Providence is the capital and most populous city of the state of Rhode Island and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. It was founded in 1636 by Roger Williams, a Reformed Baptist theologian and religious exile from the Massachusetts Bay Colony, he named the area in honor of "God's merciful Providence" which he believed was responsible for revealing such a haven for him and his followers. The city is situated at the mouth of the Providence River at the head of Narragansett Bay. Providence was one of the first cities in the country to industrialize and became noted for its textile manufacturing and subsequent machine tool and silverware industries. Today, the city of Providence is home to eight hospitals and seven institutions of higher learning which have shifted the city's economy into service industries, though it still retains some manufacturing activity; the city is the third most populous city in New England after Worcester, Massachusetts. Providence was settled in June 1636 by Roger Williams and grew into one of the original Thirteen Colonies.
Williams was compelled to leave Massachusetts Bay Colony due to his differing religious views, he and others established Providence Plantations. This settlement merged with others to become the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, it was a refuge for persecuted religious dissenters from the beginning. Providence Plantations was burned to the ground in March 1676 by the Narragansetts during King Philip's War, despite the good relations between Williams and the sachems with whom the United Colonies of New England were waging war. In the year, the Rhode Island legislature formally rebuked the other colonies for provoking the war. Providence residents were among the first Patriots to spill blood in the lead-up to the American Revolutionary War during the Gaspee Affair of 1772, Rhode Island was the first of the Thirteen Colonies to renounce its allegiance to the British Crown on May 4, 1776, it was the last of the Thirteen States to ratify the United States Constitution on May 29, 1790, once assurances were made that a Bill of Rights would become part of the Constitution.
Following the war, Providence was the country's ninth-largest city with 7,614 people. The economy shifted from maritime endeavors to manufacturing, in particular machinery, silverware and textiles. By the start of the 20th century, Providence hosted some of the largest manufacturing plants in the country, including Brown & Sharpe, Nicholson File, Gorham Manufacturing Company. Providence residents ratified a city charter in 1831 as the population passed 17,000; the seat of city government was located in the Market House in Market Square from 1832 to 1878, the geographic and social center of the city. The city offices outgrew this building, the City Council resolved to create a permanent municipal building in 1845; the city offices moved into the Providence City Hall in 1878. Local politics split over slavery during the American Civil War, as many had ties to Southern cotton and the slave trade. Despite ambivalence concerning the war, the number of military volunteers exceeded quota, the city's manufacturing proved invaluable to the Union.
Providence thrived after the war, waves of immigrants brought the population from 54,595 in 1865 to 175,597 by 1900. By the early 1900s, Providence was one of the wealthiest cities in the United States. Immigrant labor powered one of the nation's largest industrial manufacturing centers. Providence was a major manufacturer of industrial products, from steam engines to precision tools to silverware and textiles. Giant companies were based in or near Providence, such as Brown & Sharpe, the Corliss Steam Engine Company, Babcock & Wilcox, the Grinnell Corporation, the Gorham Manufacturing Company, Nicholson File, the Fruit of the Loom textile company. From 1975 until 1982, $606 million of local and national community development funds were invested throughout the city. In the 1990s, the city pushed for revitalization, realigning the north-south railroad tracks, removing the huge rail viaduct that separated downtown from the capitol building and moving the rivers to create Waterplace Park and river walks along the rivers' banks, constructing the Fleet Skating Rink and the Providence Place Mall.
Despite new investment, poverty remains an entrenched problem. 27.9 percent of the city population is living below the poverty line. Recent increases in real estate values further exacerbate problems for those at marginal income levels, as Providence had the highest rise in median housing price of any city in the United States from 2004 to 2005; the Providence city limits enclose a small geographical region with a total area of 20.5 square miles. Providence is located at the head of Narragansett Bay, with the Providence River running into the bay through the center of the city, formed by the confluence of the Moshassuck and Woonasquatucket Rivers; the Waterplace Park amphitheater and riverwalks line the river's banks through downtown. Providence is one of many cities claimed to be founded on seven hills like Rome; the more prominent hills are: Constitution Hill, College Hill, Federal Hill. The other four are: Tockwotten Hill at Fox Point, Smith Hill, Christian Hill at Hoyle Square, Weybosset Hill at the lower end of Weybosset Street, leveled in the early 1880s.
The Brown Acid Caveat is the seventh full-length album by the experimental rock group The Tear Garden. Their first in 17 years, it was released on July 7, 2017 after starting a successful PledgeMusic campaign in August 2016; the campaign, which achieved 117% of its financial goal, allowed for the inclusion of a number of guest musicians including Dre Robinson and former Legendary Pink Dots members Ryan Moore, Martijn De Kleer, Patrick Q. Wright; the album title refers to an announcement given to spectators of the first Woodstock Festival in 1969 to avoid "brown acid" -- a type of LSD associated with bad trips. "Strange Land" – 5:44 "Stars On The Sidewalk" – 7:32 "Amy's Personality" – 6:29 "Calling Time" – 4:28 "On With The Show" – 7:23 "Sinister Science" – 7:26 "Lola's Rock" – 5:58 "Kiss Don't Tell" – 7:42 "A Private Parade" – 7:09 "The Sound Of Space" – 5:26 "Seven Veils" – 7:10 "Object" – 4:19 Credits adapted from liner notes of The Brown Acid Caveat. CEvin Key - bass, drums, percussion Edward Ka-Spel - keyboards, vocals Ryan Moore - bass Martijn De Kleer - guitar Patrick Q. Wright - viola, violin Dre Robinson - percussion Alice - voices Greg Reely - mastering, mixing Peter Clarke - artwork Simon Paul - assembly
Josephine Chan Shu-ying is a Hong Kong politician and current chairman of the Tuen Mun District Council. As a Democratic Party member, Chan has been member of the Tuen Mun District Council from 1994 to 2015 and again from 2020 for Siu Hong constituency and former member of the Regional Council. Chan was graduated from University of Hong Kong in 1982 and became a secondary school teacher at Buddhist Sum Heung Lam Memorial College, where she met her husband Lee Wing-tat, she married Lee in 1984 but divorced in 1990 and remarried Lee in 2001. Chan was first elected to the Tuen Mun District Board in the 1994 election, where she won a seat in Siu Hong, she was consecutively re-elected for four occasions, but lost to Mo Shing-fung of the pro-Beijing Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong. She regained her seat in the 2019 election, where the pro-democrats gained the majority of the seat and elected Chan was the first female chairwoman of the council. Chan was an elected member of the Regional Council elected in 1995.
She lost her Regional Council seat when Chief Executive Tung Chee-hwa abolished the two municipal councils in 1999. Chan filed a judicial review application to the courts, claiming that the dissolution of municipal councils was "constitutionally defective" but the application was rejected by Justice Michael Hartmann. Chan ran for the Legislative Council, running on the Democratic Party's ticket in New Territories West. In 2004, she contested in the Catering functional constituency but lost to incumbent Liberal Party's Tommy Cheung, she ran again in 2012 for New Territories West as a first candidate, but failed to get elected with 25,892 votes