SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Prototype

A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process. It is a term used in a variety of contexts, including semantics, design and software programming. A prototype is used to evaluate a new design to enhance precision by system analysts and users. Prototyping serves to provide specifications for a real, working system rather than a theoretical one. In some design workflow models, creating a prototype is the step between the formalization and the evaluation of an idea. A prototype can mean a typical example of something such as in the use of the derivation'prototypical'; this is a useful term in identifying objects and concepts which are considered the accepted norm and is analogous with terms such as stereotypes and archetypes. The word prototype derives from the Greek πρωτότυπον prototypon, "primitive form", neutral of πρωτότυπος prototypos, "original, primitive", from πρῶτος protos, "first" and τύπος typos, "impression". Prototypes explore different aspects of an intended design: A Proof-of-Principle Prototype serves to verify some key functional aspects of the intended design, but does not have all the functionality of the final product.

A Working Prototype represents all or nearly all of the functionality of the final product. A Visual Prototype represents the size and appearance, but not the functionality, of the intended design. A Form Study Prototype is a preliminary type of visual prototype in which the geometric features of a design are emphasized, with less concern for color, texture, or other aspects of the final appearance. A User Experience Prototype represents enough of the appearance and function of the product that it can be used for user research. A Functional Prototype captures both function and appearance of the intended design, though it may be created with different techniques and different scale from final design. A Paper Prototype is a printed or hand-drawn representation of the user interface of a software product; such prototypes are used for early testing of a software design, can be part of a software walkthrough to confirm design decisions before more costly levels of design effort are expended. In general, the creation of prototypes will differ from creation of the final product in some fundamental ways: Material: The materials that will be used in a final product may be expensive or difficult to fabricate, so prototypes may be made from different materials than the final product.

In some cases, the final production materials may still be undergoing development themselves and not yet available for use in a prototype. Process: Mass-production processes are unsuitable for making a small number of parts, so prototypes may be made using different fabrication processes than the final product. For example, a final product that will be made by plastic injection molding will require expensive custom tooling, so a prototype for this product may be fabricated by machining or stereolithography instead. Differences in fabrication process may lead to differences in the appearance of the prototype as compared to the final product. Verification: The final product may be subject to a number of quality assurance tests to verify conformance with drawings or specifications; these tests may involve custom inspection fixtures, statistical sampling methods, other techniques appropriate for ongoing production of a large quantity of the final product. Prototypes are made with much closer individual inspection and the assumption that some adjustment or rework will be part of the fabrication process.

Prototypes may be exempted from some requirements that will apply to the final product. Engineers and prototype specialists attempt to minimize the impact of these differences on the intended role for the prototype. For example, if a visual prototype is not able to use the same materials as the final product, they will attempt to substitute materials with properties that simulate the intended final materials. Engineers and prototyping specialists seek to understand the limitations of prototypes to simulate the characteristics of their intended design, it is important to realize that by their definition, prototypes will represent some compromise from the final production design. Due to differences in materials and design fidelity, it is possible that a prototype may fail to perform acceptably whereas the production design may have been sound. A counter-intuitive idea is that prototypes may perform acceptably whereas the production design may be flawed since prototyping materials and processes may outperform their production counterparts.

In general, it can be expected that individual prototype costs will be greater than the final production costs due to inefficiencies in materials and processes. Prototypes are used to revise the design for the purposes of reducing costs through optimization and refinement, it is possible to use prototype testing to reduce the risk that a design may not perform as intended, however prototypes cannot eliminate all risk. There are pragmatic and practical limitations to the ability of a prototype to match the intended final performance of the product and some allowances and engineering judgement are required before moving forward with a production design. Building the full design is expensive and can be time-consuming when repeated several times—building the full design, figuring out what the problems are and how to solve them building another full design; as an alternative, rapid prototyping or rapid application development techniques are used for the initial prototypes, which implement part, but not all, of the complete design.

This allows designers and manufactu

Parinacota, Chile

Parinacota is a Chilean hamlet in Putre, Parinacota Province and Parinacota Region. It is situated on the highlands at an elevation of 4,400 metres in Lauca National Park near the small town of Putre and had 29 inhabitants as of 2002; the church was built in the 17th century in the form of a central nave with two side chapels. The walls are supported by exterior arches of unmortared stone; the floor is brick with a central band of stone. There was no choir. A choir without railing was built later-on whereas one of the most interesting frescoes of the area, the Last Judgment was destroyed; the atrium is surrounded by a clay wall on which are situated several figures made of red stone: A bishop, lilies and others. The square tower was painted with white lime. Noteworthy are the frescoes in the interior which were painted in water colors by Indians in the Andean baroque of the 17th century; the Last Judgment suggests. The archangel St. Michael weighs a nude woman on a scale and there are trails to get to the purgatory, over clouds to heaven as well as stairs to the mouth of a dragon which leads to hell, where there are several torture instruments.

The condemned women are dragged by the hair or are ridden by demons. One of them leads the helpers of evil with a broad smile. Parinacota has a tundra climate, it has cool daily highs throughout the year due to its high elevation, but lows are cold, remain below freezing for the entire year. Due to its high elevation, there is high diurnal temperature variation. List of highest towns by country

Akhi Siraj Aainae Hind

Shaikh Khwaja Sirajuddin or Akhi Siraj Aainae Hind, was a 14th-century Bengali Sufi saint of the Chishti mystic tradition, disciple of Nizamuddin Auliya. His shrine in Pirana Pir Dargah, English Bazar, West Bengal, attracts hundreds of thousands of devotees every year. Akhi Siraj earned the title of Āainae-Hind, translating to "Mirror of India", from Nizāmuddīn Auliyā, a legendary Sufi saint of the Chishti Order in the Indian Subcontinent; as one of the first disciples of Nizāmuddīn Auliyā, he spent long years with him. His successor Alaul Haq Pandavi is credited with the rise to prominence of the Chishti order in Bengal; as a young man, Siraj studied under prominent Sufi personalities. He was educated in the Islamic sciences by Sheikh Fakhruddin Zarradi, a great scholar and senior khalifa of Nizamuddin Auliya, he sought the permission of Nizamuddin to educate him and promised to make him an Alim within a mere six months. Akhi Siraj took lessons from Maulana Ruknuddin, studying Kafiah, Mufassal and Majma'a-ul Bahrain.

Amir Khurd, a disciple and biographer of Nizamuddin Auliya as well as the author of Siyar-ul-Auliya participated in these lessons. He completed his studies in a short period of time and became an accomplished scholar, such was his zeal for learning. Having finished his course, he was led into the presence of Nizamuddin Auliya who tested his knowledge. Delighted with him, Nizamuddin conferred his khirqa and khilafat upon him and gave him the name Aina-i-Hindustan. After his khilafat, he remained in Delhi in the company of his spiritual mentor, he would return to his native Lakhnauti once a year to see his mother. He remained in the company of his teacher for four years and during this period he devoted his time to further study until the demise of Nizamuddin, who ordered him to return to Bengal to preach prior to his death, he was at the bedside of his master when he died in 1325 AD. He stayed in Delhi until 1328–1329 at which point he departed for Lakhnauti after the sultan, Muhammad bin Tughlaq, ordered the forced migration of residents from Delhi to Daulatabad.

After settling down in Lakhnauti, he established a huge langar where free food was distributed to the poor and destitute. He brought some valuable books along with him from the library of Nizamuddin and these books formed the nucleus of the first Chishti khanqah in Bengal. Soon after Akhi Siraj's arrival in Pandua, Alaul Haq Pandavi became his disciple. Various relations of Ala ul-Haq were prominent in the government of sultan Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah and prior to living the modest life of a Sufi, he had been part of the elite; such was his love and devotion to Akhi Siraj that when they travelled, like Jalaluddin Tabrizi before him, he would carry a cauldron of hot food on his head though it would burn his hair, so that he could provide his master with warm food on demand. He lived and worked in Bengal for the rest of his life and he married. One of his daughters married his disciple, Ala ul-Haq. Amir Khurd, his fellow student, said that he won great esteem from the people of Bengal and "illumined the whole region with his spiritual radiance."

In 1357, Akhi Siraj was buried in a suburb of Lakhnauti called Sadullahpur. It is said that he buried the khirqa that he had received from Sheikh Nizamuddin Auliya in the north-western corner of the Sagar Dighi at Lakhnauti, he was interred near his buried robes according to his wishes, a mausoleum was erected over his grave. The date of construction of the mausoleum is not known, but two inscriptions attached to its gateways show that they were erected in the 16th century by Sultan Alauddin Husain Shah and Sultan Nasiruddin Nusrat Shah, he was succeeded by Alaul Haq Pandavi. His Urs is commemorated annually on Eid ul-Fitr, his tomb is still visited by many today. Siyar-ul-Auliya p. 368-452 Akhbar-ul-Akhyar p. 162-3 Mir'at-ul-Israr p.888-91 Nasiruddin Chiragh Dehlavi Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani Sufi Saints of South Asia'Siyar-ul-Auliya' by Sayyid Muhammad bin Mubarak Kirmani first published in 1302H/1885AD from Muhibbe Hind Delhi.'Lataife-Ashrafi', Compiled by Nizam Yemeni and annotated by Syed Waheed Ashraf and published in 2010'Akhbarul Akhyar' By Abdul Haqq Muhaddith Dehlwi.

A short biography of the prominent Sufis of India have been mentioned in this book including that of Akhi Siraj Aainae Hind.'Miratul Asrar' by Syed Abdur-Rahman Chishti Abbasi Alavi'Hayate Makhdoom Syed Ashraf Jahangir Semnani, Second Edition ISBN 978-93-85295-54-6, Maktaba Jamia Ltd, Shamshad Market, Aligarh 202002, India