Provo, Utah

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City of Provo
Downtown Provo
Downtown Provo
Flag of Provo
Motto(s): "Welcome Home"
Location in Utah County and the state of Utah
Location in Utah County and the state of Utah
Coordinates: 40°14′40″N 111°39′39″W / 40.24444°N 111.66083°W / 40.24444; -111.66083Coordinates: 40°14′40″N 111°39′39″W / 40.24444°N 111.66083°W / 40.24444; -111.66083
Country  United States
State  Utah
County Utah
Founded 1849
Incorporated April 1850
Named for Étienne Provost[1]
 • Type Strong mayor
 • Mayor Michelle Kaufusi
 • Council Chair Gary Winterton
 • City 44.2 sq mi (114.4 km2)
 • Land 41.7 sq mi (107.9 km2)
 • Water 2.5 sq mi (6.5 km2)
Elevation 4,551 ft (1,387 m)
Population (2017)[2][3]
 • City 117,335
 • Density 2,700/sq mi (1,000/km2)
 • Metro 526,810
Time zone Mountain (MST) (UTC-7)
 • Summer (DST) MDT (UTC-6)
ZIP Codes 84601-84606
Area codes 385, 801
FIPS code 49-62470[4]
GNIS ID 1444661[5]

Provo /ˈprv/ is the third-largest city in Utah, United States. It is 43 miles (69 km) south of Salt Lake City along the Wasatch Front. Provo is the largest city and county seat of Utah County.


Provo lies between the cities of Orem to the north and Springville to the south, with a population at the 2010 census of 115,264,[2] Provo is the principal city in the Provo-Orem metropolitan area, which had a population of 526,810 at the 2010 census,[6] it is Utah's second-largest metropolitan area after Salt Lake City.

Provo is the home of Brigham Young University, a private higher education institution operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). Provo also has the LDS Church's largest Missionary Training Center, the city is a focus area for technology development in Utah, with several billion-dollar startups.[7] The city's Peaks Ice Arena was a venue for the Salt Lake City Winter Olympics in 2002. Sundance Resort is 13 miles (21 km) northeast, at Provo Canyon.

In 2015, Forbes cited Provo among the "Best Small And Medium-Size Cities For Jobs,"[8] and the Bureau of Labor Statistics found that Utah County had the year's highest job growth.[9] In 2013, Forbes ranked Provo the No. 2 city on its list of Best Places for Business and Careers.[10] Provo was ranked first for community optimism (2012)[11] and first in health/well-being (2014).[12]


Ft. Utah in 1850

The area was originally called Timpanogots (meaning "rocky")[citation needed] and was inhabited by the Timpanogos.[13] It was the largest and most settled area in modern-day Utah,[14] the ample food from the Provo River made the Timpanogos a peaceful people.[13] The area also served as the traditional meeting place for the Ute and Shoshone tribes and as a spot to worship their creator.[15]

Father Silvestre Velez de Escalante, a Spanish Franciscan missionary-explorer, is considered the first European explorer to have visited the area, in 1776, he was guided by two Timpanogos Utes, whom he called Silvestre and Joaquin.[16] Escalante chronicled this first European exploration across the Great Basin Desert, the Europeans did not build a permanent settlement, but traded with the Timpanogos whom they called Lagunas (lake people) or Come Pescado (fish eaters).[14]

In 1847, the Mormon Pioneers arrived in the Salt Lake Valley, which was just north of Timpanogos Mountain, at first, they were friendly with the Mormons. But, as relations deteriorated with the Shoshoni and Utes because of disputes over land and cattle, tensions rose, because of the reported stolen goods of settlers by the Utes, Brigham Young gave a small militia orders "to take such measures as would put a final end to their [Indian] depredations in future." This ended in what is known as the Battle Creek Massacre, in modern-day Pleasant Grove, Utah.

The Mormons continued pushing into Timpanog lands; in 1849, 33 Mormon families from Salt Lake City established Fort Utah. In 1850, Brigham Young sent an army from Salt Lake to drive out the Timpanogos in what is called the Provo War,[17] the ruthlessness of the Mormon invaders angered the Timpanog, which contributed to the Walker War.[citation needed] Fort Utah was renamed Provo in 1850 for Étienne Provost, an early French-Canadian trapper who arrived in the region in 1825.

1850 saw the construction of the first school house in Provo, built within Utah Fort.[18]

The city of Provo was created by an act of the territorial legislature in 1851, the city council consisted of a mayor, four aldermen and nine councilors. That same year the Utah Stake was organized with its headquarters in Provo.

1853 saw both the Provo Canal and Irrigation Company and the Provo Manufacturing Company organized. The former was given rights to half the water in the Provo River, it was not until 1864 that a canal was completed in Provo though. A sawmill began operation in the city in 1856.

1858 saw the mass migration of Latter-day Saints under the leadership of Brigham Young from Salt Lake City and other places in northern Utah to Provo in preparation for the invasion by the US army. Once a treaty was worked out most of these migrants moved back further north in Utah.

As more Latter-day Saints moved in Provo quickly grew as a city, it soon came to be nicknamed The Garden City with the large number of fruit orchards and gardens there.[19] In the late 1860s industrial development kicked in with the building of woolen mills in the city.

Modern Provo has been heavily influenced by Brigham Young University from its establishment as Brigham Young Academy in 1875, the origins of BYU in some ways date further back to the 1860s when Warren N. Dusenberry operated a school in Provo as the Timponogos Branch of the University of Deseret.

The 1860s also saw the Taylor Brother's open a large scale furniture store in the city, and the first county courthouse completed.

1872 saw the railroad reach Provo. It was also this year that the Provo Woolen Mills opened, they were the first large factory in Provo and employed about 150 people, initially mainly skilled textile laborers who had immigrated from Britain.[20] In 1873 the first newspaper in Provo was founded. 1875 saw major commerial growth for the city with William D. Startup starting candy manufacturing while J. W. Hooper opened the Provo Flour Mill. Later in the 1870s the Excelsior Roller Mills were added as well as a silk industry.

The continued growth of commerce and industry in Provo lead in 1882 to the building of the Occidental Boarding House which would later become the Hotel Roberts. Also in 1883 the five LDS wards that Provo had been divided into until that time saw their first split with the Lakeview Ward organized from the Provo 5th Ward.

Provo was alos the headquarters of the Utah Stake, covering all of Utah County, this lead to the Provo Tabernacle being built in the 1880s. LDS General Conference was held in Provo in 1886.

The late 1880s and 1890s saw the founding of several Protestant congregations in Provo. 1890 also saw the organization of the city's fire department. 1895 saw major progress in Provo with ZCMI establishing a store there and Startup opening a new and larger candy factory. In 1896 Provo became a railway junction with a branch line being built up Provo Canyon to Heber City, Utah.

In 1903 Provo General Hospital was opened; in 1908 Provo High School opened. Also in 1908 Provo Library was opened.

Over the years Provo had gone through various sizes of city council, with the office of Alderman having been abolished in 1892; in 1912 the city government was reorganized and a new comission system was established.

In 1913 Provo was connected to Salt Lake City with a streetcar, normally referred to as the Orem Interurban. Shortly later this was extended to Payson, Utah.

1918 saw the Provo Woolen Mills burn down. They were never rebuilt.

In the 1920s the Ironton Steel Mill was established. Later this was replaced by the Geneva Steel Mill, these lead to Provo becoming the second largest city in Utah.

In 1924 Provo became the first city in Utah to adopt a zoning ordinance and establish a zoning board of appeals.

In 1903 the Utah Stake had been divided in three, so most of Utah county was no longer in the Utah Stake, the stake was again divided in 1939, with Provo for the first time becoming part of two LDS stakes.

1941 saw the completion of the Deer Creek Dam providing a more secure water supply to Provo, and the establishment of the school that would become Utah Valley University that operated at various locations in Provo until relocating to Orem in the 1970s. The late 1940s and more so the 1950s and 1960s saw major increases in enrollment for BYU, which also lead to significant increases in the population of Provo and it becoming more and more a college town.

By the mid-20th century the surrounding mining areas produced silver, lead, copper and gold, much of this being shipped through Provo.

As of 1950 Provo served as a rail, trade and industrial center for the surrounding mining and agricultural region. Besides steel also manufactured was steel and iron products, bricks and tiles, the city also had foot processing operations putting out dairy products, canned goods and candy. The city was also the location of the headquarters of the Uinta National Forrest, it was also the location of the Utah State mental hospital.[21]

In 1955 Provo switched to a council-manager form of government; in 1961 the city returned to the comission form of government.

Provo saw its shops hurt by the building of University Mall in Orem in 1972.

The move to a new era of high tech jobs in Provo was started with the incorporation of Novell in 1979.

1984 saw a move towards a new era of communal understanding with the city's first interfaith conference, with Latter-day Saints, Catholics and Protestants in attendance.


Rock Canyon in Provo

Provo lies in the Utah Valley at an elevation of 4,549 feet (1,387 m). According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 44.2 square miles (114.4 km2), of which 41.7 square miles (107.9 km2) is land and 2.5 square miles (6.5 km2), or 5.66%, is water.[22]

The Wasatch Range contains many peaks within Utah County along the east side of the Wasatch Front. One of these peaks, known as Y Mountain, towers over the city. There is a large hillside letter Y made of whitewashed concrete halfway up the steep mountain, built in the early part of the 20th century to commemorate Brigham Young University (original plans included construction of all three letters: BYU). Wild deer (and less frequently, cougars, and moose) still roam the mountains (and occasionally the city streets), the geography allows for hiking, skiing, fishing and other outdoor activities.

Climate data for Provo, Utah (BYU campus), 1981–2010 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 63
Average high °F (°C) 39.6
Daily mean °F (°C) 31.0
Average low °F (°C) 22.3
Record low °F (°C) −27
Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.88
Average snowfall inches (cm) 13.7
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.0 9.2 6.4 5.6 6.7 7.1 7.9 9.5 10.1 103.1
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 6.1 5.0 3.5 1.8 0.2 0 0 0 0 0.6 3.6 6.1 26.9
Source: NOAA[23]
A panoramic view of Provo after sunset, February 2014.


Historical population
Census Pop.
Est. 2017117,335[24]4.3%
U.S. Decennial Census[25]

2010 census[edit]

At the 2010 census,[4] 112,488 people, 31,524 households and 21,166 families resided in the city. The population density was 2,697.6 per square mile (1,042.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 84.8% White, 0.7% Black or African American, 0.8% American Indian, 2.5% Asian, 1.1% Pacific Islander, 6.6% from other races, and 3.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15.2% of the population.

There were 31,524 households of which 34.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.4% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.9% were non-families. 12.8% of all households were made up of a single individual, and 4.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.24 and the average family size was 3.41.

22.3% of residents are under the age of 18, 36.4% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 10.5% from 45 to 64, and 5.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 23.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.4 males.

2000 census[edit]

At the 2000 census,[4] 105,166 people, 29,192 households and 19,938 families resided in the city. The population density was 2,653.2 per square mile (1,024.3/km²). There were 30,374 housing units at an average density of 766.3 per square mile (295.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 88.52% White, 0.46% Black or African American, 0.80% American Indian, 1.83% Asian, 0.84% Pacific Islander, 5.10% from other races, and 2.44% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.47% of the population.

There were 29,192 households of which 33.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.0% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.7% were non-families. 11.8% of all households were made up of a single individual, and 4.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.34 and the average family size was 3.40.

22.3% of residents were under the age of 18, 40.2% from 18 to 24, 23.2% from 25 to 44, 8.6% from 45 to 64, and 5.7% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 23 years, for every 100 females, there were 92.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.3 males.

The median household income was $34,313 and the median family income was $36,393. Males had a median income of $32,010 and females $20,928, the per capita income was $13,207. About 12.5% of families and 26.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.4% of those under age 18 and 4.3% of those age 65 or over.

The residents of Provo are predominantly members of the LDS Church, commonly described as Mormons. According to data taken in 2000 by the ARDA, 88% of the overall population, and 98% of religious adherents in the Provo-Orem area are LDS.[26] According to a study in 2015, the Provo-Orem metro area is about as dissimilar to the rest of America as possible. Weighing factors such as race, housing, income and education, the study ranked Provo-Orem 376th of 381 of the United States' largest cities in terms of resemblance to the country.[27]


The breakdown in 2010 for Utah County was:[28]

  • LDS - 88.7%
  • None - 9.1%
  • Catholic - 1.3%
  • Protestant - 0.6%
  • Other - 0.3%


Local companies[edit]

Provo has more than 100 restaurants (with over 60 in the downtown area)[29] and a couple of shopping centers. The Shops At Riverwoods and Provo Towne Centre, both shopping malls, operate in Provo. Several small shops, music venues and boutiques have popped up in downtown, along Center Street and University Avenue. Downtown has also begun regularly hosting "gallery strolls", held every first Friday of the month, featuring local artists. There are many different dining establishments in and around downtown Provo. A few exclusively downtown Provo examples include A Beuford Giffords, aka ABGs, one of only three bars in all of Provo and the only bar to host live music every weekend; and Tommy Burger, a burger stand noted for burgers and Chicago-style hot dogs.

Five Provo companies are listed on's Inc. 5000 list of the fastest-growing private companies in the United States.The largest, DieCuts With a View, is ranked number 1403 and has revenues of $26.2 million.[30] Other companies on the list are VitalSmarts (ranked 4109, with $41.4 million in revenue),[31] and Connect Public Relations (ranked 3694, with $6.1 million in revenue).[32] The global recreation and entertainment company Ryze Trampoline Parks, with locations throughout Asia, Europe and the U.S., is headquartered in Provo.[33]

MediaWorks Inc., one of Utah's premiere film and video production companies, was founded in Provo in 1998 and continues to provide production services to companies throughout the United States.

The Food & Care Coalition is a local organization providing services to the homeless and low-income citizens of Provo and Utah County. They also provide volunteer opportunities.

International companies[edit]

Novell headquarters.
Nu Skin headquarters.
  • Action Target, a shooting range manufacturer
  • Aquaveo is a water modeling software company with customers in almost all countries around the world.
  • Morinda Bioactives (formerly Tahitian Noni International) is a multi-level marketing health and skin care manufacturer whose products are based on the Tahitian fruit called noni.
  • Nu Skin Enterprises, a multi-level marketing firm for skin care products, was founded in 1984. In 2005, some 82 percent of revenues for the $1.5B USD company were generated through markets in Asia.
  • Qualtrics, a private research software company.
  • Vivint (formerly APX Alarm Security Solutions) is a residential security company with customers in the United States, New Zealand, and Canada.

Top employers[edit]

According to Provo's 2017 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[34] the top employers in the city were:

# Employer # of Employees
1 Brigham Young University 5,000
2 Utah Valley Regional Medical Center 2,055
3 Vivint 3000-3999
4 Operations 500-999
5 Revere Health[35] 525
6 Chrysalis Utah 500-999
7 Citizens Telecommunications 500-999
8 NuSkin International 500-999
9 Qualtrics 500-999
10 RBD Acquisitions Sub 500-999

Arts and culture[edit]

Annual cultural events[edit]

External image
Provo Historical Images

Every July, Provo hosts America's Freedom Festival at Provo which includes the Stadium of Fire at BYU. It is held in LaVell Edwards Stadium, home to Brigham Young University's NCAA football team. The Independence Day festivities are quite popular among local residents and have featured such notable figures as Bob Hope, David Hasselhoff, Reba McEntire, Mandy Moore, Huey Lewis and the News, Toby Keith, Sean Hannity, Fred Willard and Taylor Hicks.[36] In 2015, the event included performances by Journey and Olivia Holt, and was hosted by the television personality Montel Williams.[37][38]

Provo has two other large festivals each fall. Festival Latinoamericano is an annual family-oriented Labor Day weekend event in downtown Provo that offers the community a taste of the region's Hispanic culture through ethnic food, vendors, and performances.[39]

The city has hosted an annual LGBT Provo Pride Festival since 2013.[40]

Points of interest[edit]

Provo City Library in the former Brigham Young Academy
The Provo Tabernacle prior to destruction by fire in 2010 (later renovated into Provo City Center Temple)
The Utah Valley Convention Center

Covey Center for the Arts[edit]

The Covey Center for the Arts,[41] a performing arts center, is located on 425 West Center Street. It features plays, ballets, art showcases and musical performances throughout the year, the size of the building is 42,000 total square feet. The main performance hall seats 670 people. There are three dance studios furnished with piano, ballet bars and mirrors. Another theater is the Brinton Black Box Theater that seats 60 for smaller more intimate events. There are also two art galleries: 1,620 square-foot Secured Gallery and the Eccles Gallery in the lower lobby.[42]

LDS Missionary Training Center[edit]

Provo is the location of the LDS Church's largest Missionary Training Center, each week some 475 LDS missionaries enter for 3–12 weeks of training before they depart for the mission field, becoming part of more than 58,000 in more than 120 countries. About 1,100 instructors (many returned missionaries) teach 62 languages, the center in Provo began construction in July 1974 and was completed in July 1976. The MTC was expanded in the early 1990s to become the largest of 17 such centers in the world.[43][44]

Provo City Library at Academy Square[edit]

The Provo City Library is a public library which occupies the building of the former Brigham Young Academy built in 1892, the building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1976. Its collection contains over 277,000 media, the library is located on University Avenue and 550 North.

Provo Recreation Center[edit]

Finished construction in 2013, the center provides a location for aquatic recreation next to the Provo Power plant.[45]

Provo Utah Temple[edit]

The Provo Utah Temple is located at the base of Rock Canyon in Provo, this temple is among the busiest in the LDS Church due to its proximity to Brigham Young University and the Missionary Training Center.[46]

Provo City Center Temple[edit]

The Provo City Center Temple used to be the Provo Tabernacle, an LDS tabernacle completed in 1898 that is owned by the LDS Church. It was almost completely destroyed by fire on December 17, 2010. Only the brick skeleton of the Provo Tabernacle remained at the corner of 100 South and University Avenue, on October 1, 2011, Thomas S. Monson, president of the LDS Church, announced that the Provo Tabernacle would be rebuilt using the surviving original exterior to serve as a second LDS temple in Provo. The completion of the new temple will make Provo only the second city with two temples within its city limits, the other being South Jordan, Utah, it is also only the second instance of a tabernacle being repurposed as a temple, the first being the Vernal Utah Temple.

Utah Valley Convention Center[edit]

The Utah Valley Convention Center opened in 2012.[47] It has 83,578 square feet of combined meeting, pre-function and garden space.[48]

Other points of interest[edit]


Federally, Provo is part of Utah's 3rd congressional district, represented by Republican John Curtis, elected in 2017.

City administration[edit]

Elected officials of Provo City as of 2012
Official Position Term ends
Michelle Kaufusi Mayor 2018
City Council Members
David S. Sewell City Wide I 2018
Gary Garrett City Wide II 2016
Gary Winterton District 1 2016
Kim Santiago District 2 2018
Hal Miller District 3 2016
Kay Van Buren District 4 2016
Calli Hales District 5 2018

Provo is administered by a seven-member city council and a mayor. Five of the council seats are elected by individual districts of the city, and two of the seats are elected by the city as a whole, these elected officials serve a term of four years, with elections alternating every two years. Provo has a Mayor–council government, which creates two separate but equal branches of government, the mayor is chief executive of the city and the council is the legislative and policy making body of the city.[53] The current mayor is Michelle Kaufusi, who has been in office since December 5, 2017.


Brigham Young University taken from the east of the campus.
Pre-game entertainment parachuters at LaVell Edwards Stadium.

Higher education[edit]

Brigham Young University (BYU) is a private university operated by the LDS Church. BYU is the third-largest private university in the United States, with more than 34,000 students. It is the flagship of the LDS Church Educational System of higher education, on the campus is the Spencer W. Kimball Tower, the tallest building in Provo.[54][55]

Rocky Mountain University of Health Professions is a private, for-profit university emphasizing graduate healthcare education. The university is accredited by the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities (NWCCU). RMUoHP offers programs in nursing practice, physical therapy, occupational therapy and health science. RMUoHP will be building Utah County's first new medical school.[56]

Provo College is a private, for-profit educational institution that specializes in career education. The school is accredited by the Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools (ACICS). Provo College offers associate degrees and diplomas in fields such as nursing, medical assisting, criminal justice, graphic design, and office administration.[57][third-party source needed]

Primary and secondary education[edit]

All public schools in Provo are run through the Provo School District, the school board is composed of seven members, each representing a different district of the city. There are thirteen elementary schools, two middle schools, and three high schools. Provo High School was the first school in Utah County to be an IB World school. The school has a record of 4A state basketball championships. More state champions than any other school in the state.[58] Timpview High School has a record of 4A state football championships.[citation needed][when?]


Amtrak's Provo station, July 2013

Interstate 15 runs through western Provo, connecting it with the rest of the Wasatch Front and much of Utah. US-89 runs northwest to southeast through the city as State Street, while US-189 connects US-89 with I-15, BYU, and Orem to the north. At the north edge of the city, US-189 heads northeast into Provo Canyon, where it connects with Heber.

Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Provo station, operating its California Zephyr daily in both directions between Chicago, Illinois, and Emeryville, California (in the San Francisco Bay Area). Provo also can be accessed by Greyhound Bus Lines and the extensive Utah Transit Authority (UTA) bus system. UTA's commuter rail service, the FrontRunner, opened an extension to Provo from Salt Lake City on December 10, 2012,[59] the Provo Intermodal Center, located adjacent to the Amtrak station, connects the FrontRunner with local bus routes, as well as Greyhound service.

The Provo Municipal Airport is Utah's second busiest airport in terms of the number of aircraft take-offs and landings.[60] Allegiant Airlines offers commercial service to Phoenix, Oakland, Los Angeles, and San Diego.[61] Salt Lake City International Airport is the closest international airport.

Notable people[edit]

Provo is home (or hometown) to many well known people, including The Osmonds (including Donny, Marie, and the Osmond Brothers),[62] LDS apostle Dallin H. Oaks, and NFL and BYU quarterback Steve Young.[63] Robert Redford also maintains a home at the nearby Sundance Resort, just up Provo Canyon.

Sister cities[edit]

Provo City has three sister cities designated by Sister Cities International[64][65]

Flag Country City/Town
China China Nanning
China China Chengdu
Germany Germany Meissen

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Van Atta, Dale (January 22, 1977). "You name it - there's a town for it". Deseret News. Salt Lake City: Deseret Digital Media. p. W6. Retrieved October 18, 2015. 
  2. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau 2010 Population
  3. ^ "US Census QuickFacts". Archived from the original on January 23, 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2008. 
  5. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Provo
  6. ^ "2010 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File". 2010 Census. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. Archived from the original on May 20, 2011. Retrieved February 5, 2011. 
  7. ^ "The street in Provo that's home to three billion-dollar tech companies". Pando. Retrieved April 1, 2016. 
  8. ^ "The Best Small And Medium-Size Cities For Jobs 2015". Forbes. 
  9. ^ "Utah County, Utah, has largest over-the-year percent gain in employment, June 2015". US Bureau of Labor Statistics. December 28, 2015. 
  10. ^ "Best Places For Business and Careers - Forbes". Forbes. Retrieved January 13, 2014. 
  11. ^ "Provo-Orem, Utah, Leads U.S. Metro Areas in City Optimism". Gallup. March 2012. Retrieved February 12, 2014. 
  12. ^ "Provo-Orem, Utah, Leads U.S. Communities in Well-Being". Retrieved April 14, 2014. 
  13. ^ a b "Chapter Five - The Northern Utes of Utah". 
  14. ^ a b Virginia McConnell Simmons. Ute Indians of Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. 
  15. ^ Peter Gottfredson. Indian Depredations in Utah. 
  16. ^ "Joaquin Neighborhood Plan pg. 3 :: City of Provo". 
  17. ^ "Utah Historical Quarterly Volume XLVI :: Utah State Historical Society - Historic and Prehistoric Publications". 
  18. ^ Provo Library timeline of Provo
  19. ^ history of Provo
  20. ^ Utah History to Go article on Provo
  21. ^ Columbia-Lippincott Gazetter, p. 1524
  22. ^ "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Provo city, Utah". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved March 8, 2012. 
  23. ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved February 14, 2012. 
  24. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017. 
  25. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015. 
  26. ^ "Religious adherents in Provo-Orem, Utah". Retrieved February 12, 2014. 
  27. ^ Amy Mcdonald (June 24, 2015). "Provo-Orem is least American area in Utah, study says". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved May 8, 2016. 
  28. ^ "U.S. Religion Census: Religious Congregations and Membership Study, 2010 (County File)". Retrieved February 19, 2018. 
  29. ^ "Businesses". Retrieved April 28, 2017. 
  30. ^ "DieCuts With a View". Inc. Archived from the original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved October 7, 2008. 
  31. ^ "VitalSmarts". Inc. Archived from the original on October 21, 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2008. 
  32. ^ "Connect Public Relations". Inc. Archived from the original on January 26, 2013. Retrieved October 7, 2008. 
  33. ^ Bethany Clough, "Skywalk trampoline arena opens today in Made," Archived 2015-02-12 at the Wayback Machine., The Fresno Bee, October 19, 2011. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
  34. ^ "2017 Comprehensive Annual Report". 2017. Retrieved December 19, 2017. 
  35. ^ Kinder, Peri (2016-04-27). "Name of the Game: How Revere Health successfully rebranded". Utah: Utah Business. Retrieved 19 December 2017. 
  36. ^ "Taylor Hicks at Stadium of Fire 2006". Deseret News. Retrieved February 12, 2014. 
  37. ^ "Journey to headline Provo's Stadium of Fire show this July 4". The Salt Lake Tribune. 
  38. ^ "Journey to headline Stadium of Fire 2015; Disney Channel's Olivia Holt will Perform; TV icon Montel Williams to Host". Retrieved January 3, 2016. 
  39. ^ "Festival Latinoamericano official website". Retrieved February 12, 2014. 
  40. ^ "Provo Pride – Provo Pride Fest boosts LGBT visibility in Mormonism's 'Happy Valley'". Retrieved 2016-06-28. 
  41. ^ "Covey Center for the Arts". Covey Center for the Arts. Retrieved February 12, 2014. 
  42. ^ "Covey Center for the Arts facts". Covey Center for the Arts. Archived from the original on November 7, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2014. 
  43. ^ Robb Hicken (December 1, 2005). "BYU helps push language learning for missionaries". BYU NewsNet. Archived from the original on September 3, 2006. Retrieved November 9, 2006. 
  44. ^ "LDS Newsroom - Statistics of LDS Church". Archived from the original on August 10, 2010. 
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