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Proto-punk is the rock music played by garage bands from the 1960s to mid-1970s that presaged the punk rock movement. The phrase is a retrospective label. According to the Allmusic guide: Proto-punk was never a cohesive movement, nor was there a identifiable proto-punk sound that made its artists seem related at the time. What ties proto-punk together is a certain provocative sensibility that didn't fit the prevailing counterculture of the time... It was consciously subversive and aware of its outsider status... In terms of its lasting influence, much proto-punk was primitive and stripped-down when it wasn't aggressive, its production was just as unpolished; the genre frequently dealt with taboo subject matter, depicting society's grimy underbelly in great detail, venting alienation, more intense and personal than before. Most musicians classified as proto-punk are rock performers of the 1960s and early-1970s, with garage rock/art rock bands the Velvet Underground, MC5 and the Stooges considered to be archetypal proto-punk artists, along with glam rock band the New York Dolls.

One of the earliest written uses of the term "punk rock" was by critic Dave Marsh who used it in 1970 to describe US group Question Mark & the Mysterians, who had scored a major hit with their song "96 Tears" in 1966. Many US bands were active in the mid-to-late 1960s playing garage rock: a ragged energetic amateurish style of rock. While garage bands varied in style, the label of garage punk has been attributed by critic Michael Hann to the "toughest, angriest garage rockers" such as the 13th Floor Elevators and the Sonics. AllMusic states that bands like the Monks "anticipated" punk; the raw sound and outsider attitude of psychedelic garage bands like the Seeds presaged the style of bands that would become known as the archetypal figures of proto-punk. One of the earliest examples of protopunk is "She Lied" by the Rockin' Ramrods, which features a sneering chorus and guitar downstroking nearly ten years before it became popular in punk. In parallel, in 1964 garage band Los Saicos appeared in Lima, considered as one of the first Spanish-American groups that can be classified as protopunk.

One of their key songs is "Demolición", released as a single in 1965. Bob Dylan's change from acoustic protest folk songs to electric surrealistic rock in 1965 is very important to the creation of punk with his second electric album Highway 61 Revisited; that album featured songs like "Tombstone Blues" and the title track which had an obvious influence on The Velvet Underground and Lou Reed as well as other early punk bands. Debut albums by two key US proto-punk bands were released in 1969; the latter album was produced by a former member of New York's the Velvet Underground. Michigan, USA was the birthplace of bands the Dogs, the Punks and Death, the latter a pioneering but commercially unsuccessful African-American proto-punk group. In the early 1970s, the UK underground counter-cultural scene centred on Ladbroke Grove in west London spawned a number of bands that have been considered proto-punk, including Hawkwind, the Pink Fairies and Third World War. According to Allmusic, glam rock "inspired many future punks with its simple, crunchy guitar riffs, its outrageous sense of style, its artists' willingness to sing with British accents".

With his Ziggy Stardust persona, David Bowie made artifice and exaggeration central elements, that were picked up by punk acts. The Doctors of Madness built on Bowie's presentation concepts, while moving conceptually in the direction that would become identified with punk. Bands in London's pub rock scene anticipated punk by stripping the music back to its basics, playing hard, R&B-influenced rock'n' roll. By 1974, the scene's top act, Dr. Feelgood, was paving the way for others such as the Stranglers and Cock Sparrer that would play a role in the punk explosion. Among the pub rock bands that formed that year was the 101ers, whose lead singer would two years adopt the name Joe Strummer and form punk band The Clash. Bands anticipating the forthcoming movement were appearing as far afield as Düsseldorf, West Germany, where "punk before punk" band NEU! formed in 1971, building on the krautrock tradition of groups such as Can. Saucer formed in Hamilton, Canada in 1973 and have been called "Canada's first proto-punk band", blending garage rock, krautrock and other influences to produce a sound, described as having a "frequent punk snarl."In Japan, the anti-establishment Zunō Keisatsu mixed garage and folk.

The band's first two albums were withdrawn from public sale after their lyrics were found to violate industry regulations, their "spirit.. was taken up again by the punk movement."A new generation of Australian garage rock bands, inspired by the Stooges and MC5, came closer to the sound that would soon be called "punk": in Brisbane, the Saints recalled the raw live sound of the British Pretty Things, who

Impossibility defense

An impossibility defense is a criminal defense used when a defendant is accused of a criminal attempt that failed only because the crime was factually or impossible to commit. Factual impossibility is an adequate defense at common law. In the United States, thirty-seven states have ruled out factual impossibility as a defense to the crime of attempt; this is not to be confused with a'mistake of fact' defense, which may be a defense to a specific intent crime like larceny. An impossibility occurs when, at the time of the attempt, the facts make the intended crime impossible to commit although the defendant is unaware of this when the attempt is made. In People v. Lee Kong, 95 Cal. 666, 30 P. 800, the defendant was found guilty for attempted murder for shooting at a hole in the roof, believing his victim to be there, indeed, where his victim had been only moments before but was not at the time of the shooting. Another case involving the defense of factual impossibility is Commonwealth v. Johnson, in which a psychic healer was charged and convicted of fraud, despite the fact that a fictitious name was used to catch him.

In United States v. Thomas the court held that men who believed they were raping a drunken, unconscious woman were guilty of attempted rape though the woman was dead at the time sexual intercourse took place. An act, considered impossible to commit is traditionally considered a valid defense for a person, being prosecuted for a criminal attempt. An attempt is considered to be a legal impossibility when the defendant has completed all of his intended acts, but his acts fail to fulfill all the required in elements in a common law or statutory crime; the underlying rationale is that attempting to do what is not a crime is not attempting to commit a crime. One example of legal impossibility is a person who, thinking that Country 1 has banned the importation of lace from Country 2, attempts to smuggle some "banned" lace into Country 1; the actor believed that her act was a crime, fully intended to commit a crime. However, Country 1 does not, in fact, ban lace from Country 2; the traditional approach to understanding the legal impossibility defense is that the mistake insulates the actor from conviction for the crime of attempted smuggling.

The legal impossibility may be thought of as reflecting that the actor had not satisfied the actus reus of the crime. To put it another way trying to commit a crime is insufficient to constitute a criminal attempt. Legal impossibility can be distinguished from factual impossibility, not a defense at common law. Factual impossibility involves an error as to factual reality that causes the actor to fail to commit a criminal offense when, if the circumstances were as the actor believed, the offense would have been committed. Legal impossibility involves an error as to a legal reality. However, it is not always easy to identify whether an actor made a factual mistake. In State v. Guffey, the defendant shot a stuffed deer, thinking it was alive, was convicted for attempt to kill a protected animal out of season. In a debated reversal, an appellate judge threw out the conviction on the basis of legal impossibility, concluding that it is no crime to shoot a stuffed deer out of season. People v. Lee Kong People v. Dlugash DPP v Armstrong

Tony Menezes

Anthony Santos Menezes is a retired Canadian-Brazilian professional soccer player. A 6'1, 180 lb defender, Menezes has a Brazilian mother and Portuguese father, when he was 10, he and his family immigrated to Brazil from Canada, where Tony was born, he played for Botafogo in Rio de Janeiro until 2001 signed with Chinese team Nanjing Yoyo. On April 19, 2006 he played only one season. In November 2006, he signed for defending champions Mahindra United of the Indian National Football League, after two years in India joined back to his homeland Brazil and signed in January 2008 with Porto Alegre FC, he made his debut for Canada in a May 1998 friendly match against Macedonia and earned a total of 27 caps, scoring no goals. He has represented Canada in 4 FIFA World Cup qualification matches and was a member of the 2000 CONCACAF Gold Cup title-winning squad, he played with Canada at 2001 FIFA Confederations Cup in Japan. He has played for the Beach Soccer national team from Canada, his final international was a January 2003 friendly match against the United States.

CONCACAF Gold Cup: 12000 Player profile - CanadaSoccer Tony Menezes at


A microlife is a unit of risk representing half an hour change of life expectancy. Discussed by David Spiegelhalter and Alejandro Leiva, used by Lin et al. for decision analysis, microlives are intended as a simple way of communicating the impact of a lifestyle or environmental risk factor, based on the associated daily proportional effect on expected length of life. Similar to the micromort the microlife is intended for "rough but fair comparisons between the sizes of chronic risks"; this is to avoid the biasing effects of describing risks in relative hazard ratios, converting them into somewhat tangible units. They bring long-term future risks into the here-and-now as a gain or loss of time. "A daily loss or gain of 30 minutes can be termed a microlife, because 1 000 000 half hours corresponds to a lifetime of adult exposure."The microlife exploits the fact that for small hazard ratios the change in life expectancy is linear. They are based on averages over population and lifetime. Effects of individual variability, short-term or changing habits, causal factors are not taken into account.

Micromort Risk communication Spiegelhalter, David. "Microlives: A lesson in risk taking". BBC. Retrieved 2018-12-25. "Microlives". Understanding Uncertainty. Retrieved 2018-12-25. "BMJ Microlives". BMJ Microlives. Archived from the original on 2016-10-07. A calculator for about eight different factors' effect upon microlives

Charles Davidson (RAF officer)

Squadron Leader Charles Robert Davidson MC was a Scottish World War I flying ace credited with six aerial victories. Having served as a cadet in the Officers Training Corps Davidson was commissioned as a temporary second lieutenant in the Highland Light Infantry on 17 October 1914, he was seconded to the Royal Flying Corps in March 1916 as an observer, before being appointed a flying officer on 5 June 1917. Davidson was posted to No. 14 Squadron in the Middle East, scoring his first victory with them, by driving down an enemy observation plane out of control at Beit Hanun on 23 September 1917, while flying a Vickers Bullet. He transferred to No. 111 Squadron when it was founded as the fighter unit for the Middle East, scored his second win on 4 October in a two-seater Bristol F.2 Fighter, which he used for four more wins, between 17 and 29 December 1917. For one of these triumphs, fellow ace Frederick John Knowles manned the guns in the rear seat. Davidson's final score was three enemy planes forced to land and destroyed, three driven down out of control.

He left 111 Squadron on 9 January 1918. Listed as wounded on 7 February 1918, Davidson was promoted to lieutenant on 4 March 1918. In April 1918 his award of the Military Cross was gazetted, the citation reading: Second Lieutenant Charles Robert Davidson, Highland Light Infantry, Royal Flying Corps. For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty, he forced a hostile aeroplane to land, descending to a low altitude, despite heavy rifle fire, shot down one of the occupants as he was escaping from the machine. On two occasions, he forced an enemy machine to land, drove down another, last seen diving into country in which it was impossible to land. Though his ankle was fractured by a bullet during an air combat, he landed without injury either to his observer or his machine. On 1 August 1919 Davidson was granted a permanent commission as a lieutenant in the RAF, resigning his Army commission in the Highland Light Infantry the same day, he was promoted to flight lieutenant in the King's New Years Honours, 1 January 1923.

Davidson was posted to No. 20 Squadron, based in India, on 23 November 1923 to the Headquarters of RAF India on 8 July 1927. He took part in Pinks War in Waziristan, his Medals include the India Star with the Clasp Waziristan, only awarded to those who took part in Pink's war. He returned to the UK and was posted to the RAF Depot, Uxbridge, on 4 December 1928. On 10 June 1929 he was posted to No. 4 Squadron, based at South Farnborough, on 11 March 1931 was promoted to squadron leader. Davidson was part of the RAF team that beat the Army in the Inter-Services Golf Championship held at West Hill in Woking in April 1931. On 5 June 1931 he was appointed to serve at the headquarters of RAF Transjordan and Palestine, based in Jerusalem returning to the UK to serve as a flying instructor at No. 2 Flying Training School, based at RAF Digby, from 15 October 1934. Davidson was killed at RAF Digby on 21 May 1936 when he crashed in the Mignet HM.14 "Flying Flea" aircraft that he had built himself in the air station workshops.

The "Flying Flea" was designed as a cheap and simple self-built aircraft for flying enthusiasts, but had a fatal flaw in its design, that could cause the aircraft to go into an uncontrollable dive if the pilot pushed the nose down to prevent a stall. Davidson was the third British pilot to die in a "Flying Flea" crash within a month, the aircraft was banned in the UK. Squadron Leader Davidson is buried at the Church of the Holy Cross, Lincolnshire. Personal Life He Married Doris Davidson Daughter of Joseph Heilbron of Breda Holland. Doris Davidson did not remarry following Charles's Death Notes BibliographyShores, Christopher F.. Above the Trenches: A Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the British Empire Air Forces 1915–1920. London, UK: Grub Street. ISBN 978-0-948817-19-9

TTI, Inc.

TTI, Inc. is a specialty distributor of electronic components that include, but are not limited to: capacitors, connectors, relays, circuit protection, discrete semiconductors, sensors, RF modules and more. The company was founded by Paul Andrews in 1971. A former buyer for General Dynamics, the global aerospace and defense company, Andrews developed a specialized approach to electronic component distribution with emphasis on available-to-sell inventory, sophisticated supply chain programs and the industry’s first, formal Total Quality Management program. Named Tex-Tronics, Inc. Andrews changed the name to TTI, Inc. in 1973 to avoid a legal dispute involving another company with a similar name. Founded to serve aerospace and defense equipment manufacturers, the company’s customers now include manufacturers in the transportation, industrial and communications sectors. TTI, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries known as the TTI Family of Companies, Mouser Electronics, Sager Electronics and TTI Semiconductor Group employ over 7,000 people at more than 100 locations throughout North America and Asia.

TTI's global headquarters is located in Fort Worth and maintains over 2,000,000 square feet of dedicated warehouse space globally, 1.2 million square feet of, located in the Americas. European headquarters is located near Germany. Asia headquarters is located in Singapore, with distribution centers in Hong Kong and China, totaling over 270,000 square feet of distribution capacity. TTI has seven proximity warehouses located in Mexico: Tijuana, Chihuahua, Acuna and Guadalajara, with a combined distribution capacity over 100,000 square feet. TTI is a wholly owned, indirect subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway Inc. TTI, Inc. entered the European market in 1992 with its first office in Germany. Since that time the company’s European reach has spread to over 40 countries. In 2008, TTI acquired the Mateleco Group, the number one connector distributor in France, becoming the number one distributor in both passives and connectors in France. TTI, Inc. opened its first office in Asia in Singapore in 2000. Reach has since expanded to include 16 offices in 11 countries.

In 2000, TTI acquired Mouser Electronics, a broad-line catalog distributor based in Mansfield, Texas. Mouser is now a worldwide, authorized distributor of semiconductors and electronic components for over 700 industry manufacturers; the company specializes in the rapid introduction of new products and technologies for design engineers and buyers. In December 2006, Paul Andrews agreed to sell majority ownership of TTI to Warren Buffett controlled Berkshire Hathaway; the acquisition was completed on March 30, 2007. In 2012, Sager Electronics, a New England-based distributor with roots dating back to the 1800s, joined the TTI and Berkshire Hathaway family. Today Sager specializes in power products and services a North American customer base via headquarters in Middleborough, MA, a national network of field account representatives and engineers, a "Power Solutions Center" in Carrollton, TX. TTI Israel was formally established in 2013 through the combined acquisitions of Net-Aye Components and Ray-Q.

In 2015, Sager Electronics announced the formation of Sager Power Systems, a focused group within Sager specializing in power products and the design of power supplies. Specialty semiconductor distributor Symmetry Electronics was added to the TTI Family of Companies in 2017. Symmetry is the leading technical distributor of wireless, Bluetooth and video semiconductor technology. In 2018, TTI acquired South Korean CHANGNAM, a specialty distributor of semiconductors principally focused on automotive, consumer electronics and wireless end markets, RFMW Ltd. a RF and Microwave specialty component distributor headquartered in Silicon Valley, California. Subsequently the company announced the formation of TTI Semiconductor Group. In 2018, the company acquired Compona AG of Switzerland and Compona’s German subsidiary Cosy Electronics GmbH. Both Compona and Cosy are specialty distributors of interconnect products and provide services such as in-house assembly of specific connector ranges and full support on custom cable harnesses.

In July 2019, Sager Electronics completed the acquisition of Technical Power Systems, a specialist in the production of custom battery assemblies, headquartered in Lisle, Illinois. TTI Europe, est. 1992 TTI Asia, est. 2000 TTI Israel, est. 2013 They include: Mouser Electronics Sager Electronics PowerGate LLC Novell Electronics Technical Power Systems TTI Semiconductor Group Symmetry Electronics Changnam I. N. T. LTD. RFMW Ltd. North America 2000 Mouser Electronics 2004 Capsco 2008 NTI 2012 Sager Electronics 2015 Norvell Electronics 2014 Astrex 2014 PowerGate 2017 Power Sources Unlimited 2017 Symmetry Electronics 2018 RFMW Ltd. 2019 Technical Power SystemsEurope 2008 Mateleco Group 2010 Flightspares 2012 Campbell Collins 2018 Compona AG Asia 2010 Net-Aye 2012 NPCS Autotronic 2013 Ray-Q 2014 HuaTong Electronics 2018 CHANGNAM I. N. T. LTD