Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
South Tyrol, known by its alternative Italian name Alto Adige, is an autonomous province in northern Italy. It is one of the two provinces that make up the autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. The province has an area of 7,400 square kilometres and its capital is the city of Bolzano. As of 2011, South Tyrol is among the wealthiest regions in Italy, South Tyrol is the term most commonly used in English for the province, and its usage reflects that it was created from a portion of the southern part of the historic County of Tyrol. German and Ladin speakers usually refer to the area as Südtirol, Alto Adige, one of the Italian names for the province, is used in English. The term had been the name of political subdivisions along the Adige River in the time of Napoleon Bonaparte and it was reused as the Italian name of the current province after its post-World War I creation, and was a symbol of the subsequent forced Italianization of South Tyrol. The official name of the today in German is Autonome Provinz Bozen — Südtirol.
German speakers usually refer to it not as a Provinz, provincial institutions are referred to using the prefix Landes-, such as Landesregierung and Landeshauptmann. The official name in Italian is Provincia autonoma di Bolzano — Alto Adige, South Tyrol as an administrative entity originated during the First World War. The Allies promised the area to Italy in the Treaty of London of 1915 as an incentive to enter the war on their side, with the rise of Fascism, the new regime made efforts to bring forward the Italianization of South Tyrol. The German language was banished from public service, German teaching was officially forbidden, the regime favored immigration from other Italian regions. The subsequent alliance between Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini declared that South Tyrol would not follow the destiny of Austria, the region was de facto annexed to the German Reich until the end of the war. This status ended along with the Nazi regime, and Italian rule was restored in 1945, after the war the Allies decided that the province would remain a part of Italy, under the condition that the German-speaking population be granted a significant level of self-government.
Italy and Austria negotiated an agreement in 1946, recognizing the rights of the German minority, alcide De Gasperi, Italys prime minister, a native of Trentino, wanted to extend the autonomy to his fellow citizens. This led to the creation of the region called Trentino-Alto Adige/Tiroler Etschland and Italian were both made official languages, and German-language education was permitted once more. Still Italians were the majority in the combined region, in a first phase, only public edifices and fascist monuments were targeted. The second phase was bloodier, costing 21 lives, the South Tyrolean question became an international issue. A fresh round of negotiations took place in 1961 but proved unsuccessful, the issue was resolved in 1971, when a new Austro-Italian treaty was signed and ratified
Province of Savona
The province of Savona is a province in the Liguria region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Savona, which has a population of 61,529 inhabitants, the province has a total population of 280,707. Savona was first settled by the Ligurian tribe, the Sabazi and this support of the Carthaginian Empire led to Savona being conquered by the Roman Empire. During the Middle Ages, Savona allied with Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1440 it fought against Genoa during its war against the Visconti of Milan, in response, Genoa sacked the city and destroyed the port and shipping. It allied itself with the French in the 16th century, but this failed and resulted in Genoa invading the area again. It was occupied by Napoleons French forces at the start of the 19th century, following this, ironworks were founded in Savona and the port revived. The province of Savona is one of four provinces in the region of Liguria which forms a strip in the northwest of Italy. Savona has a coastline on the Gulf of Genoa, the Province of Imperia lies to the west.
The region of Piedmont lies inland, with the Province of Cuneo to the northwest, the provincial capital is the city of Savona. Inland is the chain formed by the Maritime Alps and the Apennines
Ferrero SpA is an Italian manufacturer of branded chocolate and confectionery products and it is the third biggest chocolate producer and confectionery company in the world. The company saw a period of growth and success under Pietros son Michele Ferrero. His son Pietro, who oversaw global business, died on April 18,2011, in a cycling accident in South Africa at the age of 47. The Ferrero Group worldwide – now headed by CEO Giovanni Ferrero – includes 38 trading companies,18 factories, Ferrero International SAs headquarters is in Luxembourg. Ferrero SpA is a company owned by the Ferrero family and has been described as one of the worlds most secretive firms. Reputation Institutes 2009 survey ranks Ferrero as the most reputable company in the world, the recently announced financial results for 2015/2016 show a +8. 2% increment from the previous year. In 1946, Pietro Ferrero invented a cream of hazelnuts and cocoa, derived from Gianduja and called it Giandujot, the initial product came in solid loaves wrapped in aluminium foil, which had to be sliced with a knife, and was succeeded by a spreadable version Supercrema.
With assistance from his brother Giovanni Ferrero, Pietro Ferrero created his new company to produce, following his work, Pietro was succeeded by his son Michele Ferrero as chief executive. Michele and his wife Maria Franca relaunched his fathers recipe as Nutella, after World War II, they opened production sites and offices abroad and Nutella eventually became the worlds leading chocolate-nut spread brand. Ferrero is the worlds largest consumer of hazelnuts, buying up 25% of global production in 2014, the company is currently run by Giovanni Ferrero, grandson of Pietro and son to Michele Ferrero. The company places emphasis on secrecy, reportedly to guard against industrial espionage. It has never held a conference and does not allow media visits to its plants. Ferreros products are made with machines designed by an engineering department. Ferrero produces several lines of goods under various brand names, as well as the chocolate-hazelnut spread. The company has produced Nutella since 1964, the production of Nutella uses one-quarter of the worlds annual hazelnut supply.
In 2014, Ferrero acquired Oltan Group, the largest hazelnut supplier in the world. Ferreros Kinder brand line of products include Kinder Surprise, Kinder Joy, Kinder Chocolate, Kinder Happy Hippo, Kinder Maxi, Kinder Duplo, Kinder Country, Kinder Délice. Ferrero has been producing Thorntons products since the company acquired the British chocolate retailer in June 2015 for £112 million, the company produces Tic Tac candy, available in mint and fruit flavors, along with sugar free versions
Saluzzo is a town and former principality in the province of Cuneo, Piedmont region, Italy. The city of Saluzzo is built on a hill overlooking a vast, lead, marble, slate etc. are found in the surrounding mountains. It has a population of approximately 17,000, Saluzzo was the birthplace of the writer Silvio Pellico and of typographer Giambattista Bodoni. Saluzzo was a civitas of the Vagienni, or mountain Ligures and this district was brought under Roman control by the Consul Marcus Fulvius circa 125BC. The marquisate embraced the territory lying between the Alps, the Po and the Stura, and was extended on several occasions, in the Middle Ages it had a chequered existence, often being in conflict with powerful neighbours, chiefly the Counts of Savoy. After Manfred IIs death, his widow had to accept a series of tributes, thomas III, a vassal of France, wrote the romance Le chevalier errant. Ludovico I started the Golden Age of the city and imposed himself as a mediator between the neighbouring powers, Ludovico II constructed a tunnel, no longer in use, through the Monviso, a remarkable work for the time.
He was a patron of clerics and authors, in 1490 Ludovico regained power, but after his deaths his sons struggled longly for the rule and impoverished the state. In 1588 Charles Emmanuel I of Savoy took possession of the city, thenceforward Saluzzo shared the destinies of Piedmont, with which it formed one of the keys of the house of Italy. The Marquisate of Saluzzo is the setting of Boccaccios tale of Griselda, Saluzzo Cathedral, Church was built in Lombard-Gothic style. The façade is decorated with rose-windows and statues, the interior contains a magnificent Baroque high altar, plus a 16th-century terracotta group portraying the Deposition, ad Adoration of the Shepherds by Sebastiano Ricci. San Bernardo church formerly belonging to the Conventuals, has interesting tombs of the counts della Torre, San Giovanni, Dominican church begun in 1330 in Gothic style and completed in 1504 with Bramantesque influences. The apse, from 1504, houses a Funerary Chapel of Ludovico II, work by Antoine Le Moiturier covered with green stone, the sepulchre of Ludovico II is a Renaissance work by Benedetto Briosco.
Annexed are the Gothic cloister and the Capitular Hall with the Mausoleum of a vicar-general of the marquisate, Galeazzo Cavassa di Carmagnola, casa Cavassa, site of the civic museum and rebuilt with a Renaissance interior. San Agostino and San Bernardino Town Hall is the former Jesuit College, while the older one, the 16th century Villa Belvedere has elegant rooms with late-Renaissance decorations. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Charles. LItalia da scoprire, Guide di BellItalia, ed. Giorgio Mondadori,2006
Racconigi is a town and comune in Piedmont, Italy. It is located in the province of Cuneo,40 kilometres south of Turin, the town was founded in medieval times. It was a possession of the marquisses of Saluzzo, of the princes of Acaia, Racconigi is located in the northern borders of its province with the one of Turin. The town borders with the municipalities of Caramagna Piemonte, Casalgrasso, Cavallermaggiore, Murello and its municipal hamlets are Canapile, Migliabruna, Parruccia, San Lorenzo and Tagliata. The economy is based on agriculture, production of milk and meat. Castle of Racconigi, This royal residence built in 1570 on the basis of a castle which dated to the beginning of the second millennium. The large park was laid out in 1755 by the French gardener Molard from designs by Le Nôtre, the castle became the summer residence of the King of Italy in 1901, and part of the World Heritage Site Residences of the Royal House of Savoy in 1997. The interior decoration and antique furniture were commissioned to the artists who worked for Castle of Racconigi.
Today it is both a private estate as well as a location for weddings, events and a set for several movies, umberto II, last King of Italy, was born here. Bonneville Cascais Media related to Racconigi at Wikimedia Commons Il Castello di Racconigi Centro Anatidi e Cicogne
Saint-Gobain S. A. is a French multinational corporation, founded in 1665 in Paris and headquartered on the outskirts of Paris, at La Défense and in Courbevoie. Originally a mirror manufacturer, it now produces a variety of construction. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index, since the middle of the 17th century, luxury products such as silk textiles and mirrors were in high demand. French minister of finance Jean-Baptiste Colbert wanted France to become completely self-sufficient in meeting domestic demand for luxury products, Colbert established by letters patent the public enterprise Manufacture royale de glaces de miroirs in October 1665. The company was created for a period of twenty years and would be financed in part by the State. The beneficiary and first director was the French financier Nicolas du Noyer, receiver of taxes of Orléans, the company had the informal name Compagnie du Noyer. To compete with the Italian mirror industry, Colbert commissioned several Venetian glassworkers he had enticed to Paris to work for the company, the first unblemished mirrors were produced in 1666.
Soon the mirrors created in the Faubourg Saint-Antoine, under the French company, the French company was capable of producing mirrors that were 40 to 45 inches long, which at the time was considered impressive. Competition between France and the Venetians became so fierce that Venice considered it a crime for any glass artisan to leave and practice their trade elsewhere, especially in foreign territory. Nicolas du Noyer complained in writing that the jealous Venetians were unwilling to impart the secrets of glassmaking to the French workers, the distractions of Paris proved distracting to the workers, and supplies of firewood to stoke the furnaces were dearer in the capital than elsewhere. In 1678, the company produced the glass for the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles, in 1683 the companys financial arrangement with the State was renewed for another two decades. However, in 1688 the rival Compagnie Thévart was created, financed in part by the state, the two companies were in competition for seven years, until 1695, when the economy slowed down and their technical and commercial rivalry became counterproductive.
Under an order from the French government, the two companies were forced to merge, creating the Compagnie Plastier, in 1702 Compagnie Plastier declared bankruptcy. A group of Franco-Swiss Protestant bankers rescued the company, changing the name to Compagnie Dagincourt. In 1789, as a consequence of the French Revolution, the state financial, the company now had to depend on the participation and capital of private investors, although it continued to remain partly under the control of the French state. In the 1820s, Saint-Gobain continued to function as it had under the Ancien Régime, manufacturing high-quality mirrors, however, in 1824, a new glass manufacturer was established in Commentry, and in 1837 several Belgian glass manufacturers were founded. While Saint-Gobain continued to dominate the luxury high-quality mirror and glass markets, its newly created competitors focused their attention on making medium, the manufacture of products of such quality made mirrors and glass affordable for the masses.
In response, the extended its product line to include lower-quality glass
Michelin is a French tire manufacturer based in Clermont-Ferrand in the Auvergne région of France. It is one of the four largest tire manufacturers in the world along with Goodyear, Continental, in addition to the Michelin brand, it owns the BFGoodrich, Tigar, Riken and Uniroyal tire brands. Michelins numerous inventions include the removable tire, the pneurail and the radial tire, Michelin manufactures tires for space shuttles, automobiles, heavy equipment and bicycles. In 2012, the Group produced 166 million tires at 69 facilities located in 18 countries, in 1889 two brothers, Édouard Michelin and André Michelin, ran a rubber factory in Clermont-Ferrand, France. One day, a cyclist whose pneumatic tire needed repair turned up at the factory, the tire was glued to the rim, and it took over three hours to remove and repair the tire, which needed to be left overnight to dry. The next day, Édouard Michelin took the repaired bicycle into the yard to test. After only a few hundred metres, the tire failed, despite the setback, Édouard was enthusiastic about the pneumatic tire, and he and his brother worked on creating their own version, one that did not need to be glued to the rim.
Michelin was incorporated on 28 May 1889, in 1891 Michelin took out its first patent for a removable pneumatic tire which was used by Charles Terront to win the worlds first long distance cycle race, the 1891 Paris–Brest–Paris. In the 1920s and 1930s, Michelin operated large rubber plantations in Vietnam, conditions at these plantations led to the famous labour movement Phu Rieng Do. In 1934, Michelin introduced a tire which, if punctured, would run on a special foam lining, the radial was initially marketed as the X tire. It was developed with the front-wheel-drive Citroën Traction Avant and Citroën 2CV in mind, Michelin had bought the then-bankrupt Citroën in the 1930s. Because of its superiority in handling and fuel economy, use of this quickly spread throughout Europe. In the U. S. the outdated bias-ply tire persisted, in 1968, Consumer Reports, an influential American magazine, acknowledged the superiority of the radial construction, setting off a rapid decline in Michelins competitor technology.
In the U. S. the radial tire now has a share of 100%. In 1989, Michelin acquired the recently merged tire and rubber manufacturing divisions of the American firms B. F. Goodrich Company and Uniroyal, Uniroyal Australia had already been bought by Bridgestone in 1980. This purchase included the Norwood, North Carolina manufacturing plant which supplied tires to the U. S, Michelin controls 90% of Taurus Tire in Hungary, as well as Kormoran, a Polish brand. As of 1 September 2008, Michelin is again the worlds largest tire manufacturer after spending two years as number two behind Bridgestone. Michelin produces tires in France, Germany, the USA, on 15 January 2010, Michelin announced the closing of its Ota, Japan plant, which employs 380 workers and makes the Michelin X-Ice tire
Borgo San Dalmazzo
Borgo San Dalmazzo is a comune in the Province of Cuneo in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 80 kilometres south of Turin and about 8 kilometres southwest of Cuneo. Borgo San Dalmazzo takes its name from Saint Dalmatius of Pavia, sights include the parish church of San Dalmazzo. Borgo San Dalmazzo borders the municipalities, Cuneo, Moiola, Roccavione, Valdieri. A Nazi concentration camp was active in Borgo San Dalmazzo during the Second World War, Borgo San Dalmazzo is twinned with, Breil-sur-Roya, France La Vega, Dominican Republic Valdeblore, France Official website
La Brigue is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France. La Brigue became part of France after World War II, when Italy was forced to hand it over in September 1947 under the terms of the Peace of Paris, before the hand over, it was part of the Province of Cuneo. The transfer, which was not unopposed in the village, was endorsed by a local plebiscite which took place on 12 October 1947 and was subject to international supervision. The Shrine of Our Lady of the Fountains is the home to a huge 15th-century painting by the painter Giovanni Piemontese Canavesio, the village is situated along the long-distance hiking trail GR52A. Another attraction for sports enthusiasts is a nearby via ferrata of medium difficulty which ascends about 250 metres above the village. La Brigue is twinned with, Italy Communes of the Alpes-Maritimes department INSEE