A helipad is a landing area or platform for helicopters and powered lift aircraft. While helicopters and powered lift aircraft are able to operate on a variety of flat surfaces, a fabricated helipad provides a marked hard surface away from obstacles where such aircraft can land safely. Larger helipads, intended for use by helicopters and other vertical take-off and landing aircraft, may be called vertiports. An example is Vertiport Chicago, which opened in 2015. Helipads may be located at a heliport or airport where fuel, air traffic control and service facilities for aircraft are available. Most helipads are located remote from populated areas due to sounds, winds and cost constraints, some skyscrapers maintain a helipad on their roofs in order to accommodate air taxi services; some basic helipads are built on highrise buildings for evacuation in case of a major fire outbreak. Major police departments may use a dedicated helipad at heliports as a base for police helicopters. Large ships and oil platforms have a helipad on board for emergency use.
In such a case, the term "helideck" or "helodeck" has been used in the meaning of a helipad on board. Helipads are common features at hospitals where they serve to facilitate medical evacuation or air ambulance transfers of patients to trauma centers or to accept patients from remote areas without local hospitals or facilities capable of providing the level of emergency medicine required. In urban environments, these heliports are located on the roof of the hospital. Rooftop helipads sometimes display a large two-digit number, representing the weight limit of the pad. In addition, a second number may be present. Location identifiers are but not always, issued for helipads, they may be issued by the appropriate aviation authority. Authorized agencies include the Federal Aviation Administration in the United States, Transport Canada in Canada, the International Civil Aviation Organization, the International Air Transport Association; some helipads may have location identifiers from multiple sources, these identifiers may be of different format and name.
Helipads are constructed out of concrete and are marked with a circle and/or a letter "H", so as to be visible from the air. However, they are not always constructed out of concrete. Rig mats may be used to build helipads. Landing pads may be constructed in extreme conditions such as on ice; the world's highest helipad, built by India, is located on the Siachen Glacier at a height of 21,000 feet above sea level. The world's largest heliport is in Morgan City and has a total of 46 helipads, used to support offshore oil platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. A portable helipad is a helipad structure with a rugged frame that can be used to land helicopters in any areas with slopes of up to 30 degrees, such as hillsides and boggy areas. Portable helipads can be transported by helicopter or powered-lift to place them where a VTOL needs to land, as long as there are no insurmountable obstructions nearby. Helicopter deck Helicopter landing officer Heliport de Voogt, A. J. 2007. Helidrome Architecture. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers.
ICAO 1995. Heliport manual. Montreal, Canada: ICAO Publications
Providence Health & Services
Providence Health & Services is a not-for-profit Catholic health care system operating multiple hospitals across 5 states, with headquarters in Renton, Washington. The health system includes 27 hospitals, more than 35 non-acute facilities and numerous other health, supportive housing and educational services in the states of Alaska, Montana and California. Providence Health & Services was started by the Sisters of Providence in 1859. Providence Health System was established by the Sisters of Providence, a community of Roman Catholic sisters founded in Montreal, Quebec by Mother Émilie Gamelin in 1843. In 1856, Mother Joseph and four sisters came to Vancouver, Washington to serve the native people and settlers; the five pioneer sisters crisscrossed the Northwest and established schools, hospitals and other institutions of care. In 1858, they founded the Pacific Northwest's first permanent hospital. In 1859, the Sisters incorporated their work, creating the network of health care services known as Providence Health & Services.
The sisters established several schools and hospitals in Washington, Oregon, British Columbia, California. Providence Health System was managed by the Sisters of Providence until 1979, when the first person outside the church was made president of the system because of the declining numbers within the religious community. Providence Health & Services is the largest health care system in Washington state and one of the largest employers in the state. Providence Health System is one of the oldest corporations in the state, it is headquartered in Washington. In 2012, Providence acquired Swedish Health Services in Washington; the merger was communicated as an affiliation developed out of a mutual desire to more efficiently expand services to patients in Snohomish and King counties. These two institutions were fiercely competitive adversaries making the affiliation surprising to most residents in the respective communities. Swedish Medical Center was in serious financial difficulty following an aggressive expansion strategy that started on the eve of the 2008 financial crisis and major cuts made to Medicare reimbursements in 2009.
Providence had similar struggles but was able to lean on the massive cash reserves held by Providence Health & Services. Dr. Rod Hochman, CEO of Swedish Medical Center was hired by Providence Health & Services when Providence affiliated with Swedish in 2012. Effective April 2013, Dr. Hochman became the CEO of Providence. In 2014, Providence entered a similar "secular affiliation" with Pacific Medical Centers. PacMed joined Swedish as part of Providence's Western HealthConnect division. In 2011, Providence provided more than $651 million in community benefit, including nearly $204 million in free and discounted care for those who could not afford to pay for care. In 2014, Providence signed a sponsorship deal with the Portland Timbers of Major League Soccer giving them the naming rights to the Timbers' stadium, now known as Providence Park. Providence has not disclosed the amount of the fee paid; the company has a program in place designed to reduce the amount of food scraps that it sends to landfills.
The program focuses on more accurate food purchasing and preparation practices, composting food scraps and donating edible food to gleaners and similar nonprofits. Providence requires the chefs throughout its system to use centrally developed recipes and portion sizes that are designed to reduce waste and improve the nutritional value of the food served. In 2016, the company said, its program helped divert 204 tons of food waste from the landfill. Providence Alaska Medical Center Providence Kodiak Island Medical Center Providence Seward Medical and Care Center Providence Valdez Medical Center Providence Holy Cross Medical Center Providence Little Company of Mary Medical Center Providence Little Company of Mary Medical Center Providence Saint Joseph Medical Center Providence Tarzana Medical Center Providence Medical Institute Providence Saint John's Health Center St. Joseph Medical Center St. Patrick Hospital and Health Sciences Center Providence Hood River Memorial Hospital Providence Medford Medical Center Providence Milwaukie Hospital Providence Newberg Medical Center Providence Portland Medical Center Providence Seaside Hospital Providence St. Vincent Medical Center Providence Willamette Falls Medical Center Providence Centralia Hospital Providence Holy Family Hospital Providence Mount Carmel Hospital Providence Regional Medical Center Everett Providence Sacred Heart Medical Center and Children's Hospital Providence St. Joseph's Hospital Providence St. Mary Medical Center Providence St. Peter Hospital Providence Medical Group operates more than 250 clinics in neighborhoods throughout Alaska, Idaho, Montana and Washington.
Providence Medical Group is part of Providence Services. Providence Medical Group employs more than 1,600 physicians offering expertise in family medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics/gynecology and other specialties. Providence Health & Services provides outpatient services, transitional care and hospice care, substance abuse programs, mental health treatment and wellness programs, long-term care, assisted living and housing. Providence Health Plan provides or administers health coverage to more than 375,000 members nationwide. Providence Health & Services Providence Archives
Federal Aviation Administration
The Federal Aviation Administration is a governmental body of the United States with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation in that nation as well as over its surrounding international waters. Its powers include the construction and operation of airports, air traffic management, the certification of personnel and aircraft, the protection of U. S. assets during the launch or re-entry of commercial space vehicles. Powers over neighboring international waters were delegated to the FAA by authority of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Created in August 1958, the FAA replaced the former Civil Aeronautics Administration and became an agency within the US Department of Transportation; the FAA's roles include: Regulating U. S. commercial space transportation Regulating air navigation facilities' geometric and flight inspection standards Encouraging and developing civil aeronautics, including new aviation technology Issuing, suspending, or revoking pilot certificates Regulating civil aviation to promote transportation safety in the United States through local offices called Flight Standards District Offices Developing and operating a system of air traffic control and navigation for both civil and military aircraft Researching and developing the National Airspace System and civil aeronautics Developing and carrying out programs to control aircraft noise and other environmental effects of civil aviation The FAA is divided into four "lines of business".
Each LOB has a specific role within the FAA. Airports: plans and develops projects involving airports, overseeing their construction and operations. Ensures compliance with federal regulations. Air Traffic Organization: primary duty is to safely and efficiently move air traffic within the National Airspace System. ATO employees manage air traffic facilities including Airport Traffic Control Towers and Terminal Radar Approach Control Facilities. See Airway Operational Support. Aviation Safety: Responsible for aeronautical certification of personnel and aircraft, including pilots and mechanics. Commercial Space Transportation: ensures protection of U. S. assets during the launch or reentry of commercial space vehicles. The FAA is headquartered in Washington, D. C. as well as the William J. Hughes Technical Center in Atlantic City, New Jersey, the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center in Oklahoma City and its nine regional offices: Alaskan Region – Anchorage, Alaska Northwest Mountain – Seattle, Washington Western Pacific – Los Angeles, California Southwest – Fort Worth, Texas Central – Kansas City, Missouri Great Lakes – Chicago, Illinois Southern – Atlanta, Georgia Eastern – New York, New York New England – Boston, Massachusetts The Air Commerce Act of May 20, 1926, is the cornerstone of the federal government's regulation of civil aviation.
This landmark legislation was passed at the urging of the aviation industry, whose leaders believed the airplane could not reach its full commercial potential without federal action to improve and maintain safety standards. The Act charged the Secretary of Commerce with fostering air commerce and enforcing air traffic rules, licensing pilots, certifying aircraft, establishing airways, operating and maintaining aids to air navigation; the newly created Aeronautics Branch, operating under the Department of Commerce assumed primary responsibility for aviation oversight. In fulfilling its civil aviation responsibilities, the Department of Commerce concentrated on such functions as safety regulations and the certification of pilots and aircraft, it took over the building and operation of the nation's system of lighted airways, a task initiated by the Post Office Department. The Department of Commerce improved aeronautical radio communications—before the founding of the Federal Communications Commission in 1934, which handles most such matters today—and introduced radio beacons as an effective aid to air navigation.
The Aeronautics Branch was renamed the Bureau of Air Commerce in 1934 to reflect its enhanced status within the Department. As commercial flying increased, the Bureau encouraged a group of airlines to establish the first three centers for providing air traffic control along the airways. In 1936, the Bureau itself began to expand the ATC system; the pioneer air traffic controllers used maps and mental calculations to ensure the safe separation of aircraft traveling along designated routes between cities. In 1938, the Civil Aeronautics Act transferred the federal civil aviation responsibilities from the Commerce Department to a new independent agency, the Civil Aeronautics Authority; the legislation expanded the government's role by giving the CAA the authority and the power to regulate airline fares and to determine the routes that air carriers would serve. President Franklin D. Roosevelt split the authority into two agencies in 1940: the Civil Aeronautics Administration and the Civil Aeronautics Board.
CAA was responsible for ATC, airman and aircraft certification, safety enforcement, airway development. CAB was entrusted with safety regulation, accident investigation, economic regulation of the airlines; the CAA was part of the Department of Commerce. The CAB was an independent federal agency. On the eve of America's entry into World War II, CAA began to extend its ATC responsibilities to takeoff and landing operations at airports; this expanded role became permanent after the war. The application of radar to ATC helped controllers in their drive to keep abreast of the postwar boom in commercial air transportation. In 1946, Congress gave CAA the added task of administering the federal-aid airport program, the first peacetime program of financial assistance aimed exclusivel
Biologically, a child is a human being between the stages of birth and puberty, or between the developmental period of infancy and puberty. The legal definition of child refers to a minor, otherwise known as a person younger than the age of majority. Child may describe a relationship with a parent or, metaphorically, an authority figure, or signify group membership in a clan, tribe, or religion. Biologically, a child is a person between birth and puberty, or the period of human development from infancy to puberty; the term child may refer to anyone below the age of majority or some other age limit. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child defines child as "a human being below the age of 18 years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier"; this is ratified by 192 of 194 member countries. The term child may refer to someone below another defined age limit unconnected to the age of majority. In Singapore, for example, a child is defined as someone under the age of 14 under the "Children and Young Persons Act" whereas the age of majority is 21.
In U. S. Immigration Law, a child refers to anyone, under the age of 21; some English definitions of the word child include the fetus. In many cultures, a child is considered an adult after undergoing a rite of passage, which may or may not correspond to the time of puberty. Children have fewer rights than adults and are classed as unable to make serious decisions, must always be under the care of a responsible adult or child custody, whether their parents divorce or not. Recognition of childhood as a state different from adulthood began to emerge in the 16th and 17th centuries. Society began to relate to the child not as a miniature adult but as a person of a lower level of maturity needing adult protection and nurturing; this change can be traced in paintings: In the Middle Ages, children were portrayed in art as miniature adults with no childlike characteristics. In the 16th century, images of children began to acquire a distinct childlike appearance. From the late 17th century onwards, children were shown playing with toys and literature for children began to develop at this time.
According to Professor Peter Jones of Cambridge university development of the brain continues long past legal definitions of adulthood so "to have a definition of when you move from childhood to adulthood looks absurd. It's a much more nuanced transition that takes place over three decades." Children go through stages of social development. Children learn through play and in most societies through formal schooling; as a child is growing they are learning. They learn how to prioritize their actions, their behavior is transcending. They learn how to learn new behavior. Children with ADHD and learning disabilities may need extra help to develop social skills; the impulsive characteristics of an ADHD child may lead to poor peer relationships. Children with poor attention spans may not tune into social cues in their environment, making it difficult for them to learn social skills through experience. Health issues affecting children are managed separately from those affecting adults, by pediatricians; the age at which children are considered responsible for their society-bound actions has changed over time, this is reflected in the way they are treated in courts of law.
In Roman times, children were regarded as not culpable for crimes, a position adopted by the Church. In the 19th century, children younger than seven years old were believed incapable of crime. Children from the age of seven forward were considered responsible for their actions. Therefore, they could face criminal charges, be sent to adult prison, be punished like adults by whipping, branding or hanging. Minimum employment age and marriage age vary; the age limit of voluntary/involuntary military service is disputed at the international level. During the early 17th century in England, about two-thirds of all children died before the age of four. During the Industrial Revolution, the life expectancy of children increased dramatically, and this has continued. Child mortality rates have fallen across the world. About 12.6 million under-five infants died worldwide in 1990, which declined to 6.6 million in 2012. The infant mortality rate dropped from 90 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1990, to 48 in 2012.
The highest average infant mortality rates are in sub-Saharan Africa, at 98 deaths per 1,000 live births – over double the world's average. Education, in the general sense, refers to the act or process of imparting or acquiring general knowledge, developing the powers of reasoning and judgment, preparing intellectually for mature life. Formal education most takes place through schooling. A right to education has been recognized by some governments. At the global level, Article 13 of the United Nations' 1966 International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights recognizes the right of everyone to an education. Education is compulsory in most places up to a certain age, but attendance at school may not be, with alternative options such as home-schooling or e-learning being recognized as valid forms of education in certain jurisdictions. Children in some countries are kept out of school, or attend only for short periods. Data from UNICEF indicate
Biologically, an adult is a human or other organism that has reached sexual maturity. In human context, the term adult additionally has meanings associated with social and legal concepts. In contrast to a "minor", a legal adult is a person who has attained the age of majority and is therefore regarded as independent, self-sufficient, responsible; the typical age of attaining legal adulthood is 18, although definition may vary by legal rights and country. Human adulthood encompasses psychological adult development. Definitions of adulthood are inconsistent and contradictory. Conversely, one may be an adult but possess none of the maturity and responsibility that may define an adult character. In different cultures there are events that relate passing from being a child to becoming an adult or coming of age; this encompasses the passing a series of tests to demonstrate that a person is prepared for adulthood, or reaching a specified age, sometimes in conjunction with demonstrating preparation. Most modern societies determine legal adulthood based on reaching a specified age without requiring a demonstration of physical maturity or preparation for adulthood.
And cross-culturally, adulthood has been determined by the start of puberty. In the past, a person moved from the status of child directly to the status of adult with this shift being marked by some type of coming-of-age test or ceremony. After the social construct of adolescence was created, adulthood split into two forms: biological adulthood and social adulthood. Thus, there are now two primary forms of adults: social adults. Depending on the context, adult can indicate either definition. Although few or no established dictionaries provide a definition for the two word term biological adult, the first definition of adult in multiple dictionaries includes "the stage of the life cycle of an animal after reproductive capacity has been attained". Thus, the base definition of the word adult is the period beginning at physical sexual maturity, which occurs sometime after the onset of puberty. Although this is the primary definition of the base word "adult", the term is frequently used to refer to social adults.
The two-word term biological adult stresses or clarifies that the original definition, based on physical maturity, is being used. The time of puberty varies, but begins around 10 or 11 years old. Girls begin the process of puberty at age 10 or 11, boys at age 11 or 12. Girls complete puberty by 15–17, boys by age 16 or 17. Nutrition and environment usually play a part in the onset of puberty. Adulthood means that one has reached the age of majority – when parents lose parenting rights and responsibilities regarding the person concerned. Depending on one's jurisdiction, the age of majority may or may not be set independently of and should not be confused with the minimum ages applicable to other activities, such as engaging in a contract, voting, having a job, serving in the military, buying/possessing firearms, traveling abroad, involvement with alcoholic beverages, sexual activity, being a model or actor in pornography, running for President, etc. Admission of a young person to a place may be restricted because of danger for that person, concern that the place may lead the person to immoral behavior or because of the risk that the young person causes damage.
One can distinguish the legality of acts of a young person, or of enabling a young person to carry out that act, by selling, renting out, permitting entrance, allowing participation, etc. There may be distinction between commercially and enabling. Sometimes there is the requirement of supervision by a legal guardian, or just by an adult. Sometimes there is no requirement, but rather a recommendation. Using the example of pornography, one can distinguish between: being allowed inside an adult establishment being allowed to purchase pornography being allowed to possess pornography another person being allowed to sell, rent out, or show the young person pornography, see disseminating pornography to a minor being a pornographic actor: rules for the young person, for other people, regarding production, etc. With regard to films with violence, etc.: another person being allowed to sell, rent out, or show the young person a film. Niger, Democratic Republic of Congo and Cameroon define adulthood at age 15, but marriage of girls at an earlier age is common.
In most of the world, including most of the United States and China, the legal adult age is 18 for most purposes, with some notable exceptions: British Columbia, New Brunswick and Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Yukon Territory in Canada. In contrast to biological perspectives of aging and adulthood, social scientists conc
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No