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Province of Massachusetts Bay

The Province of Massachusetts Bay was a crown colony in British America which became one of the thirteen original states of the United States from 1776 onward. It was chartered on October 7, 1691 by William III and Mary II, the joint monarchs of the kingdoms of England and Ireland; the charter took effect on May 14, 1692 and included the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the Plymouth Colony, the Province of Maine, Martha's Vineyard, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick. Maine has been a separate state since 1820, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick are now Canadian provinces, having been part of the colony only until 1697; the name Massachusetts comes from an Algonquian tribe. It has been translated as "at the great hill", "at the place of large hills", or "at the range of hills", with reference to the Blue Hills and to Great Blue Hill in particular. Colonial settlement of the shores of Massachusetts Bay began in 1620 with the founding of the Plymouth Colony. Other attempts at colonization took place throughout the 1620s, but expansion of English settlements only began on a large scale with the founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1628 and the arrival of the first large group of Puritan settlers in 1630.

Over the next ten years, there was a major migration of Puritans to the area, leading to the founding of a number of new colonies in New England. By the 1680s, the number of New England colonies had stabilized at five. Massachusetts Bay, was the most populous and economically significant, hosting a sizable merchant fleet; the colonies had struggles with some of the Indian tribes. The Pequot tribe was destroyed in the Pequot War during the 1630s, King Philip's War in the 1670s decimated the Narragansetts in southern New England. King Philip's War was very costly to the colonists of New England, putting a halt to expansion for several years. Massachusetts and Plymouth were both somewhat politically independent from England in their early days, but this situation changed after the restoration of Charles II to the English throne in 1660. Charles sought closer oversight of the colonies, he tried to introduce and enforce economic control over their activities; the Navigation Acts passed in the 1660s were disliked in Massachusetts, where merchants found themselves trapped and at odds with the rules.

However, many colonial governments did not enforce the acts themselves Massachusetts, tensions grew when Charles revoked the first Massachusetts Charter in 1684. In 1686, Charles II's successor King James II formed the Dominion of New England which created a single political unit out of the British territories from Delaware Bay to Penobscot Bay. Dominion governor Sir Edmund Andros was unpopular in the colonies, but he was hated in Massachusetts where he angered everyone by rigidly enforcing the Navigation Acts, vacating land titles, appropriating a Puritan meeting house as a site to host services for the Church of England, restricting town meetings, among other sundry complaints. James was deposed in the 1688 Glorious Revolution, whereupon Massachusetts political leaders rose up against Andros, arresting him and other English authorities in April 1689; this led to the collapse of the Dominion, as the other colonies quickly reasserted their old forms of government. The Plymouth colony never had a royal charter, so its governance had always been on a somewhat precarious footing.

The Massachusetts colonial government was re-established but it no longer had a valid charter, some opponents of the old Puritan rule refused to pay taxes and engaged in other forms of protest. Provincial agents traveled to London where Increase Mather was representing the old colony leaders, he petitioned new rulers William III and Mary II to restore the old colonial charter. King William refused, when he learned that this might result in a return to the religious rule. Instead, the Lords of Trade combined the colonies of Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay into the Province of Massachusetts Bay, they issued a charter for the Province on October 7, 1691, appointed Sir William Phips as its governor. The new charter differed from the old one in several important ways. One of the principal changes was inaugurated over Mather's objection, changing the voting eligibility requirements from religious qualifications to land ownership; the effect of this change has been a subject of debate among historians, but there is significant consensus that it enlarged the number of men eligible to vote.

The new rules required prospective voters to own £40 worth of property or real estate that yielded at least £2 per year in rent. The second major change was that senior officials of the government were appointed by the crown instead of being elected, including governor, lieutenant governor, judges; the legislative assembly continued to be elected and was responsible for choosing members of the Governor's Council. The governor had veto power over laws passed by the General Court, as well as over appointments to the council; these rules differed in important ways from the royal charters enjoyed by other provinces. The most important were that the General Court now possessed the powers of appropriation, that the council was locally chosen and not appointed by either the governor or the Crown; these weakened the governor's power, which became important in provincial history

Lu Ji (Gongji)

Lu Ji, courtesy name Gongji, was a Chinese politician and scholar serving under the warlord Sun Quan in the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He was one of the 24 Filial Exemplars. Lu Ji was from Wu County, Wu Commandery, in present-day Suzhou, Jiangsu, his father, Lu Kang, served as the Administrator of Lujiang Commandery towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty. The Lu clan, which he was from, was one of the four most influential clans in Wu Commandery and in the Jiangdong region at the time; when Lu Ji was six years old, his father brought him to Jiujiang Commandery to visit Yuan Shu. Yuan Shu treated his guests to mandarin oranges. Lu Ji secretly hid them in his sleeve; when Lu Ji and his father were preparing to leave, the oranges rolled out of his sleeve. Yuan Shu said: "Young Man Lu, you came as a guest. Why did you hide the oranges?" Lu Ji knelt down and replied: "I want to bring them home for my mother." Yuan Shu was impressed with Lu Ji. This incident is one of the 24 stories of filial piety in the Confucian classic The Twenty-four Filial Exemplars.

In the late 190s, after the warlord Sun Ce had conquered lands in the Wu region and established his domain there, he invited scholars such as Zhang Zhao, Zhang Hong and Qin Song to discuss with him on how to bring peace to the Han Empire. Lu Ji was among the scholars; as their seating positions were determined by their ages, Lu Ji took the furthest seat because he was the youngest. When they were talking about using military force to bring about peace, Lu Ji raised his voice and said: "In the past, when Guan Yiwu served as a chancellor under Duke Huan of Qi, the Duke was able to unite the various lords under his control and bring order to the Empire without resorting to military force. Confucius once said,'If remoter people are not submissive, all the influences of civil culture and virtue are to be cultivated to attract them to be so.' Those who are present at this discussion speak of only using military force, nothing about promoting civil culture and virtue. I, Ji, may be young and ignorant, but I don't feel at ease."

Zhang Zhao and the others were surprised by Lu Ji's response. Lu Ji had a majestic appearance and was known for being well read in various fields, including astronomy, calendar science and mathematics, he was a friend of other scholars such as Yu Fan and Pang Tong, who were much older than him. In 200, Sun Ce was succeeded by his younger brother, Sun Quan. After Sun Quan took control of the Wu lands, he recruited Lu Ji to serve as an assistant clerk under him. Lu Ji subsequently served as the Administrator of Yulin Commandery, he was promoted to Lieutenant-General and placed in command of 2,000 troops. However, Lu Ji did not aspire to be an official, because he not only had physical disabilities, but because he was interested in scholarly pursuits. Throughout his career, he never gave up on academia though he was busy with military affairs, he created the Hun Tian Tu and annotated the Yijing and Taixuanjing, his works were spread around later. When Lu Ji sensed that his death was imminent, he wrote: "During the Han dynasty, there lived Lu Ji, a man from Wu Commandery who had lofty ambitions.

When he was young, he read the Classic of Book of Documents. When he reached adulthood, he was very familiar with the Classic of Rites and Yi Jing, he was struck by illness. How unfortunate his life was! He died with regrets and sorrow!" He wrote: "About more than 60 years from now, vehicles will be able to travel on the same roads, books will be written in the same script. It is unfortunate that I will not be able to witness that." He died at the age of 32. Lu Ji was a second cousin once removed of Lu Xun. Although he was born about five years than Lu Xun, he was one generation older than the latter, his father, Lu Kang, raised Lu Xun, orphaned at a young age. After Lu Kang's death, Lu Xun became the new head of the family because he was older than Lu Ji in terms of age. Lu Ji had a daughter, his elder son, Lu Hong, served as the South Commandant of Kuaiji Commandery in Eastern Wu. His younger son, Lu Rui, was a Changshui Colonel. Lu Ji's daughter, Lu Yusheng, was born in Yulin Commandery, her name was inspired by her place of birth because "Yusheng" means "born in Yu".

She married Zhang Wen's younger brother Zhang Bai. As Lu Ji died early, his three children – who were still young when their father died – were adopted and raised by Lu Xun's younger brother Lu Mao. Chen Shou, who wrote Lu Ji's biography in the Records of the Three Kingdoms, appraised Lu Ji as follows: "Lu Ji's contributions to Yang Xiong's Taixuanjing were equivalent to Zuo Qiuming's contributions to Confucius's Spring and Autumn Annals and Zhuangzi's contributions to Laozi's Daodejing; when such a great talent like him, capable of doing better tasks was sent to defend the southern border, his life was ruined!"Pang Tong once described Lu Ji as "a horse that cannot run fast but has strong willpower". A verse from The Twenty-four Filial Exemplars in Lu Ji's honour reads: "Filial piety is in human nature, Most rare in a six-year-old boy, he hid three oranges in his sleeve, as a gift for his Mother, Just a token to repay her kindness without end." Lu Ji appears in Chapter 43 of the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms.

He is one of the Wu scholars who debate with Zhuge Liang over Sun Quan's decision to ally with Liu Bei against Cao Cao before the Battle of Red Cliff

Fouad Abiad

Fouad "Hoss" Abiad is a Canadian International Federation of BodyBuilders professional bodybuilder and owner of Hosstile. Abiad, of Lebanese heritage, began training at the age of 21, he credits his father as his biggest influence. Canadian National Championships - Overall Champion IFBB Atlantic Pro - Open, 15th IFBB Montreal Pro - Open, 5th IFBB Atlantic City - Open, 8th IFBB Europa Supershow - Open, 3rd IFBB Houston Pro Invitational - Open, 7th IFBB Tampa Bay Pro - Open, 5th IFBB Mr. Olympia - Open, 17th Arnold Sports Festival|Arnold Classic - Open, 12th IFBB Flex Pro - Open, 3rd IFBB Flex Pro - Open, 3rd Arnold Classic - Open, 11th Arnold Classic - Open, 10th IFBB Toronto Pro - Open, 2nd IFBB Europa Supershow - Open, 2nd IFBB Europa Supershow - Open, 1st IFBB Vancouver Pro - Open, 1st IFBB Tampa Pro - Open, 2nd IFBB Toronto Pro - Open, 3rd Arnold Classic - Open, 6th Contest History Fouad Abiad