The source or headwaters of a river or stream is the furthest place in that river or stream from its estuary or confluence with another river, as measured along the course of the river. As an example of the definition above, the USGS at times considers the Missouri River as a tributary of the Mississippi River. But it follows the first definition above in using the combined Missouri - lower Mississippi length figure in lists of lengths of rivers around the world. This definition, from geographer Andrew Johnston of the Smithsonian Institution, is used by the National Geographic Society when pinpointing the source of rivers such as the Amazon or Nile. A definition given by the state of Montana agrees, stating that a source is never a confluence but is in a location that is the farthest, along water miles. Under this definition neither a lake nor a confluence of tributaries can be a river source. Likewise, the source of the Amazon River has been determined this way, when not listing river lengths, alternative definitions may be used.
In the case of the Missouri River and Clark would have had to travel to the east. to reach the source. Sometimes the source of the most remote tributary may be in an area that is more marsh-like, for example, the source of the River Tees is marshland. The furthest stream is often called the headstream. Headwaters are often small streams with cool waters because of shade and they may be glacial headwaters, waters formed by the melting of glacial ice. Headwater areas are the areas of a watershed, as opposed to the outflow or discharge of a watershed. The river source is often but not always on or quite near the edge of the watershed, for example, the source of the Colorado River is at the Continental Divide separating the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean watersheds of North America. A river is considered a geographic feature, with only one mouth. For an example, note how the Mississippi River and Missouri River sources are officially defined, U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System, Mississippi River, Length,2,340 miles, Source, 47°14′22″N 95°12′29″W U. S.
For example, The River Thames rises in Gloucestershire, the White Nile rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa. The word source, when applied to lakes rather than rivers or streams, refers to the lakes inflow
Colonial history of the United States
The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European settlements from the start of colonization until their incorporation into the United States. In the late 16th century, France, small early attempts often disappeared, such as the English Lost Colony of Roanoke. Everywhere, the rate was very high among the first arrivals. Nevertheless, successful colonies were established several decades. European settlers came from a variety of social and religious groups, few aristocrats settled permanently, but a number of adventurers, soldiers and tradesmen arrived. They built colonies with distinctive social, political, non-British colonies were taken over and most of the inhabitants were assimilated, unlike in Nova Scotia, where the British expelled the French Acadian inhabitants. There were no civil wars among the 13 colonies. The colonies developed legalized systems of slavery, based largely in the Atlantic slave trade from Africa or by way of the Caribbean, Wars were recurrent between the French and the British—the French and Indian Wars especially—and involved French support for Native American attacks on the British frontiers.
By 1760, France was defeated and the British seized its colonies, on the eastern seaboard of what became the United States, the four distinct British regions were, New England, the Middle Colonies, the Chesapeake Bay Colonies, and the Lower South. Some historians add a fifth region of the Frontier which was never separately organized, see timeline of Colonial America for list of historical events. Colonizers came from European kingdoms that had highly developed military, naval and these efforts were managed respectively by the Casa de Contratación and the Casa da Índia. England and the Netherlands had started colonies in both the West Indies and North America and they had the ability to build ocean-worthy ships but did not have as strong a history of colonization in foreign lands as did Portugal and Spain. However, English entrepreneurs gave their colonies a foundation of merchant-based investment that seemed to need much less government support, matters concerning the colonies were dealt with primarily by the Privy Council and its committees.
The Commission of Trade was set up in 1625 as the first special body convened to advise on colonial questions, mercantilism was the basic policy imposed by Britain on its colonies from the 1660s. The goal of mercantilism was to run trade surpluses, so that gold, the government took its share through duties and taxes, with the remainder going to merchants in Britain. The government spent much of its revenue on a superb Royal Navy which protected the British colonies, the British Navy captured New Amsterdam in 1664. The colonies were captive markets for British industry, and the goal was to enrich the mother country, the prospect of religious persecution by authorities of the crown and the Church of England prompted a significant number of colonization efforts. People fleeing persecution by King Charles I were responsible for settling most of New England, anonymous Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to map the future eastern seaboard of the U. S. from New York to Florida, as documented in the Cantino planisphere of 1502
It is in the piedmont section of the state. The city was named after Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, according to 2012 US Census estimates, the Augusta–Richmond County population was 197,872, not counting the unconsolidated cities of Hephzibah and Blythe. It is the 116th-largest city in the United States, Augusta is best known for hosting The Masters golf tournament each spring. The area along the river was inhabited by varying cultures of indigenous peoples. The site of Augusta was used by Native Americans as a place to cross the Savannah River, in 1735, two years after James Oglethorpe founded Savannah, he sent a detachment of troops to explore the upper Savannah River. He gave them an order to build at the head of the part of the river. The expedition was led by Noble Jones, who created the settlement to provide a first line of defense for coastal areas against potential Spanish or French invasion from the interior, Oglethorpe named the town Augusta, in honor of Princess Augusta, wife of Frederick, Prince of Wales.
Oglethorpe visited Augusta once, in September 1739, Augusta was the second state capital of Georgia from 1785 until 1795. Augusta developed rapidly as a town as the Black Belt in the Piedmont was developed for cotton cultivation. Invention of the cotton gin made processing of cotton profitable. Cotton plantations were worked by labor, with hundreds of thousands of slaves shipped from the Upper South to the Deep South in the domestic slave trade. In the mid-20th century, it was a site of civil rights demonstrations, in 1970 Charles Oatman, a mentally disabled teenager, was killed by his cellmates in an Augusta jail. A protest against his death broke out in a riot involving 500 people, after six black men were killed by police, the noted singer and entertainer James Brown was called in to help quell lingering tensions, which he succeeded in doing. Augusta is located on the Georgia/South Carolina border, about 150 miles east of Atlanta and 70 miles west of Columbia, the city is located at 33°28′12″N 81°58′30″W.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the Augusta–Richmond County balance has an area of 306.5 square miles. Augusta is located halfway up the Savannah River on the fall line. The city marks the end of a waterway for the river. The Clarks Hill Dam is built on the line near Augusta
A debtors prison is a prison for people who are unable to pay debt. Through the mid 19th century, debtors prisons were a way to deal with unpaid debt in Western Europe. Increasing access and lenience throughout the history of law have made prison terms for unaggravated indigence illegal over most of the world. In this case the crime is not indigence, but disobeying the order to appear before the court. During Europes Middle Ages, both men and women, were locked up together in a single, large cell until their families paid their debt, debt prisoners often died of diseases contracted from other debt prisoners. Conditions included starvation and abuse from other prisoners, if the father of a family was imprisoned for debt, the family business often suffered while the mother and children fell into poverty. Unable to pay the debt, the father often remained in prison for many years. Some debt prisoners were released to become serfs or indentured servants until they paid off their debt in labor, article 1 of Protocol 4 of the European Convention on Human Rights prohibits the imprisonment of people for breach of a contract.
Turkey and the United Kingdom have signed but never ratified Protocol 4, greece and Switzerland have neither signed nor ratified this protocol. In the late Middle Ages, and at the beginning of the modern era and this served to standardize the coercive arrest, and got rid of the many arbitrary sanctions that were not universal. In some areas the debtor could sell or redistribute their debt, in most of the cities, the towers and city fortifications functioned as jails. For certain sanctions there were designated prisons, hence some towers being called debtors prison, the term Schuldturm, outside of the Saxon constitution, became the catchword for public law debtor’s prison. In the early era, the debtor’s detainment or citizen’s arrest remained valid in Germany. This practice was particularly disgraceful to an identity, but had different rules than criminal trials. It was more similar to the enforcement of sentences e. g. the debtor would be able to work off their debt for a certain amount of days.
The North German Confederation eliminated debtors prisons on May 29,1868, in England during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries,10,000 people were imprisoned for debt each year. A prison term did not alleviate a persons debt, however, in the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom, debtors prisons varied in the amount of freedom they allowed the debtor. Life in these prisons, was far from pleasant, some debtor prisoners were even less fortunate, being sent to prisons with a mixture of vicious criminals and petty criminals, and many more were confined to a single cell
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. The term Amerindian is used in Quebec, the Guianas, Indigenous peoples of the United States are commonly known as Native Americans or American Indians, and Alaska Natives. Application of the term Indian originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for Asia, the Americas came to be known as the West Indies, a name still used to refer to the islands of the Caribbean Sea. This led to the blanket term Indies and Indians for the indigenous inhabitants, although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time, although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms and empires.
Many parts of the Americas are still populated by peoples, some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Chile, Greenland, Mexico. At least a different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Guaraní, Mayan languages, many maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization, and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects, some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples. The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the dates and routes traveled, are the subject of ongoing research. According to archaeological and genetic evidence and South America were the last continents in the world with human habitation. During the Wisconsin glaciation, 50–17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the bridge of Beringia that joined Siberia to northwest North America.
Alaska was a glacial refugium because it had low snowfall, allowing a small population to exist, the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of North America, blocking nomadic inhabitants and confining them to Alaska for thousands of years. Indigenous genetic studies suggest that the first inhabitants of the Americas share a single population, one that developed in isolation. The isolation of these peoples in Beringia might have lasted 10–20,000 years, around 16,500 years ago, the glaciers began melting, allowing people to move south and east into Canada and beyond. These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct Pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran Ice Sheets. Another route proposed involves migration - either on foot or using primitive boats - along the Pacific Northwest coast to the south, archeological evidence of the latter would have been covered by the sea level rise of more than 120 meters since the last ice age
The Ocmulgee River is a western tributary of the Altamaha River, approximately 255 mi long, in the U. S. state of Georgia. It is the westernmost major tributary of the Altamaha, the Ocmulgee River and its tributaries provide drainage for some 6,180 square miles in parts of 33 Georgia counties, a large section of the Piedmont and coastal plain of central Georgia. The name of the river may have come from a Hitchiti words oki plus molki, the river rises at a point in north central Georgia southeast of Atlanta, at the confluence of the Yellow and Alcovy rivers. Since the construction of the Lloyd Shoals Dam in the early 20th century, the rivers source is formed at an elevation of around 530 feet above sea level. The Ocmulgee River flows from the dam southeast past Macon, which was founded on the fall line and it joins the Oconee from the northwest to form the Altamaha near Lumber City. Four power plants in the Ocmulgee basin that use the water, including the coal-fired Plant Scherer in Juliette.
A diverse array of species in twenty-one families—inhabit the Ocmulgee River basin. The family with the largest representation in the basin is Cyprinidae. It is followed by Centrarchidae, which has 22 species, the Ocmulgee basin contains ten species in the family Ictaluridae and eight species of in the family Catostomidae. The river basin is inhabited by one State of Georgia-designated endangered fish species. The world record for largest recorded catch of a largemouth bass was achieved in 1932 in Montgomery Lake, the record-setting fish, caught by farmer George Washington Perry, weighted 22 pounds, six ounces. There are some fifteen invasive species of fish inhabit the river basin. According to a Georgia Department of Natural Resources report, many of species are well-established and are detrimental to native fish populations. Archeological evidence shows that Native Americans first inhabited the Ocmulgee basin about 10,000 to 15,000 years ago, scraping tools and flint spearpoints from nomadic Paleoindians hunters have been discovered in the Ocmulgee floodplain.
In the Archaic period which followed, hunter-gatherers in Ocmulgee basin used fiber-tempered pottery, during the Woodland period, there were various villages in the area, evidenced by earthen mounds and pottery sherds. These areas are now part of the Ocmulgee National Monument, a National Park Service-administered protected area established in 1936, the Ichisi served corncakes, wild onion, and roasted venison to De Soto and his party. Over the next hundred years, the Native Americans in the area were devastated from disease, eli Whitneys invention of the cotton gin stimulated development of short-staple cotton plantations in the uplands, where it grew well. The gin mechanized processing of the cotton and made it profitable, demand for land in the Southeast increased, as well as demand for slave labor in the Deep South
Slavery in the colonial United States
The origins of slavery in the colonial United States are complex and there are several theories that have been proposed to explain the trade. It was largely tied to European colonies need for labor, especially plantation agricultural labor in their Caribbean sugar colonies operated by Great Britain, France and the Dutch Republic. Most slaves who were brought or kidnapped to the Thirteen British colonies which became the Eastern seaboard of the United States were imported from the Caribbean. They arrived in the Caribbean predominantly as a result of the Atlantic slave trade, although slavery of indigenous peoples occurred in the North American colonies, by comparison of scale it was less important. Slave status for Africans usually became hereditary, while they knew about Spanish and Portuguese slave trading, the British did not conceive of using slave labor in the Americas until the 17th century. British travelers were fascinated by the people they found in West Africa. The first Africans to arrive in England came voluntarily with John Lok in 1555, Lok intended to teach them English in order to facilitate trading of material goods.
This model gave way to a slave trade initiated by John Hawkins, blacks in England were subordinate but did not have the legal status of chattel slaves. In 1607, England established Jamestown as its first permanent colony on the North American continent, tobacco became the chief crop of the colony, due to the efforts of John Rolfe in 1611. Once it became clear that tobacco was going to drive the Jamestown colony, the British aristocracy needed to find a labor force to work on its plantations in the Americas. The major possibilities were indentured servants from Britain, Native Americans, during this time, off the North American mainland, Barbados became an English Colony in 1624 and the Caribbeans Jamaica in 1655. These and other Caribbean colonies became the center of wealth and the focus of the trade for the growing English empire. Towards indigenous Americans, the English entertained two lines of thought simultaneously, because these people were lighter skinned, they were seen as more European and therefore as candidates for civilization.
At the same time, because they were occupying the land desired by the powers, they were from the beginning. At first, indentured servants were used as the needed labor and these servants provided up to seven years of service in exchange for having their trip to Jamestown paid for by someone in Jamestown. Once the seven years was over, the servant was free to live in Jamestown as a regular citizen. Several Colonial colleges, held enslaved people—and relied on captives to operate, until the early 18th century, enslaved Africans were difficult to acquire in the colonies that became the United States, as most were sold in the West Indies. One of the first major establishments of African slavery in these colonies occurred with the founding of Charles Town, the colony was founded mainly by planters from the overpopulated British sugar island colony of Barbados, who brought relatively large numbers of African slaves from that island
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States. The Thirteen Colonies had very similar political and legal systems and they were part of Britains possessions in the New World, which included colonies in present-day Canada and the Caribbean, as well as East and West Florida. However, the Thirteen Colonies had a degree of self-government and active local elections. In the 1750s, the colonies began collaborating with each other instead of dealing directly with Britain, Colonial decisions were subject to approval by the governor and the home government. There were substantial populations of African slaves in some of the colonies, especially Virginia, the Carolinas, the names of the colonies were chosen by the founders and proprietors, subject to royal approval, and given in the founding charters. Nine of the thirteen chose to include in their names the term Province of, residents tended to drop the ambiguous terminology, as in the map shown in the article Province of New Jersey, which is labeled simply East Jersey and West Jersey.
In July 1776, they formed a new nation called the United States of America, the new nation achieved that goal by winning the American Revolutionary War with the aid of France, the Netherlands, and Spain. The American flag features thirteen horizontal stripes which represent these original thirteen colonies, besides these thirteen colonies, Britain had another dozen in the New World. Those in the British West Indies, the Province of Quebec, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and East and West Florida remained loyal to the crown throughout the war. The British crown had recently acquired those lands, and many of the issues facing the Thirteen Colonies did not apply to them, especially in the case of Quebec. Contemporary documents usually list the thirteen colonies of British North America in geographical order, the consolidation collapsed after the Glorious Revolution of 1688–89, and the nine former colonies re-established their separate identities in 1689. Massachusetts Bay Colony Settled in 1630 by Puritans from England, the colonial charter was revoked in 1684, and a new charter was issued in 1691 establishing an enlarged Province of Massachusetts Bay.
Province of Maine Settled in 1622, the Massachusetts Bay Colony claimed the Maine territory in the 1650s, limited to present-day southernmost Maine. Parts of Maine east of the Kennebec River were part of New York in the half of the 17th century. These areas were made part of the Province of Massachusetts Bay in the charter of 1691. Plymouth Colony Settled in 1620 by the Pilgrims, plymouth was merged into the Province of Massachusetts Bay in the charter of 1691. Saybrook Colony Founded in 1635 and merged with Connecticut Colony in 1644, New Haven Colony Settled in late 1637. New Netherland Extensive region centered about New Amsterdam at the tip of Manhattan Island
Spanish Florida refers to the Spanish territory of La Florida, which was the first major European land claim and attempted settlement in North America during the European Age of Discovery. La Florida formed part of the Captaincy General of Cuba, the Viceroyalty of New Spain, Spains claim to this vast area was based on several wide-ranging expeditions mounted during the 16th century. However, Spain never exercised control over La Florida much beyond several settlements and forts which were predominantly located in present-day Florida. Spanish Florida was established in 1513, when Juan Ponce de León claimed peninsular Florida for Spain during the first official European expedition to North America, the presidio of St. Spanish control of the Florida peninsula was made possible by the collapse of native cultures during the 17th century. Several Native American groups had been long-established residents of Florida, during the mid-1700s, small bands of Creek and other Native American refugees began moving south into Spanish Florida after having been forced off their lands by English settlements and raids.
They were joined by African-Americans fleeing slavery in nearby colonies and these newcomers - plus perhaps a few surviving descendants of indigenous Florida peoples - eventually coalesced into a new Seminole culture. The extent of Spanish Florida began to shrink in the 1600s, between disease, poor management, and ill-timed hurricanes, several Spanish attempts to establish new settlements in La Florida ended in failure. The War of Jenkins Ear included a British attack on St. Augustine, at the conclusion of the war, the northern boundary of Spanish Florida was set near the current northern border of modern-day Florida. Great Britain temporarily gained control of Florida beginning in 1763 as a result of the Anglo-Spanish War, France sold Louisiana to the United States in 1803. The U. S. claimed that the transaction included West Florida, as with earlier American incursions into Florida, Spain protested this invasion but could not defend its territory, and instead opened diplomatic negotiations seeking a peaceful transfer of land.
By the terms of the Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819, Spanish Florida ceased to exist in 1821, anonymous Portuguese sailors were likely the first Europeans to map the southeastern portion of the future United States. They kept their discoveries secret and did not attempt to establish settlements or explore very far inland, in 1512 Juan Ponce de León, governor of Puerto Rico, received royal permission to search for land north of Cuba. On March 3,1513, his expedition departed from Punta Aguada, Puerto Rico, in late March, he spotted a small island but did not land. On April 2, Ponce de León spotted the east coast of the Florida peninsula and went ashore the next day at an exact location that has been lost to time. Assuming that he had found an island, he claimed the land for Spain and named it La Florida, because it was the season of Pascua Florida. After briefly exploring the area around their landing site, the returned to their ships and sailed south to map the coast. The expedition followed Floridas coastline all the way around the Florida Keys, popular legend has it that Ponce de León was searching for the Fountain of Youth when he discovered Florida.
Ponce de León probably was not the first Spaniard to reach Florida, evidence suggests that Spanish raiders from the Caribbean had conducted small secret expeditions to Florida to capture Indian slaves
A proprietary colony was a type of British colony mostly in North America and the Caribbean in the 17th century. In the British Empire, all belonged to the ruler. Therefore, all properties were partitioned by royal charter into one of four types, royal, joint stock. King Charles II used the solution to reward allies and focus his own attention on Britain itself. He offered his friends colonial charters which facilitated private investment and colonial self-government, the charters made the proprietor the effective ruler, albeit one ultimately responsible to English law and the king. Charles II gave New Netherland to his younger brother The Duke of York and he gave an area to William Penn who named it Pennsylvania. This type of indirect rule eventually fell out of favour as the colonies became established, in medieval times, it was customary in Continental Europe for a sovereign to grant almost regal powers of government to the feudal lords of his border districts, so as to prevent foreign invasion.
These districts or manors were often called palatinates or counties palatine, because the lord dwelled in a palace and his power was regal in kind, but inferior in degree to that of the king. This type of arrangement had made in Norman times for certain English border counties. These territories were known as counties palatine and they lasted at least in part to 1830 and for reason, poor communications. The monarch and his or her government, retained its right to separate head and body, figuratively or literally. Proprietary colonies in America were governed by a proprietor, holding authority by virtue of a royal charter. Eventually, these were converted to royal colonies, barbados The British America colonies before the American Revolution consisted of thirteen colonies that became states of the United States of America. The King gave Dugua a monopoly in the fur trade for these territories and named him Lieutenant General for Acadia, in return, Dugua promised to bring 60 new colonists each year to what would be called lAcadie.
In 1607 the monopoly was revoked and the failed. The Iles Glorieuses, i. e. Glorioso Islands, were on 2 March 1880 settled and named by Frenchman Hippolyte Caltaux, only on 23 August 1892 they were claimed for the French Third Republic, as part of the Indian Ocean colony of French Madagascar. However he was again their proprietor from 1901 till his death in 1907, English colonial empire Proprietary governor Proprietary House Colonial government in the Thirteen Colonies Crown colony Commonwealth Settler colonialism Donatorio Quia Emptores Martinez, Albert J. The Palatinate Clause of the Maryland Charter, 1632-1776, From Independent Jurisdiction to Independence, American Journal of Legal History, 305-325
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1733, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies, named after King George II of Great Britain, Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2,1788. It declared its secession from the Union on January 19,1861 and it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15,1870. Georgia is the 24th largest and the 8th most populous of the 50 United States, from 2007 to 2008,14 of Georgias counties ranked among the nations 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Peach State and the Empire State of the South, Atlanta is the states capital, its most populous city and has been named a global city. Georgia is bordered to the south by Florida, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean and South Carolina, to the west by Alabama, the states northern part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. Georgias highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level, Georgia is the largest state entirely east of the Mississippi River in land area.
Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures, the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12,1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II. The Trustees implemented a plan for the colonys settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan. In 1742 the colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins Ear, in 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a colony, with a governor appointed by the king. The Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence, the State of Georgias first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24,1778, in 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains, which led to the Georgia Gold Rush and an established federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued its operation until 1861.
The subsequent influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act into law, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgias tribes. Despite the Supreme Courts ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that ruled U. S. states were not permitted to redraw the Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched troops to gather the Cherokee
The Muscogee, known as the Creek and the Creek Confederacy, are a group of related Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. Originally from Tennessee, Georgia and northern Florida, Muscogee people were relocated in the early 19th century to Indian Territory, Louisiana. Their languages and Hitchiti-Mikasuki, belong to the Eastern Muskogean branch of the Muscogean language family, the Muscogee are descendants of the Mississippian culture peoples, who built earthwork mounds at their regional chiefdoms located throughout the Mississippi River valley and its tributaries. Early Spanish explorers encountered ancestors of the Muscogee when they visited Mississippian-culture chiefdoms in the Southeast in the mid-16th century, the Muscogee were the first Native Americans considered to be civilized under George Washingtons civilization plan. The result was a weakening of the Creek Nation and the ceding of Creek lands to the US. During the Indian Removal of the 1830s, most of the Muscogee Confederacy were forcibly relocated to Indian Territory, at least 12,000 years ago, Native Americans or Paleo-Indians lived in what is today the Southern United States.
Paleo-Indians in the Southeast were hunter-gatherers who pursued a range of animals, including the megafauna. During the time known as the Woodland period, from 1000 BCE to 1000 CE, locals developed pottery, the Mississippian culture arose as the cultivation of maize from Mesoamerica led to population growth. Increased population density gave rise to urban centers and regional chiefdoms, stratified societies developed, with hereditary religious and political elites, and flourished in what is now the Midwestern and Southeastern United States from 800 to 1500 CE. The early historic Muscogee were descendants of the builders of the Mississippian culture along the Tennessee River in modern Tennessee, Georgia. They may have related to the Tama of central Georgia. At the time the Spanish made their first forays inland from the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, many centers of the Mississippians were already in decline. The region is best described as a collection of moderately sized native chiefdoms interspersed with autonomous villages.
After Cabeza de Vaca, a castaway who survived the ill-fated Narváez expedition, returned to Spain, Hernando de Soto was a Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the first expedition into the interior of the North American continent. De Soto, convinced of the riches, wanted Cabeza de Vaca to go on the expedition, from 1540–1543, de Soto explored through present-day Florida and Georgia, and westward into the Alabama and Mississippi area. The areas were inhabited by historic Muscogee Native Americans, de Soto brought with him a well-equipped army. He attracted many recruits from a variety of backgrounds who joined his quest for riches in the Americas, as the de Soto expeditions brutalities became known to the indigenous peoples, they decided to defend their territory. The Battle of Mabila was a point for the de Soto venture, the battle broke the back of the Spanish campaign