Province of Caserta
The Province of Caserta is a province in the Campania region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Caserta, situated about 36 kilometres by road north of Naples; the province has an area of 2,651.35 square kilometres, a total population of 924,414 as of 2016. The Palace of Caserta is located near to the city, a former royal residence, constructed for the Bourbon kings of Naples, it was the largest palace and one of the largest buildings erected in Europe during the 18th century. In 1997, the palace was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the province of Caserta in the historical Terra di Lavoro region known as Liburia, covered the greatest expanse of territory around the 13th century when it extended from the Tyrrhenian Sea and the islands of Ponza and Ventotene to the Apennines and the southern end of the Roveto Valley. In the Kingdom of Naples and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Caserta was one of the most important departments in southern Italy; the first capital of the region was the ancient city of Capua until 1818 Caserta.
In addition to Naples, the most important centers were Caserta, Nola, Sora, Aversa and Isola Liri. In 1816, during the French occupation, Joseph Bonaparte reformed the territorial division of the kingdom of Naples, on the basis of the French model. A series of royal decrees completed the reforms, introducing local administrative units or communes like the French ones; the new Napoleonic reforms led to the establishment of the Province of Naples. In 1863, after the annexation of the Kingdom of Italy, the north-eastern comuni of Terra di Lavoro became part of the province of Campobasso, Venafro and the surrounding areas were transferred to the province of Isernia, established in the 1870s. In 1927, Benito Mussolini decided to dissolve the province of Terra di Lavoro, uniting much of its territory and the Pontine Islands to the province of Naples, although municipalities near Piedimonte and Alife were distributed between the provinces of Benevento and Campobasso and the districts of Sora and Gaeta went to the province of Rome.
In 1945, a Decree signed by Umberto di Savoia reconstituted the Province of Caserta, in 1970, the modern province came into being. The territory of the Province of Caserta, which lies on the southwestern part of central Italy, is bordered to the north by the Matese mountains belonging to the Apennines and by undulating hills, to the south and west by plains of various types. To the northeast, near the Matese mountains is the Lago del Matese; the highest point is Monte Miletto at 2,050 m, divided between Molise. The karst massif is rich in water and minerals, contains many caves and mountain lakes. Other mountainous areas of note include Monte Santa Croce, with the extinct volcano of Roccamonfina, on the border with Lazio, the Trebulani Mountains, in the central part of the province to the north including Monte Maggiore reaching 1,036 m, the Tifatini Mountains to the south; the Volturno River flows through the centre of the province with a defensive outpost at Capua. The southern highlands of Caserta border the Province of Benevento.
There are 104 comuni in the province: Official website
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Farro is a food composed of the grains of certain wheat species, sold dried, prepared by cooking in water until soft. People eat it plain, use it as an ingredient in salads and other dishes. Farro is an ethnobotanical term derived from Italian Latin for a group of three wheat species: spelt and einkorn, which are all types of hulled wheat. In Italian cuisine, the farro species are sometimes distinguished as farro grande, farro medio, farro piccolo, respectively. Confusion is generated by the difficult history in the taxonomy of wheat and the colloquial, regional use of the term for specific wheat species. Emmer is by far the most common variety grown in Italy, in certain mountain regions of Tuscany and Abruzzo, it is considered higher quality for cooking than the other two grains, is sometimes called "true" farro. Farro is sometimes referred to inaccurately as "spelt" in English distinguished from both emmer and einkorn. Regional differences in what is grown locally and eaten as farro, as well as similarities between the three grains, may explain the confusion.
Some English-speakers now assume "farro" refers to steamed or boiled grain presented as salad and similar dishes, rather than to the grain itself. Spelt is much more grown in Germany and Switzerland, where people use it in much the same way, might therefore be called farro, as is épeautre in France; the Italian word farro derives from the presumed Latin word farrum, from Standard Latin far, farris n.: a kind of wheat. Far, in turn, derives from the Indo-European root *bʰar-es-:, which gave rise to the English word barley, Albanian bar: grass, Old Church Slavonic брашьно: flour, Greek Φήρον: plant deity; the three species are sometimes known as farro piccolo, farro medio, farro grande, which are einkorn and spelt, respectively. While these names reflect the general size difference between these three grains, some landraces of each overlap into the typical size range of the others. List of ancient dishes and foods
Molise is a region of Southern Italy. Until 1963, it formed part of the region of Abruzzi e Molise, alongside the region of Abruzzo; the split, which did not become effective until 1970, makes Molise the youngest region in Italy. The region covers 4,438 square kilometres and has a population of 313,348 The region is split into two provinces, named after their respective capitals Campobasso and Isernia. Campobasso serves as the regional capital. Molise is bordered by Abruzzo to the north, Apulia to the east, Lazio to the west, Campania to the south, it has 35 kilometres of sandy coastline to the northeast, lying on the Adriatic Sea looking out towards the Tremiti islands. The countryside of Molise is mountainous, with 55% covered by mountains and most of the rest by hills that go down to the sea. Castello Monforte Terzano Tower Campobasso Cathedral Church of Sant'Antonio Church of San Bartolomeo Church of San Giorgio Savoia Theater San Giorgio Palace Provincial Museum of "Sanniti" Isernia Cathedral Fountain Fraterna Monumental complex and museum of Santa Maria delle Monache Abbey Sanctuary of Santi Cosma e Damiano Archeological site Isernia La Pineta Museum of Paleolithic in the site of La Pineta Cathedral of San Basso from Lucera Medieval castle of Frederick II Sinarca Tower Rinascimental Gallery Museum Trivento Cathedral Church of Santa Maria Maggiore Santuario di Santa Maria del Canneto Caldora Castle Castle Anjou Longobard Castle Bojano Cathedral Medieval fortress Civita Superiore Angioina Tower Larino Cathedral Archeological site and Roman theater of Larinum Archeological site and museum of Altilia Italic sanctuary of San Pietro dei Cantoni Megalithic wall of Saipins Church of Santa Maria della Strada Guardialfiera old town Capua castle Abbey of San Vincenzo al Volturno Marinelli Bells Factory and Museum Theatre and Italic temple in the archeological site of Pietrabbondante Parish church and belfry of Saint Silvestro Bagnoli del Trigno Rupestrian church of Pietracupa Church of Sant'Antonio Abate Capracotta Neogothic basilica of Santa Maria Addolorata Venafro Cathedral Castle Pandone Castle Pandone Abbey of Santa Maria del Carmelo Pescolanciano Castle Colli al Volturno Agriculture, involving small and micro holdings, is offering high-quality products.
The agricultural holdings produce wine, olive oil, vegetables and dairy products. Traditional products are Grass Farro. Molise's autochthonous grape is Tintilia, rediscovered during the last ten years, many other PDO wines, both red and white. Though there is a large Fiat plant, the industrial sector is dominated by the farming industry with small and medium-sized farms spread throughout the region. Another important industry is food processing: pasta, milk products and wine are the traditional products of the region. In the services sector the most important industries are distribution and catering, followed by transport and communications and insurance. With few exceptions, in all sectors firms are small, this explains the difficulties encountered when marketing products on a national scale. International tourism is growing as a result of the recent opening of international flights from other European countries to Pescara Airport, not far to the north in Abruzzo and connected to Molise by the A14 highway.
The density of the population in Molise is well below the national average. In 2008, Molise registered 72.3 inhabitants per km2, compared to a national figure of 198.8. The region is subdivided into two provinces: Campobasso and Isernia, which together cover 1.5% of Italy's territory and less than 1% of its population. The larger province in terms of area is Campobasso at 2,909 km2, while the smaller is Isernia at 1,529 km2; the province of Campobasso is the more densely populated of the two provinces, with 79.4 inhabitants per km2, whereas Isernia registers 58.9 inhabitants per km2. At the end of 2008 the most populous towns were Campobasso and Isernia. In the period 1951-71, large-scale emigration to other countries of the European Union, to other parts of Italy and overseas led to a significant decline in the population of Molise. Negative net migration persisted until 1981. Large-scale emigration has caused many of the smaller towns and villages to lose over 60% of their population, while only a small number of larger towns have recorded significant gains.
From 1982 to 1994, net migration has been positive followed by a negative trend until 2001. Between 1991 and 2001, the population of the region decreased by 3.1%. The region is home to two main ethnic minorities: the Molisan Croats, those who speak the "arbereshe" dialect of Albanian in five towns of "basso Molise" in the province of Campobasso. Molise comprises two provinces: Molise has much tradition from the religious to the pagans, many museum, archeological sites and food events. Tradition The Festival dei Misteri in Campobasso Feast of Saint Pardo with ox chariot in Larino Ox chariots (La Carr
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto to the northwest and the Po Valley; the countries with coasts on the Adriatic are Albania and Herzegovina, Italy and Slovenia. The Adriatic contains over 1,300 islands located along the Croatian part of its eastern coast, it is divided into three basins, the northern being the shallowest and the southern being the deepest, with a maximum depth of 1,233 metres. The Otranto Sill, an underwater ridge, is located at the border between the Adriatic and Ionian Seas; the prevailing currents flow counterclockwise from the Strait of Otranto, along the eastern coast and back to the strait along the western coast. Tidal movements in the Adriatic are slight, although larger amplitudes are known to occur occasionally; the Adriatic's salinity is lower than the Mediterranean's because the Adriatic collects a third of the fresh water flowing into the Mediterranean, acting as a dilution basin.
The surface water temperatures range from 30 °C in summer to 12 °C in winter moderating the Adriatic Basin's climate. The Adriatic Sea sits on the Apulian or Adriatic Microplate, which separated from the African Plate in the Mesozoic era; the plate's movement contributed to the formation of the surrounding mountain chains and Apennine tectonic uplift after its collision with the Eurasian plate. In the Late Oligocene, the Apennine Peninsula first formed, separating the Adriatic Basin from the rest of the Mediterranean. All types of sediment are found in the Adriatic, with the bulk of the material transported by the Po and other rivers on the western coast; the western coast is alluvial or terraced, while the eastern coast is indented with pronounced karstification. There are dozens of marine protected areas in the Adriatic, designed to protect the sea's karst habitats and biodiversity; the sea is abundant in flora and fauna—more than 7,000 species are identified as native to the Adriatic, many of them endemic and threatened ones.
The Adriatic's shores are populated by more than 3.5 million people. The earliest settlements on the Adriatic shores were Etruscan and Greek. By the 2nd century BC, the shores were under Rome's control. In the Middle Ages, the Adriatic shores and the sea itself were controlled, to a varying extent, by a series of states—most notably the Byzantine Empire, the Croatian Kingdom, the Republic of Venice, the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire; the Napoleonic Wars resulted in the First French Empire gaining coastal control and the British effort to counter the French in the area securing most of the eastern Adriatic shore and the Po Valley for Austria. Following Italian unification, the Kingdom of Italy started an eastward expansion that lasted until the 20th century. Following World War I and the collapse of Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, the eastern coast's control passed to Yugoslavia and Albania; the former disintegrated during the 1990s. Italy and Yugoslavia agreed on their maritime boundaries by 1975 and this boundary is recognised by Yugoslavia's successor states, but the maritime boundaries between Slovenian, Bosnian-Herzegovinian, Montenegrin waters are still disputed.
Italy and Albania agreed on their maritime boundary in 1992. Fisheries and tourism are significant sources of income all along the Adriatic coast. Adriatic Croatia's tourism industry has grown faster economically than the rest of the Adriatic Basin's. Maritime transport is a significant branch of the area's economy—there are 19 seaports in the Adriatic that each handle more than a million tonnes of cargo per year; the largest Adriatic seaport by annual cargo turnover is the Port of Trieste, while the Port of Split is the largest Adriatic seaport by passengers served per year. The origins of the name Adriatic are linked to the Etruscan settlement of Adria, which derives its name from the Illyrian adur meaning water or sea. In classical antiquity, the sea was known as Mare Adriaticum or, less as Mare Superum, " upper sea"; the two terms were not synonymous, however. Mare Adriaticum corresponds to the Adriatic Sea's extent, spanning from the Gulf of Venice to the Strait of Otranto; that boundary became more defined by Roman authors – early Greek sources place the boundary between the Adriatic and Ionian seas at various places ranging from adjacent to the Gulf of Venice to the southern tip of the Peloponnese, eastern shores of Sicily and western shores of Crete.
Mare Superum on the other hand encompassed both the modern Adriatic Sea and the sea off the Apennine peninsula's southern coast, as far as the Strait of Sicily. Another name used in the period was Mare Dalmaticum, applied to waters off the coast of Dalmatia or Illyricum; the names for the sea in the languages of the surrounding countries include Albanian: Deti Adriatik. In Croatian and Slovene, the sea is referred to as Jadran; the Adriatic Sea is a semi-enclosed sea, bordered in the southwest by the Apennine or Italian Peninsula, in the northwest by the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia, in the northeast by Slovenia, Croatia, B
Italian National Institute of Statistics
The Italian National Institute of Statistics is the main producer of official statistics in Italy. Its activities include the census of population, economic censuses and a number of social and environmental surveys and analyses. Istat is by far the largest producer of statistical information in Italy, is an active member of the European Statistical System, coordinated by Eurostat, its publications are released under creative commons "Attribution" license. Istat was created in 1926 as "Central Institute of Statistics", to collect and organize essential data about the nation, it took its current denomination with the reform of 1989. This gave Istat statutory responsibility for the coordination and standardization of official statistics collected or published under the aegis of the national statistical system SISTAN, whose membership includes the statistical offices of ministries, national agencies, provinces, chambers of commerce, similar bodies. Since 4 August 2009, Enrico Giovannini, former Chief statistician of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, has been the President of the institute.
Istituto Centrale di Statistica: Alberto Canaletti Gaudenti Lanfranco Maroi Giuseppe De Meo Guido Maria Rey Istituto Nazionale di Statistica: Guido Maria Rey Alberto Zuliani Luigi Biggeri Enrico Giovannini Antonio Golini Giorgio Alleva Istat has 18 regional offices which host public access points named Centri di informazione statistica, in English Statistical information centers. The center in Rome offers data from Eurostat; the library, established in 1926, is open to the public and contains Istat publications and international works on statistical and socioeconomics subjects, journals from other national statistical institutes and international organizations. The library collection receives about 2800 periodical journals. There are 1500 volumes printed prior to 1900. Official Website SISTAN
The Volturno is a river in south-central Italy. It rises in the Abruzzese central Apennines of Samnium near Castel San Vincenzo and flows southeast as far as its junction with the Calore River near Caiazzo and runs south as far as Venafro, turns southwest, past Capua, to enter the Tyrrhenian Sea in Castel Volturno, northwest of Naples; the river is 175 kilometres long. After a course of some 120 kilometres it receives, about 8 kilometres east of Caiazzo, the Calore River; the united stream now flows west-southwest past Capua, where the Via Appia and Latina joined just to the north of the bridge over it, so through the Campanian plain, with many windings, into the sea. The direct length of the lower course is about 50 kilometres, so that the whole is longer than that of the Liri-Garigliano, its basin far larger; the river has always had a considerable military importance, the colony of Volturnum was founded in 194 BC at its mouth on the south bank by the Romans. A fort had been placed there during the Roman siege of Capua to serve, with Puteoli, for the provisioning of the army.
Augustus placed a colony of veterans here. The Via Domitiana from Sinuessa to Puteoli crossed the river at this point, some remains of the bridge are visible; the river was navigable as far as Capua. In 554, the Byzantine general Narses defeated a Frankish-Alamannic army near this river, during the Gothic War. Following the invasion of southern Italy by revolutionary forces led by Giuseppe Garibaldi in 1860, Francis II of the Two Sicilies fled from Naples and took up a defensive position on the south bank of the Volturno, near S. Maria di Capua Vetere; the Piedmontese troops and those of Garibaldi inflicted on the Neapolitan forces at the battle of the Volturno, on 1 and 2 October, a defeat which led to the fall of Capua. The Volturno gave its name to the Volturno Line, a German defensive position in Italy during World War II. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Volturno". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press.
Purcell, N. R. Talbert, T. Elliott, S. Gillies. "Places: 433211". Pleiades. Retrieved March 8, 2012. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list