". "Rhetorical" protest songs, on the other hand, are characterized by individual indignation and offer a straightforward political message designed to change political opinion. Denisoff argued that although "rhetorical" songs are not overtly connected to building a larger movement, they should be considered as "protest-propaganda". Examples include Bob Dylan's "Masters of War" and "What's Going On" by Marvin Gaye. Ron Eyerman and Andrew Jamison, in Music and Social Movements: Mobilizing Tradition in the Twentieth Century, take issue with what they consider Denisoff's reductive approach to the history and function of song in social movements, they point out that Denisoff had paid little attention to the song tunes of protest music, considered them subordinate to the texts, a means to the message.
It is true that in the text-oriented western European song tradition, tunes can be subordinate and limited in number Eyerman and Jamison point out that some of the most effective protest songs gain power through their appropriation of tunes that are bearers of strong cultural traditions. They note that:There is more to music and movements than can be captured within a functional perspective, such as Denisoff's, which focuses on the use made of music within already-existing movements. Music, song, we suggest, can maintain a movement when it no longer has a visible presence in the form of organizations and demonstrations, can be a vital force in preparing the emergence of a new movement. Here the role and place of music needs to be interpreted through a broader framework in which tradition and ritual are understood as processes of identity and identification, as encoded and embodied forms of collective meaning and memory. Martin Luther King Jr. described the freedom songs this way: "They invigorate the movement in a most significant way... these freedom songs serve to give unity to a movement."
Raï is a form of folk music, originated in Oran, Algeria from Bedouin shepherds, mixed with Spanish, French and Arabic musical forms. Its origins date back to the 1920s and has been evolved by the women referred to as cheikhas, who performed in cafes, bars or bordellos for men. A typical performance included the cheikhas accompanied by two to four male instrumentalists playing a gasba and gallal. Rai was considered a rejection of the traditional Algerian music of the time, the cheikhas "... used lewd lyrics focusing on the hardships of life facing peasant women in a big city, the pain of love, the lure of alcohol and mourning."By the 1950s, through the 1960s, male musicians began performing rai music and incorporated the use of what was considered to be modern musical instruments of that time, such as the violin, the accordion, the lute, the trumpet. As the genre evolved over time, it continued to have associations with political movements and organizations, such as the Algerian Freedom Fighters w
Abella known as Abella of Salerno or Abella of Castellomata, was a physician in the mid fourteenth century. Abella taught at the Salerno School of Medicine. Abella is believed to have been born around 1380, but the exact time of her birth and death is unclear. Abella lectured on standard medical practices and women's health and nature at the medical school in Salerno. Abella, along with Rebecca de Guarna, specialized in the area of embryology, she published two treatises: De atrabile and De natura seminis humani, neither of which survive today. In Salvatore De Renzi's nineteenth-century study of the Salerno School of Medicine, Abella is one of four women mentioned who were known to practice medicine, lecture on medicine, wrote treatises; these attributes placed Abella into a group of women known as the Mulieres Salernitanae, or women of Salerno. Abella is a featured figure on The Dinner Party. Abella is represented as one of the nine hundred and ninety-nine names included in the Heritage Floor.
The Heritage Floor is a supporting piece to Judy Chicago's The Dinner Party. It is meant to represent the number of women who struggled into prominence to have their names erased and/or forgotten, she is one of the “ladies of Salerno” who attended and taught at the Salerno School of Medicine featured in the Heritage Floor, along with Rebecca de Guarna, Francesca of Salerno, Mercuriade. The Salerno School of Medicine was the first university to allow women to enter; this resulted in a group of women known as Mulieres Salernitanae, meaning women of Salerno or Salernitan wives. These women were known for their great learning; this group of women consisted of Abella, Trota of Salerno, Rebecca de Guarna, Maria Incarnata, Constance Calenda. The women of Salerno not only practiced medicine, but taught medicine at the Salerno School of Medicine and wrote texts; this group of women worked against the common view and roles of women at the time, are considered a pride of medieval Salerno and a symbol of beneficence.
The family of Castellomata was an influential family in Salerno, one in which Abella is believed to belong to. The heavy influence of the family helped confirm the vital ties between the papal court and the Salerno School of Medicine. A significant member of this family was Giovanni of Castellomata, who held the title of medicus papae, or “doctor of the pope” to Pope Innocent III; the relationship between Abella and Giovanni of Castellomata is unclear. References BibliographyChicago, Judy; the Dinner Party: From Creation to Preservation. Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art. Brooklyn Museum. London: Merrell. ISBN 9781858943701. OCLC 76365461. Rosser, Sue Vilhauer. Ed.. Women and Myth: Gender Beliefs from Antiquity to the Present. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781598840964. OCLC 269387282. Banerjee, D. D.. Glimpses Of History Of Medicine. B. Jain Regular. ISBN 9788131903506
Boyky was one of 29 Gnevny-class destroyers built for the Soviet Navy during the late 1930s. Completed in 1939, she was assigned to the Black Sea Fleet. After the start of the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, the ship helped to lay minefields off Sevastopol. During the Siege of Odessa, Boyky transported troops and supplies while providing naval gunfire support to the defenders and helped to evacuate them in October. During the Siege of Sevastopol, she performed the same sorts of missions and participated in the Battle of the Kerch Peninsula at the end of 1941. After the conquest of Sevastopol in July 1942, Boyky continued to provide fire support for Soviet troops and transported them to Tuapse and other ports threatened by the German advance southeast along the Black Sea coast; the ship provided a diversion during the landings near Novorossiysk in early 1943. After German aircraft sank three destroyers in October, Stalin forbade the use of large ships without his express permission and Boyky's wartime service was finished.
After the war, she had a lengthy modernization and became a test ship in 1956. Having decided to build the large and expensive 40-knot Leningrad-class destroyer leaders, the Soviet Navy sought Italian assistance in designing smaller and cheaper destroyers, they licensed the plans for the Folgore class and, in modifying it for their purposes, overloaded a design, somewhat marginally stable. The Gnevnys had an overall length of 112.8 meters, a beam of 10.2 meters, a draft of 4.8 meters at deep load. The ships were overweight 200 metric tons heavier than designed, displacing 1,612 metric tons at standard load and 2,039 metric tons at deep load, their crew numbered 197 sailors in peacetime and 236 in wartime. The ships had a pair of geared steam turbines, each driving one propeller, rated to produce 48,000 shaft horsepower using steam from three water-tube boilers, intended to give them a maximum speed of 37 knots; the designers had been conservative in rating the turbines and many, but not all, of the ships handily exceeded their designed speed during their sea trials.
Others fell short of it. Boyky reached 34 knots during trials in 1944. Variations in fuel oil capacity meant that the range of the Gnevnys varied between 1,670 to 3,145 nautical miles at 19 knots. Boyky herself demonstrated a range of 1,350 nmi at 16 knots; as built, the Gnevny-class ships mounted four 130-millimeter B-13 guns in two pairs of superfiring single mounts fore and aft of the superstructure. Anti-aircraft defense was provided by a pair of 76.2-millimeter 34-K AA guns in single mounts and a pair of 45-millimeter 21-K AA guns as well as two 12.7-millimeter DK or DShK machine guns. They carried six 533 mm torpedo tubes in two rotating triple mounts; the ships could carry a maximum of either 60 or 95 mines and 25 depth charges. They were fitted with a set of Mars hydrophones for anti-submarine work, although they were useless at speeds over 3 knots; the ships were equipped with two K-1 paravanes intended to destroy mines and a pair of depth-charge throwers. By the end of the war, Boyky's anti-aircraft armament consisted of two 34-K mounts, five 37-millimeter 70-K AA guns in single mounts, two twin-gun mounts for Lend-Lease, water-cooled 12.7 mm Colt-Browning machine guns and two single mounts for DShK machine guns.
She had received a Type 286 search radar. After the war, all of her AA guns were replaced by eight water-cooled V-11M versions of the 70-K gun in twin mounts and her electronics were replaced by Soviet systems. Built in Nikolayev's Shipyard No. 198 as yard number 321, Boyky was laid down on 17 April 1936. The ship was commissioned into the Black Sea Fleet on 17 May; when the Germans invaded the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941, the ship was assigned to the 2nd Destroyer Division. On 23–24 June Boyky laid defensive mines off Sevastopol. On 9 July, the 2nd Destroyer Division, including the destroyer leader Kharkov and her sister ships Bodry and Besposhchadny made an unsuccessful attempt to interdict Axis shipping near Fidonisi. On 14–17 August, Boyky escorted the incomplete ships being evacuated from the shipyards at Nikolayev. Together with the light cruisers Chervona Ukraina and Komintern and the destroyers Nezamozhnik and Shaumyan and Besposhchadny bombarded Axis positions west of Odessa on 1–2 September.
That month, Boyky began ferrying troops and supplies to encircled Odessa as well as providing naval gunfire support. On 7 September and the destroyer Sposobny escorted the Commander of the Black Sea Fleet, Vice Admiral Filipp Oktyabrsky, aboard the destroyer leader Kharkov to Odessa. While they were present, all three ships bombarded Romanian troops. On 16–21 September the destroyer helped to escort transports ferrying the 157th Rifle Division to Odessa, she landed a company of naval infantry behind Romanian lines at Grigorievka on 21 September and provided fire support for them the following day. Boyky helped to escort the ships evacuating the 157th Rifle Division from Odessa to Sevastopol on 3–6 October, she escorted the damaged submarine Shch-212 to Sevastopol on 27 October. The ship was assigned to the fire support group defending Sevastopol on 31 October and helped to evacuate cut-off