Insect migration is the seasonal movement of insects those by species of dragonflies, beetles and moths. The distance can vary with species and in most cases these movements involve large numbers of individuals. In some cases the individuals that migrate in one direction may not return and the next generation may instead migrate in the opposite direction; this is a significant difference from bird migration. All insects move to some extent; the range of movement can vary from within a few centimeters for some sucking insects and wingless aphids to thousands of kilometres in the case of other insects such as locusts and dragonflies. The definition of migration is therefore difficult in the context of insects. A behaviour oriented definition proposed is Migratory behaviour is persistent and straightened-out movement effected by the animal's own locomotory exertions or by its active embarkation on a vehicle, it depends upon some temporary inhibition of station-keeping responses but promotes their eventual disinhibition and recurrence.
This definition disqualifies movements made in the search of resources and which are terminated upon finding of the resource. Migration involves longer distance movement and these movements are not affected by the availability of the resource items. All cases of long distance insect migration concern winged insects. Migrating butterflies fly with a specific upper limit above the ground; the air speeds in this region are lower than the flight speed of the insect. These'boundary-layer' migrants include the larger day-flying insects, their low-altitude flight is easier to observe than that of most high-altitude windborne migrants. Many migratory species tend to have a migratory one and a resident phase; the migratory phases are marked by their well long wings. Such polymorphism is well known in grasshoppers. In the migratory locusts, there are distinct short-winged forms; the energetic cost of migration has been studied in the context of life-history strategies. It has been suggested that adaptations for migration would be more valuable for insects that live in habitats where resource availability changes seasonally.
Others have suggested that species living in isolated islands of suitable habitats are more to evolve migratory strategies. The role of migration in gene flow has been studied in many species. Parasite loads affect migration. Infected individuals are weak and have shortened lifespans. Infection creates an effect known as culling whereby migrating animals are less to complete the migration; this results in populations with lower parasite loads. Migration is marked by well defined destinations which need navigation and orientation. A flying insect needs to make corrections for crosswinds, it has been demonstrated that many migrating insects sense windspeed and direction and make suitable corrections. Day-flying insects make use of the sun for orientation, however this requires that they compensate for the movement of the sun. Endogenous time-compensation mechanisms have been proposed and tested by releasing migrating butterflies that have been captured and kept in darkness to shift their internal clocks and observing changes in the directions chosen by them.
Some species appear to make corrections. Most insects are capable of sensing polarized light and they are able to use the polarization of the sky when the sun is occluded by clouds; the orientation mechanisms of nocturnal moths and other insects that migrate have not been well studied, however magnetic cues have been suggested in short distance fliers. Recent studies suggest that migratory butterflies may be sensitive to the Earth's magnetic field on the basis of the presence of magnetite particles. In an experiment on the monarch butterfly, it was shown that a magnet changed the direction of initial flight of migrating monarch butterflies; however this result was not a strong demonstration since the directions of the experimental butterflies and the controls did not differ in the direction of flight. Migration of butterflies and moths is well known; the Bogong moth is a native insect of Australia, known to migrate to cooler climates. The Madagascan sunset moth has migrations of up to thousands of individuals, occurring between the eastern and western ranges of their host plant, when they become depleted or unsuitable for consumption.
In southern India, mass migrations of many species occur before monsoons. As many as 250 species of butterflies in India are migratory; these include members of the Nymphalidae. The Australian painted lady periodically migrates down the cost of Australia, in periods of strong migration in Australia, migrate to New Zealand; the monarch butterfly migrates from southern Canada to wintering sites in central Mexico where they spend the winter. In the late winter or early spring, the adult monarchs leave the Transvolcanic mountain range in Mexico to travel north. Mating occurs and the females seek out milkweed to lay their eggs first in northern Mexico and southern Texas; the caterpillars hatch and develop into adults that move north, where more offspring can go as far as Central Canada until the next migratory cycle. The entire annual migration cycle involves five generations; the painted lady is a butterfly whose annual 15,000 km round trip from Scandinavia and Great Britain to West Africa involves up to six generations.
The hummingbird hawk-moth migrates from Africa and southern Asia to northern Asia. Short-horned grasshoppers sometime form swarms. These
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. Diffusion is driven by a gradient in chemical potential of the diffusing species. A gradient is the change in the value of a quantity e.g. concentration, pressure, or temperature with the change in another variable distance. A change in concentration over a distance is called a concentration gradient, a change in pressure over a distance is called a pressure gradient, a change in temperature over a distance is called a temperature gradient; the word diffusion derives from the Latin word, which means "to spread way out.” A distinguishing feature of diffusion is that it depends on particle random walk, results in mixing or mass transport without requiring directed bulk motion. Bulk motion, or bulk flow, is the characteristic of advection; the term convection is used to describe the combination of both transport phenomena. An example of a situation in which bulk motion and diffusion can be differentiated is the mechanism by which oxygen enters the body during external respiration known as breathing.
The lungs are located in the thoracic cavity, which expands as the first step in external respiration. This expansion leads to an increase in volume of the alveoli in the lungs, which causes a decrease in pressure in the alveoli; this creates a pressure gradient between the air outside the body at high pressure and the alveoli at low pressure. The air moves down the pressure gradient through the airways of the lungs and into the alveoli until the pressure of the air and that in the alveoli are equal i.e. the movement of air by bulk flow stops once there is no longer a pressure gradient. The air arriving in the alveoli has a higher concentration of oxygen than the “stale” air in the alveoli; the increase in oxygen concentration creates a concentration gradient for oxygen between the air in the alveoli and the blood in the capillaries that surround the alveoli. Oxygen moves by diffusion, down the concentration gradient, into the blood; the other consequence of the air arriving in alveoli is that the concentration of carbon dioxide in the alveoli decreases.
This creates a concentration gradient for carbon dioxide to diffuse from the blood into the alveoli, as fresh air has a low concentration of carbon dioxide compared to the blood in the body. The pumping action of the heart transports the blood around the body; as the left ventricle of the heart contracts, the volume decreases, which increases the pressure in the ventricle. This creates a pressure gradient between the heart and the capillaries, blood moves through blood vessels by bulk flow down the pressure gradient; as the thoracic cavity contracts during expiration, the volume of the alveoli decreases and creates a pressure gradient between the alveoli and the air outside the body, air moves by bulk flow down the pressure gradient. The concept of diffusion is used in: physics, biology, sociology and finance. However, in each case, the object, undergoing diffusion is “spreading out” from a point or location at which there is a higher concentration of that object. There are two ways to introduce the notion of diffusion: either a phenomenological approach starting with Fick's laws of diffusion and their mathematical consequences, or a physical and atomistic one, by considering the random walk of the diffusing particles.
In the phenomenological approach, diffusion is the movement of a substance from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration without bulk motion. According to Fick's laws, the diffusion flux is proportional to the negative gradient of concentrations, it goes from regions of higher concentration to regions of lower concentration. Sometime various generalizations of Fick's laws were developed in the frame of thermodynamics and non-equilibrium thermodynamics. From the atomistic point of view, diffusion is considered as a result of the random walk of the diffusing particles. In molecular diffusion, the moving molecules are self-propelled by thermal energy. Random walk of small particles in suspension in a fluid was discovered in 1827 by Robert Brown; the theory of the Brownian motion and the atomistic backgrounds of diffusion were developed by Albert Einstein. The concept of diffusion is applied to any subject matter involving random walks in ensembles of individuals. Biologists use the terms "net movement" or "net diffusion" to describe the movement of ions or molecules by diffusion.
For example, oxygen can diffuse through cell membranes so long as there is a higher concentration of oxygen outside the cell. However, because the movement of molecules is random oxygen molecules move out of the cell; because there are more oxygen molecules outside the cell, the probability that oxygen molecules will enter the cell is higher than the probability that oxygen molecules will leave the cell. Therefore, the "net" movement of oxygen molecules is into the cell. In other words, there is a net movement of oxygen molecules down the concentration gradient. In the scope of time, diffusion in solids was used. For example, Pliny the Elder had described the cementation process, which produces steel from the element iron through carbon diffusion. Another example is well known for many centuries, the diffusion of colors of stained glass or earthenware and Chinese ceramics. In modern science, the first systematic experimental study of di
The egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an embryo develops until it can survive on its own. An egg results from fertilization of an egg cell. Most arthropods and mollusks lay eggs, although some, such as scorpions do not. Reptile eggs, bird eggs, monotreme eggs are laid out of water, are surrounded by a protective shell, either flexible or inflexible. Eggs laid on land or in nests are kept within a warm and favorable temperature range while the embryo grows; when the embryo is adequately developed it hatches, i.e. breaks out of the egg's shell. Some embryos have a temporary egg tooth they use to pip, or break the eggshell or covering; the largest recorded egg is from a whale shark, was 30 cm × 14 cm × 9 cm in size. Whale shark eggs hatch within the mother. At 1.5 kg and up to 17.8 cm × 14 cm, the ostrich egg is the largest egg of any living bird, though the extinct elephant bird and some dinosaurs laid larger eggs. The bee hummingbird produces the smallest known bird egg; some eggs laid by reptiles and most fish, amphibians and other invertebrates can be smaller.
Reproductive structures similar to the egg in other kingdoms are termed "spores," or in spermatophytes "seeds," or in gametophytes "egg cells". Several major groups of animals have distinguishable eggs; the most common reproductive strategy for fish is known as oviparity, in which the female lays undeveloped eggs that are externally fertilized by a male. Large numbers of eggs are laid at one time and the eggs are left to develop without parental care; when the larvae hatch from the egg, they carry the remains of the yolk in a yolk sac which continues to nourish the larvae for a few days as they learn how to swim. Once the yolk is consumed, there is a critical point after which they must learn how to hunt and feed or they will die. A few fish, notably the rays and most sharks use ovoviviparity in which the eggs are fertilized and develop internally; however the larvae still grow inside the egg consuming the egg's yolk and without any direct nourishment from the mother. The mother gives birth to mature young.
In certain instances, the physically most developed offspring will devour its smaller siblings for further nutrition while still within the mother's body. This is known as intrauterine cannibalism. In certain scenarios, some fish such as the hammerhead shark and reef shark are viviparous, with the egg being fertilized and developed internally, but with the mother providing direct nourishment; the eggs of fish and amphibians are jellylike. Cartilagenous fish eggs are fertilized internally and exhibit a wide variety of both internal and external embryonic development. Most fish species spawn eggs that are fertilized externally with the male inseminating the eggs after the female lays them; these eggs would dry out in the air. Air-breathing amphibians lay their eggs in water, or in protective foam as with the Coast foam-nest treefrog, Chiromantis xerampelina. Bird eggs are incubated for a time that varies according to the species. Average clutch sizes range from one to about 17; some birds lay eggs when not fertilized.
The default color of vertebrate eggs is the white of the calcium carbonate from which the shells are made, but some birds passerines, produce colored eggs. The pigment biliverdin and its zinc chelate give a green or blue ground color, protoporphyrin produces reds and browns as a ground color or as spotting. Non-passerines have white eggs, except in some ground-nesting groups such as the Charadriiformes and nightjars, where camouflage is necessary, some parasitic cuckoos which have to match the passerine host's egg. Most passerines, in contrast, lay colored eggs if there is no need of cryptic colors; however some have suggested that the protoporphyrin markings on passerine eggs act to reduce brittleness by acting as a solid state lubricant. If there is insufficient calcium available in the local soil, the egg shell may be thin in a circle around the broad end. Protoporphyrin speckling compensates for this, increases inversely to the amount of calcium in the soil. For the same reason eggs in a clutch are more spotted than early ones as the female's store of calcium is depleted.
The color of individual eggs is genetically influenced, appears to be inherited through the mother only, suggesting that the gene responsible for pigmentation is on the sex determining W chromosome. It used to be thought that color was applied to the shell before laying, but this research shows that coloration is an integral part of the development of the shell, with the same protein responsible for depositing calcium carbonate, or protoporphyrins when there is a lack of that mineral. In species such as the common guillemot, which nest in large groups, each female's eggs have different markings, making it easier for females to identify their own eggs on the crowded cliff ledges on which they breed. Bird eggshells are diverse. For example: cormorant eggs are rough and chalky tinamou eggs are shiny duck eggs are oily and waterproof cassowary eggs are pittedTiny pores in bird eggshells allow the embryo to breathe; the domestic
An arthropod is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton, a segmented body, paired jointed appendages. Arthropods form the phylum Euarthropoda, which includes insects, arachnids and crustaceans; the term Arthropoda as proposed refers to a proposed grouping of Euarthropods and the phylum Onychophora. Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin mineralised with calcium carbonate; the arthropod body plan consists of each with a pair of appendages. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting. Arthopods are bilaterally symmetrical and their body possesses an external skeleton; some species have wings. Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments, they have over a million described species, making up more than 80 per cent of all described living animal species, some of which, unlike most other animals, are successful in dry environments. Arthropods range in size from the microscopic crustacean Stygotantulus up to the Japanese spider crab.
Arthropods' primary internal cavity is a haemocoel, which accommodates their internal organs, through which their haemolymph – analogue of blood – circulates. Like their exteriors, the internal organs of arthropods are built of repeated segments, their nervous system is "ladder-like", with paired ventral nerve cords running through all segments and forming paired ganglia in each segment. Their heads are formed by fusion of varying numbers of segments, their brains are formed by fusion of the ganglia of these segments and encircle the esophagus; the respiratory and excretory systems of arthropods vary, depending as much on their environment as on the subphylum to which they belong. Their vision relies on various combinations of compound eyes and pigment-pit ocelli: in most species the ocelli can only detect the direction from which light is coming, the compound eyes are the main source of information, but the main eyes of spiders are ocelli that can form images and, in a few cases, can swivel to track prey.
Arthropods have a wide range of chemical and mechanical sensors based on modifications of the many setae that project through their cuticles. Arthropods' methods of reproduction and development are diverse; the evolutionary ancestry of arthropods dates back to the Cambrian period. The group is regarded as monophyletic, many analyses support the placement of arthropods with cycloneuralians in a superphylum Ecdysozoa. Overall, the basal relationships of Metazoa are not yet well resolved; the relationships between various arthropod groups are still debated. Aquatic species use either external fertilization. All arthropods lay eggs, but scorpions give birth to live young after the eggs have hatched inside the mother. Arthropod hatchlings vary from miniature adults to grubs and caterpillars that lack jointed limbs and undergo a total metamorphosis to produce the adult form; the level of maternal care for hatchlings varies from nonexistent to the prolonged care provided by scorpions. Arthropods contribute to the human food supply both directly as food, more indirectly as pollinators of crops.
Some species are known to spread severe disease to humans and crops. The word arthropod comes from the Greek ἄρθρον árthron, "joint", πούς pous, i.e. "foot" or "leg", which together mean "jointed leg". Arthropods are invertebrates with jointed limbs; the exoskeleton or cuticles consists of a polymer of glucosamine. The cuticle of many crustaceans, beetle mites, millipedes is biomineralized with calcium carbonate. Calcification of the endosternite, an internal structure used for muscle attachments occur in some opiliones. Estimates of the number of arthropod species vary between 1,170,000 and 5 to 10 million and account for over 80 per cent of all known living animal species; the number of species remains difficult to determine. This is due to the census modeling assumptions projected onto other regions in order to scale up from counts at specific locations applied to the whole world. A study in 1992 estimated that there were 500,000 species of animals and plants in Costa Rica alone, of which 365,000 were arthropods.
They are important members of marine, freshwater and air ecosystems, are one of only two major animal groups that have adapted to life in dry environments. One arthropod sub-group, insects, is the most species-rich member of all ecological guilds in land and freshwater environments; the lightest insects weigh less than 25 micrograms. Some living crustaceans are much larger; the embryos of all arthropods are segmented, built from a series of repeated modules. The last common ancestor of living arthropods consisted of a series of undifferentiated segments, each with a pair of appendages that functioned as limbs. However, all known living and fossil arthropods have grouped segments into tagmata in which segments and their limbs are specialized in various ways; the three-
The Acari are a taxon of arachnids that contains mites and ticks. The diversity of the Acari is extraordinary and their fossil history goes back to at least the early Devonian period. Acarologists have proposed a complex set of taxonomic ranks to classify mites. In most modern treatments, the Acari are considered a subclass of the Arachnida and are composed of two or three superorders or orders: Acariformes and Opilioacariformes; the monophyly of the Acari is open to debate, the relationships of the acarines to other arachnids is not at all clear. In older treatments, the subgroups of the Acarina were placed at order rank, but as their own subdivisions have become better understood, treating them at the superorder rank is more usual. Most acarines are minute to small. Over 50,000 species have been described and an estimated million or more species may exist; the study of mites and ticks is called acarology, the leading scientific journals for acarology include Acarologia and Applied Acarology and the International Journal of Acarology.
Mites are arachnids, as such, evolved from a segmented body with the segments organised into two tagmata: a prosoma and an opisthosoma. However, only the faintest traces of primary segmentation remain in mites; this anterior body region is called the capitulum or gnathosoma, according to some works, is found in the Ricinulei. The remainder of the body is unique to mites. Most adult mites have four pairs of legs, like other arachnids. For example, gall mites like Phyllocoptes variabilis have a worm-like body with only two pairs of legs. Larval and prelarval stages have a maximum of three pairs of legs. Members of the Nematalycidae within the Endeostigmata, which live between sand grains, have worm-like and elongated bodies with reduced legs; the mouth parts of mites may be adapted for biting, sawing, or sucking. They breathe through tracheae, stigmata and the skin itself. Species hunting for other mites have acute senses, but many mites are eyeless; the central eyes of arachnids are always missing.
Thus, any eye number from none to five may occur. Acarine ontogeny consists of an egg, a prelarval stage, a larval stage, a series of nymphal stages. Any or all of these stages except the adult may be suppressed or occur only within the body of a previous stage. Larvae have a maximum of three pairs of legs. A maximum of three nymphal stages are present and they are referred to in sequence as the protonymph and tritonymph; the females of some Tarsonemidae bear sexually mature young. If any nymphal stages are absent authors may disagree on which stages are present. Only the Oribatida pass through all developmental stages. Acarines are diverse, they live in every habitat, include aquatic and terrestrial species. They detritus. Many are parasitic, they affect both vertebrates and invertebrates. Most parasitic forms are external parasites, while the free-living forms are predatory and may be used to control undesirable arthropods. Others are detritivores that help to break down forest litter and dead organic matter, such as skin cells.
Others still may damage crops. The feather mites, are found on all species of birds, except for penguins, are specialized for life on their hosts, they may feed on uropygial oil, skin flakes, fungus and feathers, depending on the taxon to which they belong. Their lifestyles are affected by the microclimate. However, no evidence shows microclimate affecting mite diversity. Damage to crops is the most costly economic effect of mites by the spider mites and their relatives, earth mites, thread-footed mites and the gall and rust mites; the honey bee parasite Varroa destructor has caused or contributed to large-scale die-offs of commercial pollinating populations. Some parasitic forms affect humans and other mammals, causing damage by their feeding, can be vectors of diseases, such as scrub typhus, Lyme disease, Q fever, Colorado tick fever, tick-borne relapsing fever, babesiosis and tick-borne meningoencephalitis. A well-known effect of mites on humans is their role as allergens and the stimulation of asthma in people affected by respiratory disease.
The use of predatory mites in pest control and herbivorous
Ecdysis is the moulting of the cuticle in many invertebrates of the clade Ecdysozoa. Since the cuticle of these animals forms a inelastic exoskeleton, it is shed during growth and a new, larger covering is formed; the remnants of the old, empty exoskeleton are called exuviae. After moulting, an arthropod is described as a callow. Within one or two hours, the cuticle hardens and darkens following a tanning process analogous to the production of leather. During this short phase the animal expands, since growth is otherwise constrained by the rigidity of the exoskeleton. Growth of the limbs and other parts covered by hard exoskeleton is achieved by transfer of body fluids from soft parts before the new skin hardens. A spider with a small abdomen may be undernourished but more has undergone ecdysis; some arthropods large insects with tracheal respiration, expand their new exoskeleton by swallowing or otherwise taking in air. The maturation of the structure and colouration of the new exoskeleton might take days or weeks in a long-lived insect.
Ecdysis allows damaged tissue and missing limbs to be regenerated or re-formed. Complete regeneration may require a series of moults, the stump becoming a little larger with each moult until it is a normal, or near normal, size; the term ecdysis comes from Ancient Greek: ἐκδύω, "to take off, strip off". In preparation for ecdysis, the arthropod becomes inactive for a period of time, undergoing apolysis or separation of the old exoskeleton from the underlying epidermal cells. For most organisms, the resting period is a stage of preparation during which the secretion of fluid from the moulting glands of the epidermal layer and the loosening of the underpart of the cuticle occur. Once the old cuticle has separated from the epidermis, a digesting fluid is secreted into the space between them. However, this fluid remains inactive. By crawling movements, the organism pushes forward in the old integumentary shell, which splits down the back allowing the animal to emerge; this initial crack is caused by a combination of movement and increase in blood pressure within the body, forcing an expansion across its exoskeleton, leading to an eventual crack that allows for certain organisms such as spiders to extricate themselves.
While the old cuticle is being digested, the new layer is secreted. All cuticular structures are shed at ecdysis, including the inner parts of the exoskeleton, which includes terminal linings of the alimentary tract and of the tracheae if they are present; each stage of development between moults for insects in the taxon endopterygota is called an instar, or stadium, each stage between moults of insects in the Exopterygota is called a nymph: there may be up to 15 nymphal stages. Endopterygota tend to have only five instars. Endopterygotes have more alternatives to moulting, such as expansion of the cuticle and collapse of air sacs to allow growth of internal organs; the process of moulting in insects begins with the separation of the cuticle from the underlying epidermal cells and ends with the shedding of the old cuticle. In many species it is initiated by an increase in the hormone ecdysone; this hormone causes: apolysis – the separation of the cuticle from the epidermis secretion of new cuticle materials beneath the old degradation of the old cuticleAfter apolysis the insect is known as a pharate.
Moulting fluid is secreted into the exuvial space between the old cuticle and the epidermis, this contains inactive enzymes which are activated only after the new epicuticle is secreted. This prevents the new procuticle from getting digested; the lower regions of the old cuticle, the endocuticle and mesocuticle, are digested by the enzymes and subsequently absorbed. The exocuticle and epicuticle are hence shed at ecdysis. Spiders change their skin for the first time while still inside the egg sac, the spiderling that emerges broadly resembles the adult; the number of moults varies, both between species and genders, but will be between five times and nine times before the spider reaches maturity. Not since males are smaller than females, the males of many species mature faster and do not undergo ecdysis as many times as the females before maturing. Members of the Mygalomorphae are long-lived, sometimes 20 years or more. Spiders stop feeding at some time before moulting for several days; the physiological processes of releasing the old exoskeleton from the tissues beneath cause various colour changes, such as darkening.
If the old exoskeleton is not too thick it may be possible to see new structures, such as setae, from outside. However, contact between the nerves and the old exoskeleton is maintained until a late stage in the process; the new, teneral exoskeleton has to accommodate a larger frame than the previous instar, while the spider has had to fit into the previous exoskeleton until it has been shed. This means the spider does not fill out the new exoskeleton so it appears somewhat wrinkled. Most species of spiders hang from silk during the entire process, either dangling from a drop line, or fastening their claws into webbed fibres attached to a suitable base; the discarded, dried exoskeleton remains hanging where it was abandoned once the spider has left. To open the old exoskeleton, the spider contracts its abdomen to supply enough fluid to pump into the prosoma with sufficient pressure to crack it open alo
University of Connecticut
The University of Connecticut is a public land grant, National Sea Grant and National Space Grant research university in Storrs, United States. It was founded in 1881; the primary 4,400-acre campus is in Storrs, Connecticut a half hour's drive from Hartford and 90 minutes from Boston. It is a flagship university, ranked as the best public national university in New England and is tied for No. 18 in Top Public Schools and No. 56 in National Universities in the 2018 U. S. News & World Report rankings. UConn has been ranked by Money Princeton Review top 18th in value; the university is designated "R-1: Doctoral Universities – Highest Research Activity" with the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education classifying the student body as "More Selective", its most selective admissions category. The university has been recognized as a Public Ivy, defined as a select group of publicly-funded universities considered to provide a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League.
UConn is one of the founding institutions of the Hartford, Connecticut/Springfield, Massachusetts regional economic and cultural partnership alliance known as New England's Knowledge Corridor. UConn was the second U. S. university invited into Universitas 21, an elite international network of 24 research-intensive universities, who work together to foster global citizenship. UConn is accredited by the New England Association of Colleges. UConn was founded in 1881 as the Storrs Agricultural School, named after two brothers who donated the land for the school. In 1893, the school became a land grant college. In 1939, the name was changed to the University of Connecticut. Over the next decade, social work and graduate programs were established, while the schools of law and pharmacy were absorbed into the university. During the 1960s, UConn Health was established for new dental schools. John Dempsey Hospital opened in Farmington in 1975. Competing in the American Athletic Conference as the Huskies, UConn has been successful in their men's and women's basketball programs.
The Huskies have won 21 NCAA championships. The UConn Huskies are the most successful women's basketball program in the nation, having won a record 11 NCAA Division I National Championships and a women's record four in a row, plus over 40 conference regular season and tournament championships. UConn owns the two longest winning streaks of any gender in college basketball history. UConn was founded in 1881 as the Storrs Agricultural School, it was named after Charles and Augustus Storrs, brothers who donated the land for the school as well as initial funding. Women began attending classes in 1891 and were admitted in 1893, when the name was changed to Storrs Agricultural College and it became Connecticut's land grant college. In 1899, the name changed again to Connecticut Agricultural College. In 1940, the school was first divided into individual colleges and schools, reflecting its new university status; this was the year the School of Social Work and School of Nursing were established. The graduate program was started at this time, the schools of law and pharmacy were absorbed into the university.
Ph. D.s have been awarded since 1949. During the 1970s, UConn Health was established in Farmington as a home for the new School of Medicine and School of Dental Medicine. John Dempsey Hospital opened in Farmington in 1975 and has been operated by UConn since. In 1995, a state-funded program called UConn 2000 was passed by the Connecticut General Assembly and signed into law by then-Governor John G. Rowland; this 10-year program set aside $1 billion to upgrade campus facilities, add faculty, otherwise improve the university. An additional $1.3 billion was pledged by the State of Connecticut in 2002 as part of a new 10-year improvement plan known as 21st Century UConn. An agreement was reached in 2012 to launch Jackson Laboratory’s $1.1 billion genomic medicine lab on the Farmington UConn Health campus as part of the Bioscience Connecticut initiative. In 2013, Governor Dannel P. Malloy signed into law Next Generation Connecticut, committing $1.7 billion in funding over a decade to enhance UConn's infrastructure, hire additional faculty, upgrade STEM initiatives.
The primary and original UConn campus is in Storrs, a division of the Town of Mansfield, 22 miles east of Hartford, Connecticut's capital and bordered by the towns of Coventry, Willington and Ashford. The University of Connecticut Libraries form the largest public research collection in the state; the main library is the Homer D. Babbidge Library, on Fairfield Way in the center of campus. In 1882, Charles Storrs donated the first volumes to the university library collection; the university housed its primary library collections in the Old Whitney building, one of the first agriculture school buildings. The library migrated from Old Main to the basement of Beech Hall in 1929; the collection moved to the Wilbur Cross Building and remained there until the 1970s. The current main library, Homer Babbidge, was known as the Nathan Hale Library, it underwent a $3 million renovation, completed in 1998, making it the largest public research library in New England. The Storrs campus is home to the university's Music and Pharmacy libraries, the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center, home to the university's archives and special collections, including university records, rare books, manuscript collections.
Each of the regional campuses have their own libraries, including the Jeremy Ri