The Albufera, or L'Albufera de València, is a freshwater lagoon and estuary on the Gulf of Valencia coast of the Valencian Community in eastern Spain. It is the main portion of the Parc Natural de l'Albufera de València, with a surface area of 21,120 hectares; the natural biodiversity of the nature reserve allows a great variety of flora and fauna to thrive and be observed year-round. Though once a saltwater lagoon, dilution due to irrigation and canals draining into the estuary and the sand bars increasing in size had converted it to freshwater by the seventeenth century; the Valencian Albufera Nature Park and lagoon lies just 11 kilometres south of Valencia, in the municipal areas of 13 towns and four pedanies adjoined to the capital city, these in turn lying within four comarques or counties, namely, in Horta Sud: Albal, Beniparrell, Massanassa, Sedaví and Silla. Its proximity to the capital city of the Valencian Land and easy access facilitate nature experiences and birdwatching. Since 1990, the Valencian Albufera Nature Reserve has been included as a Ramsar Site in the list of wetlands of international importance for birds, established in the Ramsar Convention of 1971.
Since 1991 the Parc Natural de l'Albufera de València has been included in the Special Protection Areas. The most important human use of the lagoon continues to be fishing. From prehistoric times the rich fishing has attracted people specializing in this activity there. Fishing was recognised in year 1250, when regulations were laid down for the El Palmar Fishing Association and which would be applied to the fisheries of Silla and Catarroja; until the lagoon's catchment area started to become industrialised, fishing generated substantial profits, as the clean waters of the lake provided a great diversity and abundance of fish. At present, catches of bass and eels have dropped while those of mullet and American blue crab have increased. Rice growing is another traditional use, though more recent; these rice paddies provide food and shelter for many birds. L'Albufera is dominated by Cyanobacteria Synechococcus; the natural microbial population of Albufera has been described. Index: Special Protection Areas of Spain Index: Ramsar sites in Spain Parque Natural de la Albufera Parc Natural de L'albufera de València
Province of Albacete
Albacete is a province of central Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha. As of 2012, Albacete had a population of 402,837 people, its capital city called Albacete, is 262 kilometres by road southeast of Madrid. The territory occupied by the province of Albacete has been inhabited since ancient times, as evidenced by cave paintings in the Cueva del Niño and Cueva de la Vieja. In Roman times, the territory of the present province of Albacete was part of Carpetania and Celtiberia, Contestania and Oretania. In Roman times, the Romans built a significant settlement at Libisosa, during the age of the Visigoths, Tolmo de Minateda grew in prominence. During the Muslim era, territories of the province were under different zones of influence, numerous farmhouses and watchtowers developed to fight off invaders. A number of battles were held here in the Middle Ages, on April 25, 1707, the Battle of Almansa was held in the vicinity of the town of Albacete, a major Spanish battle which culminated in the triumph of Philip V who ascended to the throne, establishing the monarchy for the House of Bourbon in Spain.
In 1822 the province of ephemeral Province of Chinchilla was created, composed of municipalities in the provinces of La Mancha and the Kingdom of Murcia. Its capital at Chinchilla de Monte-Aragón close to the city of Albacete, would be the basis on which the province of Albacete was created in 1833 as dictated by Javier de Burgos. Following the adoption of the Constitution in 1978, the province of Albacete joined the Castile-La Mancha Region from the Murcia Region, its Statute of Autonomy was approved in 1982. Located in the southeast of the Central Plateau with an area of 14,926 km ², the Province of Albacete is bordered by the provinces of Granada, Alicante, Cuenca, Ciudad Real and Jaén; the province is divided into seven judicial districts. Its seat of government is Albacete. Other important towns are: Hellín, Almansa, La Roda and Caudete; the main river of the province is the Jucar river, which crosses the province in the northeast, renowned for its deep gorges and trees. The Lagunese de Ruidera flows in the west.
Other rivers of note include the Cabriel on the far northeastern border, the Salobral and Tajo-Segura in the central part, the Corcoles in the northwest, the Guadalmena, Tus, Segura. and Taibilla rivers in the south. It is home to seasonal rivers, including Abengibre Creek. List of municipalities in Albacete. Carnival of Villarrobledo
The Turia or Túria is a Spanish river which has its source in the Montes Universales in the mountain ranges of the northwesternmost end of the Sistema Ibérico, Teruel province. From its source to the city of Teruel, it is called Guadalaviar river, it runs through the provinces of Teruel and Valencia, discharges into the Mediterranean sea near the city of Valencia. The river is notorious for its floods; the flood which occurred on 14 October 1957, known as the Great Flood of Valencia, flooded large part of the city of Valencia, produced a great deal of damage to both life and property. To prevent this from happening in the future, a diversion project was devised, completed in 1969, the river was divided in two at the western city limits. During floods, most of the water is diverted southwards along a new course that skirts the city, until it meets the Mediterranean; the old course of the river has been turned into a central green-space for the city, a cultural attraction known as the garden of the Turia.
Not unlike the LA River man-made diversion channel south of the city is found dry, since water flows during periods of flooding. Under ordinary flow rates the waters are directed through irrigation channels to help cultivate the fertile plain of Valencia. Throughout history the water of the River Turia has been used to irrigate the region. In modern times, a complex network of irrigation has been created, with the main axis centred on the diversion project. Beyond irrigation, these channels take runoff and surplus waters from the Turia to the wetlands and marshes around Valencia; the old riverbed is now a verdant sunken park that allows cyclists and pedestrians to traverse much of the city without the use of roads. The park, called the'Garden of the Turia' boasts numerous ponds, fountains, football pitches, cafés, climbing walls, an athletics track, a zen garden and more; the many bridges overhead carry traffic across the park. Towards the park's eastern end is the Gulliver Park, a children's adventure playground featuring a huge fibreglass model of Lemuel Gulliver tied to the ground with ropes.
The model is constructed such. In addition, Gulliver's clothes form ladders on which to play. Towards the eastern end of the river course is the Valencian Music Palace. Marking the park's eastern extreme is Valencia's new City of Arts and Sciences. Two Metrovalencia stations lie beneath the riverbed, with entrances on either bank: Túria and Alameda. List of rivers of Spain Flight over River Turia video River Turia information with maps
Ribera Alta (comarca)
Ribera Alta is a comarca in the province of Valencia, Valencian Community, Spain. The Júcar, the great river of the Valencian community, is most characteristic of the Ribera Alta, bringing water from the Cuenca to fertilize this plain, situated to the south of the Valencia; the economy of this predominantly agricultural regionis based upon the orange harvest, a crop, cultivated since the 18th century. From its rich historical and artistic heritage, the most noteworthy of all of the region’s treasures are the towns of La Pobla Llarga and Alzira. These, alongside a rich and varied gastronomy and an extensive festival calendar, make this region, still untouched by tourists, a attractive area in which to spend time. Alberic Alcàntera de Xúquer L'Alcúdia Alfarp Algemesí Alginet Alzira Antella Beneixida Benifaió Benimodo Benimuslem Carcaixent Càrcer Carlet Castelló de la Ribera Catadau Cotes L'Ènova Gavarda Guadassuar Llombai Manuel Massalavés Montroy Montserrat La Pobla Llarga Rafelguaraf Real Sallent de Xàtiva Sant Joanet Senyera Sumacàrcer Tous Turís The gastronomy of the Ribera Alta is, like the rest of Valencia, rich in rice dishes.
Here the specialties include the well-known food of the fens such as dry rice dishes and stews cooked on an open fire or in the heat of clay ovens. Dishes such as all ipebre, espardenyà, as well as the universally known Valencian paella, provide a diverse culinary offering which can be tasted in the many bars and restaurants of the region; the desserts consist of a rich and varied range of sweetbreads and cakes, the most noteworthy of which include arnadí de carabassa, pastissets de moniato, panquemados from Alberic or fogasses, made of sugar and flour, not to mention honey from Montroy, all to be taken with the excellent Moscatel and Malvazia wines from Montserrat and Turis. The Ribera Alta is an excellent festive region, with annual fiestas taking place in each and every one of the villages and towns, most notably the popular religious festivities and celebrationsheld in the summer months; some of the most outstanding fiestas are the Fallas of Saint Joseph, where statues are erected and burnt in many villages in the middle of March, les Danses de Guadassuar, held in the last week of August, the festivals of Mare de déu delLluch in the village of Alzira and Mare de Déu d’Aigües Vives in the village of Carcaixent, or the festival of Mare de Déu de la Salut in the village of Algemesi on September, which has taken place for over 800 years.
La Mare de Déu de la Salut Festival takes place in the historical parts of the city of Algemesí on 7 and 8 September each year. Here the music of the dolçaina i tabalet, a type of flute, accompanies the traditional dances of la carxofa, les pastoretes and the popular la Muixeranga; these festivals have been declared of tourist interest and precede the Semana de Bous, which takes place in the interesting bullring, which unusually, is rectangular-shaped. The orange is the fruit of the citrus sinensis or aurantium, a tree that first appeared in China and other southern areas of the Asian continent; the fruit made its way from the Far East to the European continent, reaching Spain, through Valencia, spreading throughout the rest of the world. In Greek mythology the Garden of the Hesperides is a mythological grove where apples grew tended to by nymphs and a dragon. Hercules, the hero of classical literature, killed the guardian, entered the garden and plucked those golden apples –In years it was thought that the "golden apples" might have been oranges, a fruit unknown to Europe before the Middle Ages.
Several scholars defend that the etymology of the word comes from the Sanskrit term narang and the Persian word narensh. When Arabs brought orange farming to the Iberian Peninsula, they called the fruits naranjah; the Region of Valencia maintained the orange-farming tradition after the Arabic period, with references to orange trees in the city of Valencia dating back to the 14th century. In fact, there is an Orange Courtyard inside Valencia’s 15th century Silk Exchange market, a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the first references to commercial orange plantations date back to the 18th century. At present, there are 150,000 hectares of orange groves in the Region of Valencia producing orange and mandarin varieties including satsumas, navel oranges, common oranges, blood oranges, hybrids, as the most important specimens Ribera Alta has a long orange farming tradition; the economy and population boomed in the area in the 18th century, Ribera Alta profited from an expansion that affected a sector as important as agriculture.
Orange farming was introduced in this context. According to the historical records, in 1781 priest Vicente Monzó, notary Maseres and pharmacist Bodí, planted the first fields of orange trees in Carcaixent; the trees thrived in the land, favoured by the benign Mediterranean climate, adapted to Valencian soil both on rain-fed farmland and irrigated land fed by river Júcar, whose extensive irrigation channel distributed fertile water around the whole of the Ribera Altaarea. In the early 19th century, orange trees started to replace other crops, such as rice and mulberries, taking over as the main local crop. Wholesale exports of oranges commenced in this century, fuelled by the arrival of the railway
Valencian referred to as Southern Catalan, is a dialect of the Catalan language spoken in the Valencian Community, where it is an official language, in the El Carche comarca in Murcia, where it has no official recognition. Besides, it is spoken in the south of the Terres de l'Ebre and in the south of La Franja in Aragon, in its transitional variety; the denominations "Valencian" or "Valencian language" are used traditionally and as a glottonym exclusively in the Valencian Community, to refer not only to the dialect spoken in the region, but to refer to the totality of the Catalan language. However, outside this territory the use of this denomination is null, it is considered the Valencian Community's own language according to the region's 1982 Statute of Autonomy and the Spanish Constitution. According to philological studies, the varieties of this language spoken in the Valencian Community and El Carxe cannot be considered a dialect restricted to these borders: the several dialects of Valencian belong to the Western group of Catalan dialects.
Valencian, as a variety of the Catalan language, displays transitional features between Ibero-Romance languages and Gallo-Romance languages. Its similarity with Occitan has led many authors to group it under the Occitano-Romance languages. There is some controversy within the Valencian Community regarding its status as a glottonym or as a language on its own among certain political sectors such as blaverism and Spanish nationalism. According to a study carried out by the Generalitat Valenciana in 2014, scarcely more than a half people in the Valencian Community consider it as a separate language, different from Catalan. However, according to the same study, most of Valencians with higher studies say that it is the same language. According to the 2006 Statute of Autonomy Valencian is regulated by the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, by means of the Normes de Castelló. Due to not having been recognized for a long time and the considerable immigration coming from Andalusia but from other areas of Spain where Spanish is spoken, the number of speakers has decreased, the influence of Spanish has led to the adoption of a huge amount of loanwords.
Some of the most important works of Catalan literature in Valencia experienced a golden age during the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Important works include Joanot Martorell's chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch, Ausiàs March's poetry; the first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in the Valencian variety. The earliest recorded chess game with modern rules for moves of the queen and bishop was in the Valencian poem Scachs d'amor; the official status of Valencian is regulated by the Spanish Constitution and the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, together with the Law of Use and Education of Valencian. Article 6 of the Valencian Statute of Autonomy sets the legal status of Valencian, providing that: The official language of the Valencian Community is Valencian. Valencian is official within the Valencian Community, along with Spanish, the official language nationwide. Everyone shall have the right to know it and use it, receive education in Valencian. No one can be discriminated against by reason of their language.
Special protection and respect shall be given to the recuperation of Valencian. The Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua shall be the normative institution of the Valencian language; the Law of Use and Education of Valencian develops this framework, providing for implementation of a bilingual educational system, regulating the use of Valencian in the public administration and judiciary system, where citizens can use it when acting before both. Valencian is recognized under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages as "Valencian". Valencian is not spoken all over the Valencian Community. A quarter of its territory, equivalent to 10% of the population, is traditionally Castilian-speaking only, whereas Valencian is spoken to varying degrees elsewhere. Additionally, it is spoken by a reduced number of people in Carche, a rural area in the Region of Murcia adjoining the Valencian Community. Although the Valencian language was an important part of the history of this zone, nowadays only about 600 people are able to speak Valencian in the area of Carche.
In 2010 the Generalitat Valenciana published a study and Social use of Valencian, which included a survey sampling more than 6,600 people in the provinces of Castellón, Alicante. The survey collected the answers of respondents and did not include any testing or verification; the results were: Valencian was the language "always or most used": at home: 31.6% with friends: 28.0% in internal business relations: 24.7%For ability: 48.5% answered they speak Valencian "perfectly" or "quite well" 26.2% answered they write Valencian "perfectly" or "quite well" The survey shows that, although Valencian is still the common language in many areas in the Valencian Community, where more than half of the Valencian population are able to speak it, most Valencians do not speak in Valencian in their
A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area in the form of a peak. A mountain is steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism; these forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode through the action of rivers, weather conditions, glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level; these colder climates affect the ecosystems of mountains: different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, such as mountain climbing; the highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m. There is no universally accepted definition of a mountain.
Elevation, relief, steepness and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain. In the Oxford English Dictionary a mountain is defined as "a natural elevation of the earth surface rising more or less abruptly from the surrounding level and attaining an altitude which to the adjacent elevation, is impressive or notable."Whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma, USA, is only 251 m from its base to its highest point. Whittow's Dictionary of Physical Geography states "Some authorities regard eminences above 600 metres as mountains, those below being referred to as hills." In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, a mountain is defined as any summit at least 2,000 feet high, whilst the official UK government's definition of a mountain, for the purposes of access, is a summit of 600 metres or higher. In addition, some definitions include a topographical prominence requirement 100 or 500 feet. At one time the U.
S. Board on Geographic Names defined a mountain as being 1,000 feet or taller, but has abandoned the definition since the 1970s. Any similar landform lower. However, the United States Geological Survey concludes that these terms do not have technical definitions in the US; the UN Environmental Programme's definition of "mountainous environment" includes any of the following: Elevation of at least 2,500 m. Using these definitions, mountains cover 33% of Eurasia, 19% of South America, 24% of North America, 14% of Africa; as a whole, 24% of the Earth's land mass is mountainous. There are three main types of mountains: volcanic and block. All three types are formed from plate tectonics: when portions of the Earth's crust move and dive. Compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features; the height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if steeper, a mountain. Major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity.
Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed at a mid-ocean ridge or hotspot. At a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab, forms magma that reaches the surface; when the magma reaches the surface, it builds a volcanic mountain, such as a shield volcano or a stratovolcano. Examples of volcanoes include Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines; the magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain: magma that solidifies below ground can still form dome mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the US. Fold mountains occur when two plates collide: shortening occurs along thrust faults and the crust is overthickened. Since the less dense continental crust "floats" on the denser mantle rocks beneath, the weight of any crustal material forced upward to form hills, plateaus or mountains must be balanced by the buoyancy force of a much greater volume forced downward into the mantle, thus the continental crust is much thicker under mountains, compared to lower lying areas.
Rock can fold either asymmetrically. The upfolds are anticlines and the downfolds are synclines: in asymmetric folding there may be recumbent and overturned folds; the Balkan Mountains and the Jura Mountains are examples of fold mountains. Block mountains are caused by faults in the crust: a plane; when rocks on one side of a fault rise relative to the other, it can form a mountain. The uplifted blocks are block horsts; the intervening dropped blocks are termed graben: these can be small or form extensive rift valley systems. This form of landscape can be seen in East Africa, the Vosges, the Basin and Range Province of Western North America and the Rhine valley; these areas occur when the regional stress is extensional and the crust is thinned. During and following uplift, mountains are subjected to the agents of erosion which wear the uplifted area down. Erosion causes the surface of mountains to be younger than the rocks that form the mountains themselves. Glacial processes produce characteristic landforms, such as pyramidal peaks, knife-edge arêtes, bowl-shaped cirques that can contai
The Central System and Portuguese: Sistema Central, is one of the main systems of mountain ranges in the Iberian Peninsula. 2,592 m high Pico Almanzor is its highest summit. The Central System is located just north of the 40th parallel and its ranges divide the drainage basin of the Tagus from the basin of the Douro; the Sistema Central is a primary feature of the Meseta Central, the inner Iberian plateau, splitting the meseta into two parts. The Sistema Central runs in an ENE - WSW direction along the southern border of the Spanish autonomous community of Castile and León and Extremadura continuing into the Guarda and Castelo Branco districts in Portugal. Unlike the neighboring Sistema Ibérico, the Sistema Central range is a quite homogeneous system, it consists of several ranges. The major mountain ranges are the Sierra de Guadarrama, which runs along the border of the Madrid and Castile and León autonomous communities, the Sierra de Gredos north of the border between Castile and León and Castile-La Mancha stretching into Extremadura and containing the range's highest mountain, Pico Almanzor, at 2,592 m, as well as the Serra da Estrela, containing the highest point in continental Portugal, A Torre, 1.993 m.
Other notably large ranges are Sierra de Sierra de Ayllón. The Central System links with the Sistema Ibérico at its eastern end through the Sierra de Pela, the Altos de Barahona and Sierra Ministra, the latter fully part of the Iberian System."Sistema Central" is a known academic geographical term. Local inhabitants, however refer to the Sistema Central by the names of its smaller constituent ranges; the main ranges of the Sistema Central from west to east followed by their highest points are: Serra da Lousã, Trevim, 1,205 m. Serra do Moradal Serra da Estrela, Torre, 1,993 m. Sierra de Gata, Jálama, 1,492 m. Sierra de la Canchera, Pico Tiendas, 1,590 m Sierra de Francia, Pico de la Hastiala, 1,735 m. Sierra de Béjar, Canchal de la Ceja, 2,430 m. Sierra de Gredos, Pico Almanzor, 2,592 m. Sierra de la Horcajada, Risco de la Umbrela, 1,562 m. Sierra de Villafranca, Cerro Moros, 2,059 m. Sierra de Piedra Aguda, Piedra Aguda, 1,817 m. La Serrota, Cerro del Santo, 2,294 m. Sierra de Hoyocasero, Navasolana, 1,708 m.
Sierra de la Paramera, Pico Zapatero, 2,160 m. Sierra de Ávila, Cerro de Gorría, 1,708 m. Sierra de Ojos Albos, Cruz de Hierro, 1,657 m. Sierra de Malagón, Cueva Valiente, 1,903 m. Sierra de San Vicente, Cruces, 1,373 m. Sierra de Guadarrama, Peñalara, 2,428 m. La Mujer Muerta, La Pinareja, 2,197 m. Siete Picos, Siete Picos, 2,138 m. La Maliciosa, Maliciosa, 2,227 m. Cuerda Larga, Cabeza de Hierro Mayor, 2,383 m. Sierra de la Morcuera, La Najarra, 2,122 m. Sierra de Canencia, Mondalindo, 1,831 m. Sierra de la Cabrera, Cancho Largo, 1,564 m. Sierra de Somosierra, Colgadizos, 1,834 m. Sierra de Ayllón, Pico del Lobo, 2,274 m. Sierra de la Puebla, La Tornera, 1,866 m. Sierra del Ocejón, Ocejón, 2,049 m. Sierra de Alto Rey, Alto Rey, 1,858 m. Sierra de Pela, Sima de Somolinos, 1,548 m. Geography of Spain, section "The Inner Plateau and associated mountains" Sierra de Guadarrama Las Hurdes List of mountain ranges in the world named The Sleeping Lady Wes Gibbons & Teresa Moreno, The geology of Spain. Geological Society of London, 2003 Physical geography and geology of Spain Virtual Cadastral Sistema Central in Montipedia Ascensión al Mondalindo Subida al Ocejón Ascensión a la Sierra de la Puebla Al cobijo de los Altos de Barahona