Novafeltria is a comune in the Province of Rimini in the Italian region Emilia-Romagna. The town is located about 130 kilometres southeast of Bologna and about 30 kilometres south of Rimini, it is the main center of the Montefeltro traditional region. It is located on the Marecchia river; until 1941 it was known as Mercatino Marecchia. The current Town Hall was the 17th century residence of Counts of Segni from Bologna. After the referendum of 17 and 18 December 2006, Novafeltria was detached from the Province of Pesaro and Urbino to join Emilia-Romagna and the Province of Rimini on 15 August 2009. Ivan Graziani, Italian singer-songwriter Official website
Metropolitan City of Bologna
The Metropolitan City of Bologna is a metropolitan city in the Emilia Romagna region, Italy. Its capital is the city of Bologna. Replacing the Province of Bologna, it was first created by the reform of local authorities and established by the Law 56/2014, it has been operative since January 1, 2015. The Metropolitan City is headed by the Metropolitan Council. Remains of Villanovan culture were discovered near Bologna by archaeologists in 1853; the city was settled by the Etruscans and named Velzna, but was renamed Felsina. In the 6th century BCE, Felsina was known for its markets and trade, it was invaded by Galic tribe the Boii in this period and helped increase the agricultural output of the region. The Romans decided to conquer the region in around 220 BCE and were successful by the 180s BCE. After Rome fell in 476 CE and the region suffered barbarian invasions, Bononia was made a fortress; the city was owned by Charlemagne but was given to the Holy See in 774. The Holy Roman Empire owned the city after this and it became known as Bologna, became a commune in around 1114, although it desired independence.
It joined the Lombard League in 1176 to defeat the forces of the Holy Roman Empire, Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor recognised its desire for independence and granted it some autonomy. It joined the Second Lombard League to defeat Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor in 1249, it became part of the Papal States in 1506 and joined the Kingdom of Italy. The University of Bologna was in advance of its times; the Metropolitan City of Bologna is part of the region of Emilia-Romagna in northwestern Italy. It is in the centre of the region and is bounded on the east by the Province of Ravenna, while the Province of Ferrara lies to the north and the Province of Modena lies to the west. To the south are the Metropolitan City of Florence, the Province of Prato and the Province of Pistoia, all in the region of Tuscany; the metropolitan territory is flat, stretches from the alluvial Po Plain into the Apennine Mountains. Official website
Province of Forlì-Cesena
The province of Forlì-Cesena is a province in the Emilia–Romagna region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Forlì; the province has a population of 394,273 as of 2016 over an area of 2,378.4 square kilometres. It contains the provincial president is Davide Drei. Although located close to the independent Republic of San Marino, Forlì-Cesena does not share a land border with the sovereign state. Forlì was founded by the Roman consul Marcus Livius Salinator, it was connected to the Via Aemilia in 188 BCE. By the 12th century CE, it had become military garrison; the Holy See initiated a small attempt to rule Forlì in 1278, but the family of Ordelaffi led the city from 1315 until 1480. The city was governed by Girolamo Riario and his wife, Caterina Sforza. Spanish Pope Alexander VI ordered his son Cesare Borgia, Duke of Valentinois, to Forlì and other communes in the region; until the formation of the Kingdom of Italy, it remained under the rule of the Holy See. Cesena was first owned by the Romans until the fall of Rome, when it was taken by the Byzantine Empire.
Following this, it was owned by archbishops of Ravenna. During the period of issues between the Guelphs and Ghibellines, the Holy See took over Cesena from the Ordelaffis. Antipope Clement VII's troops completely destroyed Cesena in 1377, the Pope gave the city to the House of Malatesta. After the House of Malatesta controlled the city from 1378 to 1465, the Holy See regained control of Cesena. Leonardo da Vinci designed the port Cesenatico, it remained under papal rule. In 1921, there was a rapid advance of the Fascist movement in the region triggered by issues connected with agrarian reform. Buildings belonging to the republicans and socialists were seized or burnt down by Italo Balbo, on July 29, he and his men moved throughout the provinces of Ravenna and Forlì, burning every socialist organisation headquarters in a night of terror, called the "column of fire"; this was a pivotal moment in the advance of Fascism in northern Italy. The province of Forlì-Cesena is one of nine provinces in the region of Emilia-Romagna in the northeast of Italy.
Along with that of Rimini, it is the most southerly of the provinces in the region and it abuts onto the Adriatic Sea for a short distance. The Province of Ravenna lies to the north and the Province of Mantua in Lombardy to the northwest. To the west lies the Metropolitan City of Florence in the region of Tuscany, the Province of Arezzo in Tuscany, lies to the south, the Province of Rimini lies to the southeast; the provincial capital is the city of Forlì, situated on the bank of the Montone river about 70 km southeast of Bologna. Beijing-Dongcheng District, since 2012 Official website Tourism portal for Provincia di Forlì-Cesena
Vehicle registration plates of Italy
Present Italian car number plates have black characters on a rectangular white background, with small blue side-fields. The current numbering scheme, in use from 1994, is unrelated to the geographical provenance of the car. By law, Italian plates can only be made by the Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato and issued by local departments of motor vehicles; the first Italian plates had to have the owner's name and the local communal number visible. These early Italian number plates gave the unabbreviated name of the place of origin, followed by a number, as GENOVA 83 and PADOVA 2; these were first plates to be had to be manufactured by the car's owner. Today, only two plates of this time remain, PADOVA 2, conserved in museums. Schematic representation: Plates in this period were black-on-white; the registration number was a numeric code, different for each province, a progressive number on a single line, unique for that province. E.g. 63 – 2993, where 63 is the code for Turin. Motorcycles had square plates.
A front plate was optional. Schematic representation: In 1927, Mussolini changed the number plates from white background with black digits, to black background with white digits and introduced the two letter provincial code for all provinces instead of the number system used until 1927. From 1927 to 1932, the progressive code was found before the provincial code on a single line; the progressive code was moved before the provincial code in front plates and after it in rear plates. Although Rome had the full name displayed on the number plates, in documents for practical purposes it uses the unofficial code RM. From 1932 to 1951, rear plates were squares 32.0 x 20.0 cm large and used a altered Garamond font. Rear plates had the Fasces emblem next to the provincial from 1928 to 1944. After Mussolini's fall, from 1944 to 1948, the Association of War Maimed and Disabled printed the number plates and their symbol appeared instead of the Fasces. In 1948 the Constitution of the Italian Republic was approved, so the Republic emblem appeared on the number plate on both rear and front plates but the format and font were kept from the previous period.
From 1951 to 1976, rear plates size was reduced to a square 27.5 × 20 cm large, front plates was 26.2 × 5.7 cm, the front plates' design was changed to have more linear characters and the Republic emblem was made smaller. Note that single line rear registration plates were not available until 1976; the registration number was the provincial code, a two-letter code, a progressive code, unique for that province, up to 6 characters long. Between the provincial code and the first two digits was the Italian Republic emblem; the progressive code for the first 999999 cars of the provinces was just a progressive number, not filled with initial zeroes. For cars from 1000000, it was A00000-A99999. Possible letters were, in this order, A B D E F G H K L M N P R S T U V Z X Y W. After that, it was 00000D-99999D etc.. Possible letters were, in this order, A D E F G H L M N P R S T V W X Y Z. Schematic representation: Front Plate 1927-1932 rear plate The front plate was kept intact as in the 1927-1976 period.
The rear plate, began to be manufactured in two pieces. One, sized 10,7 × 33 cm, had black background with white digits, contained the progressive number and, in a small font, the repetition of provincial code above and the Republic emblem; the other had black background with orange letters and contained the official provincial code and had two variants. One was 10,7 × 33 cm large, the other one was 10,7 × 20 cm large. Only one of the latter two was used depending on the type of plate holder that the plate was destined for: for a rectangular plate holder, the small provincial code piece was installed left of the progressive code, put together with rivets in designed holes in the progressive code For cars that were designed with the previous number plate holder, or too small for a rectangular plate, the long provincial code piece was installed above the progressive code; this change resolved the plate positioning problem on cars of foreign production the rectangular European system was preferred over the squared plate holder of Italian designed cars.
Plates in Rome provides detailed coverage of Italian number plates from 1903 onwards. Italian plates With details and images
Province of Piacenza
The province of Piacenza is a province in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Its provincial capital is the city Piacenza; as of 2016, it has a total population of 286,572 inhabitants over an area of 2,585.86 square kilometres, giving it a population density of 111.38 inhabitants per square kilometre. The city Piacenza has a population of 102,269, as of 2015; the provincial president is Patrizia Barbieri and it contains 48 comuni. The province dates back to its founding by the Romans in 218 BCE. Piacenza was founded by the Romans for military purposes in 218 BCE, it was conquered by Carthaginian Hasdrubal II in 207 BCE and the city was sacked in 200 BCE by the Gauls. A key city in the region, it was destroyed by barbarians but the town was rebuilt under the rule of bishops in the 10th century. By the 12th century, the city was a free comune and it fought against Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor as part of the Lombard League. In the Renaissance period it passed from French, to papal, to Sforzas rule.
Pope Paul III formed the Duchy of Parma and Piacenza and Piacenza became part of this duchy. It voted for a union between it and Piedmont in May 1848. In October 2012, it was confirmed that the Province of Piacenza would be merged with the Province of Parma in 2014 to become the Province of Piacenza and Parma, despite controversy over the chosen name. However, after the dismissal of premier Mario Monti, the provincial union was cancelled; the province of Piacenza is the westernmost of the nine provinces in the region of Emilia-Romagna in northwestern Italy. It is bounded on the east by the Province of Parma, to the north by the Province of Cremona, the Province of Lodi, the Province of Pavia in the region of Lombardy; the Province of Alessandria lies to the west in the region of Piedmont, to the south lies the Province of Genoa in the region of Liguria. The northernmost part of the province is flat but the southernmost two thirds is hilly and extends to the Ligurian Apennine Mountains; the alluvial Po Plain is agricultural land and there are many vineyards growing grapes from which the eighteen wines of the region are made.
There is some light industry in the mechanical sector, some of this is linked to the agriculture sector. Media related to Province of Piacenza at Wikimedia Commons Official website Provincia di Piacenza homepage Piacenzainternet.it - Portale di Piacenza
Province of Parma
The Province of Parma is a province in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Its largest town and capital is the city of Parma, it is made up of 47 comuni. It has an area of 3,449 square kilometres and a total population of around 450,000; the province is bordered by the Province of Reggio Emilia to the east, the Piacenza to the west, Lombardy's provinces of Cremona and Mantova to the north and by Liguria's provinces of La Spezia and Genoa and Tuscany's Province of Massa and Carrara to the south. In 1861, Italian provinces were established on the French republican model. Italian Fascism saw the end of elections in the Province of Parma in the 1920s until the end of the Second World War. In October 2012, it was confirmed that the Province of Parma would be merged with the Province of Piacenza in 2014 to become the Province of Piacenza and Parma, despite controversy over the chosen name. However, its name was altered to the Province of Parma–Piacenza in the following month; the province is divided into three zones from north to south: the pianura, the collina and the montagna.
The first of these is surrounded by the Po. The main centres of the collina and montagna are situated along the course of the main rivers, which descend from the Parmesan Apennine Mountains; the Province of Parma comprises 47 comuni. The 20 largest of these are: Parma is famous for its Prosciutto di Parma; the whole area is renowned for its sausage production, as well as for the Parmigiano Reggiano cheese and some kinds of pasta like gnocchi di patate, cappelletti in brodo, tortelli with different stuffing and chicche. There are two main highways that go through Parma: A1 and A15; the Province of Parma is served by the Giuseppe Verdi Airport. The province is crossed by the Milan-Bologna railroad, one of the most important in Italy, with a station in Parma; the latter is the starting point for the following lines, connecting the city to the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Po River delta: Pontremolese line, with a branch to Fidenza and Fornovo di Taro Parma-Piadena-Brescia Parma-Suzzara (held by Ferrovie Emilia Romagna Srl.
The station of Fidenza is an exchange point for the lines: Fidenza-Salsomaggiore Terme Fidenza-Cremona Parma F. C. was founded in 1913. It is a Serie A football club renowned in Italy and Europe for its successes including three national cups, a European Cup Winner's Cup, two UEFA Cups, a European Supercup and an Italian Supercup, it plays in the city's stade Ennio Tardini which used to host up to 29,000 spectators but is being renovated in 2008 after the club was demoted to Serie B. In spring 2009 the team was promoted again in the top league. Crociati Noceto play in the fourth tier. Parma is home to two rugby union teams in the top national division, Overmach Rugby Parma and SKG Gran Rugby. Parma Panthers is the Parma American football team for which John Grisham's book Playing for Pizza was based. Volleyball, women basketball and baseball have large popularity in the city and have scored relevant successes. Provincia di Parma homepage
Romagna is an Italian historical region that corresponds to the south-eastern portion of present-day Emilia-Romagna, North Italy. Traditionally, it is limited by the Apennines to the south-west, the Adriatic to the east, the rivers Reno and Sillaro to the north and west; the region's major cities include Cesena, Forlì, Ravenna and City of San Marino. The region has been formally expanded with the transfer of seven comuni from the Marche region, which are a small number of comuni where Romagnolo dialect is spoken; the name Romagna originates from the Latin name Romania, the generic name for "land inhabited by Romans", first appeared on Latin documents in the 5th century. It took on the more detailed meaning of "territory subjected to Eastern Roman rule", whose citizens called themselves Romans, thus the term Romania came to be used to refer to the territory administered by the Exarchate of Ravenna in contrast to other parts of Northern Italy under Lombard rule, named Langobardia or Lombardy. A number of archaeological sites in the region, such as Monte Poggiolo, show that Romagna has been inhabited since the Paleolithic age.
The Umbri, speaking an extinct Italic language called Umbrian, are the first traceable inhabitants of the region. The Etruscans dwelt in some portions of Romagna. In the 5th Century BC, various Gaulish tribes, most notably the Lingones and Boii, moved south into Italy, sacked Rome in 390 BC; the Senoni utterly settled in Romagna. The Senoni extended further south with their capital Sena Gallica; the lands inhabited by the Senoni were known as ager Gallicus to the Romans. According to the Italian linguist Giacomo Devoto, there are still a number of Celtic substrata in the Romagnolo dialect. Gallic predominance in the region was challenged by the Romans. In the battle of Telamon, the Romans defeated the joint forces of the Celtic tribes, thus achieving a hegemony over the new Roman Province of Cisalpine Gaul centred at Mutina. After the Second Punic War, the pro-Carthaginian Lingones and Senoni were expelled. To consolidate the Roman rule in the region, the Via Aemilia was built from Ariminium to Piacentia, a series of Roman colonies were founded.
The most significant ones are Forum Cornelii and Forum Popili. After the Social War, the Lex Julia was introduced in 90 BC, Roman citizenship was granted to all municipia south of the River Po. In the first Roman civil war, between Gaius Marius and Lucius Cornelius Sulla, most cities in the regions supported Marius; as a result, Forum Livii and Caesena were razed to ground, the region was looted by Sulla's army. During the first triumvirate, the Roman Republic was divided along the infamous Rubicon. Most of modern Romagna was ruled by Julius Caesar, the notable exception of Ariminium, south of the river. In 49 BC, residing in Ravenna led the Legio XIII across the Rubicon and ignited Caesar's civil war. After the decisive battle of Actium, Augustus started a century-long era of Pax Romana. All of Cisalpine Gaul had been incorporated into the Roman province of Italia. Around 7 BC, Augustus divided all of Italy into eleven regiones, most of Romagna was in the eighth, Aemilia. By the beginning of the 3rd Century, Diocletian re-divided the Empire into four prefectures, each divided into dioceses, into provinces.
Under the new system, Italy was demoted to a mere Imperial province. Modern Romagna was organized into the Roman province of Flaminia et Picenum in the diocese of Italia Annonaria. Ravenna, surrounded by swamps and marshes and rose in importance, a Roman fleet was based at the city, it had developed into a major port on the Adriatic. However, in 330, the capital of the Empire was transferred to Constantinople, so with the fleet that stationed at Ravenna, thus weakened the coastal defence in the Adriatic. Stepping into the 5th Century, the Germanic migrations into the Empire further intensified. In 402, Emperor Honorius moved the Western Roman Empire's capital from Mediolanum to Ravenna because of the region's defensive terrain. 8 years Alaric I of the Visigoths looted Rome. In 476, Odoacer deposed Romulus in Ravenna. Encouraged by Emperor Zeno, Theodoric the Great led the Ostrogoths into Italy, he entered Ravenna and murdered Odoacer in 493, establishing a twofold kingdom of the Romans and Goths.
Under the Ostrogoths Italy was restored to its former prosperity. In 535 Justinian I initiated the Gothic War, it was fought for 20 years, the Ostrogoths were subjugated. The peninsula and devastated, was ruled by an exarch from Ravenna. However, Imperial authority was maintained for more than a decade. In 568 new Germanic tribes, the Lombards, entered Italy, established their capital at Pavia; the Empire could defend the region around Ravenna and Rome, connected by a narrow strip of land passing through Perugia, as well as a series of coastal cities. The Imperial frontier retreated to Bologna. In 727 the Lombard King Liutprand renewed war against the Byzantines, taking most of Romagna and besieging Ravenna itself; these territories were returned to the Byzantines in 730. In 737 the king took Ravenna; the exarch, retook the region in 740, with Venetian assistance. Another Lombard king, Aistu