Temperance is defined as moderation or voluntary self-restraint. It is described in terms of what an individual voluntarily refrains from doing; this includes restraint from retaliation in the form of non-violence and forgiveness, restraint from arrogance in the form of humility and modesty, restraint from excesses such as splurging now in the form of prudence, restraint from excessive anger or craving for something in the form of calmness and self-control. Temperance has been described as a virtue by religious thinkers and more psychologists in the positive psychology movement. In classical iconography, the virtue is depicted as a woman holding two vessels transferring water from one to another, it was one of the cardinal virtues in western thought found in Greek philosophy and Christianity, as well as eastern traditions such as Buddhism and Hinduism. Temperance is one of the six virtues in the positive psychology classification, included with wisdom, humanity and transcendence, it is characterized as the control over excess, expressed through characteristics such as chastity, humility, self-regulation, decorum, abstinence and mercy.
The term "temperance" can refer to the abstention from alcohol with reference to the temperance movement. The Greek definition of temperance translates to "moderation in thought, or feeling. Temperance is a major Athenian virtue. According to Aristotle, "temperance is a mean with regard to pleasures". In "Charmides", one of Plato's early dialogues, the one who possessed'sophrosune' is defined in four ways: one who has quietness, one who has modesty, one who does his own business, one who knows himself. Plato dismisses the three first definitions and argues against that if'sophrosune' would have been only the property of knowing what one knows or not it would be useless without knowledge about other matters. Themes of temperance can be seen across cultures and time. Temperance is an essential part of the Eightfold Path; the third and fifth of the five precepts reflect values of temperance: "misconduct concerning sense pleasures" and drunkenness are to be avoided. In the Judeo-Christian tradition, temperance is prolific.
The Old Testament emphasizes temperance as a core virtue, as evidenced in both Solomon's Book of Proverbs and in the Ten Commandments, with its admonitions against adultery and covetousness. The New Testament does so as well, with forgiveness being central to theology and self-control being one of the Fruits of the Spirit. With regard to Christian theology, the word temperance is used by the King James Version in Galatians 5:23 for the Greek word ἐγκρατεία, which means self-control or discipline. Thomas Aquinas promoted Plato's original virtues in addition to several others. Within the Christian church Temperance is a virtue akin to self-control, it is applied to all areas of life. It can be viewed in practice among sects like the Amish, Old Order Mennonites, Conservative Mennonites. In the Christian religion, temperance is a virtue that moderates attraction and desire for pleasure and "provides balance in the use of created goods". St. Thomas calls it a "disposition of the mind which binds the passions".
Temperance is believed to combat the sin of gluttony. Temperance is broken down into four main strengths: forgiveness, humility and self-regulation; the concept of dama in Hinduism is equivalent to temperance. It is sometimes written as damah; the word dama, Sanskrit derivative words based on it, connote the concepts of self-control and self-restraint. Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, in verse 5.2.3, states that three characteristics of a good, developed person are self-restraint and love for all sentient life, charity. In Hinduism literature dedicated to yoga, self-restraint is expounded with the concept of yamas. According to ṣaṭsampad, self-restraint is one of the six cardinal virtues; the list of virtues that constitute a moral life evolve in upanishads. Over time, new virtues were conceptualized and added, some replaced. For example, Manusamhita listed ten virtues necessary for a human being to live a dharmic life: Dhriti, Dama, Saucha, Indriyani-graha, vidya, akrodha. In verses this list was reduced to five virtues by the same scholar, by merging and creating a more broader concept.
The shorter list of virtues became: Ahimsa, Asteya, Satyam. This trend of evolving concepts continue in classical Sanskrit literature, Dama with Ahimsa and few other virtues present in the evolving list of virtues necessary for a moral life. Five types of self-restraints are considered essential for a moral and ethical life in Hindu philosophy: one must refrain from any violence that causes injury to others, refrain from starting or propagating deceit and falsehood, refrain from theft of other's property, refrain from sexually cheating on one's partner, refrain from avarice; the scope of self-restraint includes one's action, the words one speaks or writes, in one's though
Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio, known in English as Titian, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school. He was born in Pieve di Cadore, near Belluno in the Republic of Venice). During his lifetime he was called da Cadore, taken from the place of his birth. Recognized by his contemporaries as "The Sun Amidst Small Stars", Titian was one of the most versatile of Italian painters adept with portraits, landscape backgrounds, mythological and religious subjects, his painting methods in the application and use of colour, would exercise a profound influence not only on painters of the late Italian Renaissance, but on future generations of Western art. His career was successful from the start, he became sought after by patrons from Venice and its possessions joined by the north Italian princes, the Habsburgs and papacy. Along with Giorgione, he is considered a founder of the Venetian School of Italian Renaissance painting. During the course of his long life, Titian's artistic manner changed drastically, but he retained a lifelong interest in colour.
Although his mature works may not contain the vivid, luminous tints of his early pieces, their loose brushwork and subtlety of tone were without precedent in the history of Western painting. The exact date of Titian's birth is uncertain; when he was an old man he claimed in a letter to Philip II, King of Spain, to have been born in 1474, but this seems most unlikely. Other writers contemporary to his old age give figures that would equate to birthdates between 1473 and after 1482. Most modern scholars believe a date between 1488 and 1490 is more though his age at death being 99 had been accepted into the 20th century, he was the son of whom little is known. Gregorio was superintendent of the castle of Pieve di Cadore and managed local mines for their owners. Gregorio was a distinguished councilor and soldier. Many relatives, including Titian's grandfather, were notaries, the family were well-established in the area, ruled by Venice. At the age of about ten to twelve he and his brother Francesco were sent to an uncle in Venice to find an apprenticeship with a painter.
The minor painter Sebastian Zuccato, whose sons became well-known mosaicists, who may have been a family friend, arranged for the brothers to enter the studio of the elderly Gentile Bellini, from which they transferred to that of his brother Giovanni Bellini. At that time the Bellinis Giovanni, were the leading artists in the city. There Titian found a group of young men about his own age, among them Giovanni Palma da Serinalta, Lorenzo Lotto, Sebastiano Luciani, Giorgio da Castelfranco, nicknamed Giorgione. Francesco Vecellio, Titian's older brother became a painter of some note in Venice. A fresco of Hercules on the Morosini Palace is said to have been one of Titian's earliest works. Others were the Bellini-esque so-called Gypsy Madonna in Vienna, the Visitation of Mary and Elizabeth, now in the Accademia, Venice. A Man with a Quilted Sleeve is an early portrait, painted around 1509 and described by Giorgio Vasari in 1568. Scholars long believed it depicted Ludovico Ariosto. Rembrandt borrowed the composition for his self-portraits.
Titian joined Giorgione as an assistant, but many contemporary critics found his work more impressive—for example in exterior frescoes that they did for the Fondaco dei Tedeschi. Their relationship evidently contained a significant element of rivalry. Distinguishing between their work at this period remains a subject of scholarly controversy. A substantial number of attributions have moved from Giorgione to Titian in the 20th century, with little traffic the other way. One of the earliest known Titian works, Christ Carrying the Cross in the Scuola Grande di San Rocco, depicting the Ecce Homo scene, was long regarded as by Giorgione; the two young masters were recognized as the leaders of their new school of arte moderna, characterized by paintings made more flexible, freed from symmetry and the remnants of hieratic conventions still found in the works of Giovanni Bellini. In 1507–1508 Giorgione was commissioned by the state to create frescoes on the re-erected Fondaco dei Tedeschi. Titian and Morto da Feltre worked along with him, some fragments of paintings remain by Giorgione.
Some of their work is known, through the engravings of Fontana. After Giorgione's early death in 1510, Titian continued to paint Giorgionesque subjects for some time, though his style developed its own features, including bold and expressive brushwork. Titian's talent in fresco is shown in those he painted in 1511 at Padua in the Carmelite church and in the Scuola del Santo, some of which have been preserved, among them the Meeting at the Golden Gate, three scenes from the life of St. Anthony of Padua, The Miracle of the Jealous Husband, which depicts the Murder of a Young Woman by Her Husband, A Child Testifying to Its Mother's Innocence, The Saint Healing the Young Man with a Broken Limb. In 1512 Titian returned to Venice from Padua, he became superintendent of the government works charged with completing the paintings left unfinished by Giovanni Bellini in the hall of the great council in the ducal palace. He set up a
Tomb of Francis II, Duke of Brittany
The tomb of Francis II, Duke of Brittany is a monument located in Nantes, in the Cathedral of St. Peter; the project was commissioned by Anne of Brittany, Queen of France, the daughter of Francis and his second wife Margaret of Foix, depicted beside Francis. The tomb was located in the chapel of the Carmelites in Nantes. Francis II had wished that his body rest there, to join the remains of his first wife Margaret of Brittany; the tomb received the body of Francis and both his wives, though only his second wife is depicted. It was executed in Carrara marble in the early sixteenth century by the sculptor Michel Colombe based on a design by the royal artist Jean Perréal, it is the first major work of art in the Renaissance style in Brittany and is considered a masterpiece of French sculpture. The project was commissioned by Anne to honour the memory of her parents. Known as the "tomb of the Carmelites", the monument was named from its location, it was completed in 1507. During the French Revolution, it managed to avoid the revolutionary vandalism that affected many royal and aristocratic monuments.
The architect Mathurin Crucy organised its removal. It was hidden, it was restored to completion, found a place at the cathedral in the early nineteenth century. Bones believed to be those of Arthur III, Duke of Brittany were reinterred within it; the monument consists of a rectangular sarcophagus, 3.90 by 2.33 m high and 1.27. The gisants of the deceased couple are lying prostrate with hands raised in prayer, their heads rest on thick pillows held up by three angels. Margaret's feet are on a symbol of fidelity. At the four corners of the tomb stand four statues, each representing one of the cardinal virtues: Courage, Justice and Prudence. Around the tomb are other delicate sculptures in small niches of pink marble; these represent in turn the twelve apostles. Under these statues, huddled in small shell-shaped medallions, we see penitent mourners draped in black; the tomb is a classified historical monument. The allegorical figures of women represent the four cardinal virtues, indicators of the virtuous path that the prince and that all men are called to follow: Courage is represented in armour and helmet as a warrior, because it is a manly virtue, though symbolised by a woman.
In the iconography of this virtue, it is shown leaning against a column or tower. Here it kills the dragon of discord in the tower; the tower is damaged by the dragon, but stands, thus symbolizing the triumph of fortitude over vice and disorder. The expression on her face reflects some pain, as if the effort to remove the dragon from the tower was not achieved without internal struggle, she recalls the role of the Christian knight in defense of the faith. Temperance is equipped in her right hand with a horse's bridle, symbol of the control of animal energy by reason: there is a time for everything, her left hand holds a clock, a symbol of the changing times and seasons one must learn to respect by managing ones passions. It symbolizes that time must not be wasted on vanity, she stands for the fact. Her monastic garb expresses the rejection of the temptations of the flesh that lead to excess. Justice has a book in her left hand, representing the Law, illustrated with a balance, representing fairness.
In her left hand she holds a sword. The sword punishes, but the balance weighs the gravity of the crime or the weight of the arguments of both parties; the statue wears a crown, recalling that the prince has the role of arbitrator. Prudence holds in her right hand a compass, a symbol of the extent of any action, in her left hand a mirror, reflecting every thought back to be contemplated and assessed before the wisdom of the ages; the figure has two faces. At the back is an old man implying the wisdom of the past. At the front is the young woman looking to the future; the mirror is that of truth: she sees the image of the prince's weaknesses and, knowing herself, can better correct his conduct. At her feet is a snake: "Be wise as serpents"; the figure of Prudence is a portrait of Anne of Brittany, of whom a contemporary poet said Prudence was her chief virtue
God in Christianity
God in Christianity is the eternal being who created and preserves all things. Christians believe God to be both immanent. Christian teachings of the immanence and involvement of God and his love for humanity exclude the belief that God is of the same substance as the created universe but accept that God's divine Nature was hypostatically united to human nature in the person of Jesus Christ, in an event known as the Incarnation. Early Christian views of God were expressed in the Pauline Epistles and the early creeds, which proclaimed one God and the divinity of Jesus in the same breath as in 1 Corinthians: "For if there are so-called gods, whether in heaven or on earth, yet for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom all things came and for whom we live. "Although the Judeo-Christian sect of the Ebionites protested against this apotheosis of Jesus, the great mass of Gentile Christians accepted it." This began to differentiate the Gentile Christian views of God from traditional Jewish teachings of the time.
The theology of the attributes and nature of God has been discussed since the earliest days of Christianity, with Irenaeus writing in the 2nd century: "His greatness lacks nothing, but contains all things". In the 8th century, John of Damascus listed eighteen attributes which remain accepted; as time passed, theologians developed systematic lists of these attributes, some based on statements in the Bible, others based on theological reasoning. The Kingdom of God is a prominent phrase in the Synoptic Gospels and while there is near unanimous agreement among scholars that it represents a key element of the teachings of Jesus, there is little scholarly agreement on its exact interpretation. Although the New Testament does not have a formal doctrine of the Trinity as such, "it does speak of the Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit... in such a way as to compel a Trinitarian understanding of God." This never becomes a tritheism. Around the year 200, Tertullian formulated a version of the doctrine of the Trinity which affirmed the divinity of Jesus and came close to the definitive form produced by the Ecumenical Council of 381.
The doctrine of the Trinity can be summed up as: "The One God exists in Three Persons and One Substance, as God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit." Trinitarians, who form the large majority of Christians, hold it as a core tenet of their faith. Nontrinitarian denominations define the Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit in a number of different ways. Early Christian views of God are reflected in Apostle Paul's statement in 1 Corinthians, written ca. AD 53-54, i.e. about twenty years after the crucifixion of Jesus: for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom all things came and for whom we live. Apart from asserting that there is but one God, Paul's statement includes a number of other significant elements: he distinguishes Christian belief from the Jewish background of the time by referring to Jesus and the Father in the same breath, by conferring on Jesus the title of divine honor "Lord", as well as calling him Christ. In the Acts during the Areopagus sermon given by Paul, he further characterizes the early Christian understanding: The God that made the world and all things therein, he, being Lord of heaven and earth and reflects on the relationship between God and Christians: that they should seek God, if haply they might feel after him and find him, though he is not far from each one of us for in him we live.
The Pauline Epistles include a number of references to the Holy Spirit, with the theme which appears in 1 Thessalonians "…God, the God who gives you his Holy Spirit" appearing throughout his epistles. In John 14:26 Jesus refers to "the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name". By the end of the 1st century, Clement of Rome had referred to the Father and Holy Spirit, linked the Father to creation, 1 Clement 19.2 stating: "let us look steadfastly to the Father and creator of the universe". By the middle of the 2nd century, in Against Heresies Irenaeus had emphasized that the Creator is the "one and only God" and the "maker of heaven and earth"; these preceded the formal presentation of the concept of Trinity by Tertullian early in the 3rd century. The period from the late 2nd century to the beginning of the 4th century is called the "epoch of the Great Church" and the Ante-Nicene Period and witnessed significant theological development, the consolidation and formalization of a number of Christian teachings.
From the 2nd century onward, western creeds started with an affirmation of belief in "God the Father" and the primary reference of this phrase was to "God in his capacity as Father and creator of the universe". This did not exclude either the fact the "eternal father of the universe was the Father of Jesus the Christ" or that he had "vouchsafed to adopt as his son by grace". Eastern creeds began with an affirmation of faith in "one God" and always expanded this by adding "the Father Almighty, Maker of all things visible and invisible" or words to that effect; as time passed and philosophers developed more precise understandin
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period, it is succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers, it has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects; the main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Aeolic and Doric, many of them with several subdivisions.
Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions. There are several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the "Iliad" and "Odyssey", in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects; the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period, they differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups existed in some form. Scholars assume that major Ancient Greek period dialect groups developed not than 1120 BCE, at the time of the Dorian invasion—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BCE.
The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians; the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation. One standard formulation for the dialects is: West vs. non-west Greek is the strongest marked and earliest division, with non-west in subsets of Ionic-Attic and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic. Non-west is called East Greek. Arcadocypriot descended more from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age.
Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Pamphylian Greek, spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, Northern Peloponnesus Doric; the Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek. All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece proper as well, these colonies developed local characteristics under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects; the dialects outside the Ionic group are known from inscriptions, notable exceptions being: fragments of the works of the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, in Aeolian, the poems of the Boeotian poet Pindar and other lyric poets in Doric.
After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed based on Attic Greek, but with influence from other dialects. This dialect replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek. By about the 6th century CE, the Koine had metamorphosized into Medieval Greek. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language at least related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear because of insufficient data: a dialect of Greek; the Macedonian dialect (or l
Intelligence has been defined in many ways, including: the capacity for logic, self-awareness, emotional knowledge, planning, critical thinking, problem solving. More it can be described as the ability to perceive or infer information, to retain it as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviors within an environment or context. Intelligence is most studied in humans but has been observed in both non-human animals and in plants. Intelligence in machines is called artificial intelligence, implemented in computer systems using programs and, appropriate hardware; the word "intelligence" derives from the Latin nouns intelligentia or intellēctus, which in turn stem from the verb intelligere, to comprehend or perceive. In the Middle Ages, the word intellectus became the scholarly technical term for understanding, a translation for the Greek philosophical term nous; this term, was linked to the metaphysical and cosmological theories of teleological scholasticism, including theories of the immortality of the soul, the concept of the Active Intellect.
This entire approach to the study of nature was rejected by the early modern philosophers such as Francis Bacon, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, David Hume, all of whom preferred the word "understanding" in their English philosophical works. Hobbes for example, in his Latin De Corpore, used "intellectus intelligit", translated in the English version as "the understanding understandeth", as a typical example of a logical absurdity; the term "intelligence" has therefore become less common in English language philosophy, but it has been taken up in more contemporary psychology. The definition of intelligence is controversial; some groups of psychologists have suggested the following definitions: From "Mainstream Science on Intelligence", an op-ed statement in the Wall Street Journal signed by fifty-two researchers: A general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas and learn from experience. It is not book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts.
Rather, it reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings—"catching on," "making sense" of things, or "figuring out" what to do. From Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns, a report published by the Board of Scientific Affairs of the American Psychological Association: Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought. Although these individual differences can be substantial, they are never consistent: a given person's intellectual performance will vary on different occasions, in different domains, as judged by different criteria. Concepts of "intelligence" are attempts to organize this complex set of phenomena. Although considerable clarity has been achieved in some areas, no such conceptualization has yet answered all the important questions, none commands universal assent. Indeed, when two dozen prominent theorists were asked to define intelligence, they gave two dozen, somewhat different, definitions.
Besides those definitions and learning researchers have suggested definitions of intelligence such as: Human intelligence is the intellectual power of humans, marked by complex cognitive feats and high levels of motivation and self-awareness. Intelligence enables humans to remember descriptions of things and use those descriptions in future behaviors, it is a cognitive process. It gives humans the cognitive abilities to learn, form concepts and reason, including the capacities to recognize patterns, comprehend ideas, solve problems, use language to communicate. Intelligence enables humans to think. Note that much of the above definition applies to the intelligence of non-human animals. Although humans have been the primary focus of intelligence researchers, scientists have attempted to investigate animal intelligence, or more broadly, animal cognition; these researchers are interested in studying both mental ability in a particular species, comparing abilities between species. They study various measures of problem solving, as well as verbal reasoning abilities.
Some challenges in this area are defining intelligence so that it has the same meaning across species, operationalizing a measure that compares mental ability across different species and contexts. Wolfgang Köhler's research on the intelligence of apes is an example of research in this area. Stanley Coren's book, The Intelligence of Dogs is a notable book on the topic of dog intelligence. Non-human animals noted and studied for their intelligence include chimpanzees and other great apes, elephants and to some extent parrots and ravens. Cephalopod intelligence provides important comparative study. Cephalopods appear to exhibit characteristics of significant intelligence, yet their nervous systems differ radically from those of backboned animals. Vertebrates such as mammals, birds and fish have shown a high degree of intellect that varies according to each species; the same is true with arthropods. Evidence of a general factor of intell
Bamberg Cathedral is a church in Bamberg, completed in the 13th century. The cathedral is under the administration of the Roman Catholic Church and is the seat of the Archbishop of Bamberg. Since 1993, the cathedral has been part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site "Town of Bamberg", it was founded in 1002 by King Heinrich II and consecrated in 1012. After the first two cathedrals burned down in the 11th and 12th centuries, the current structure, a late Romanesque building with four large towers, was built in the 13th century; the cathedral is about 94 m long, 28 m broad, 26 m high, the four towers are each about 81 m high. It contains many works of art, including the marble tomb of the founder and his wife, the Empress Kunigunde, considered a masterpiece of the sculptor Tilman Riemenschneider, carved between 1499 and 1513. Another well-known treasure of the cathedral is an equestrian statue known as the Bamberg Horseman; this statue depicting the Hungarian king Stephen I, most dates to the period from 1225 to 1237.
Heinrich, son of Heinrich der Zänker became Duke of Bavaria in 995. His favourite dwelling was at Bamberg and he gave that property to his wife Kunigunde as a wedding gift. In 1002, Heinrich was elected King of Germany and he started to conduct his government business from Bamberg, giving the town various privileges. Late in 1002 the decision was made to establish a diocese at Bamberg. Henry was pious, he and his wife had no children to leave the property to and the eastern border of his kingdom still lacked a diocese. Against the opposition of the Bishop of Eichstätt, who lost the northern rim of his territory, of the Bishop of Würzburg, who lost all of the eastern part of his, the Reichssynode of All Saints' Day 1007 at Frankfurt established the Diocese of Bamberg; the Hochstift was endowed with royal territories, notably near Villach. Kunigunde contributed Bamberg itself; the first bishop was Heinrich's former chancellor. He took his home in the former Königspfalz. In 1007/1020 the diocese came under the direct authority of the pope, was thus henceforth outside of the control of the Archbishop of Mainz.
King Heinrich became a canon of the cathedral chapter. Construction of this first cathedral had begun with work starting on two crypts, it was consecrated on Heinrich's birthday, on 6 May 1012. This first cathedral was a cruciform basilica with the main choir in the west and a second to the east, each above a crypt. Two towers were located on the eastern façade; the nave was covered by a flat wooden ceiling. This cathedral was smaller than the current structure; this cathedral burned down in the Easter week of 1081. Whilst the interior art was destroyed, damage to the structure was minor, it was rebuilt - by 1087 it was possible to hold a synode here. Bishop Otto had the church rebuilt and it was reconsecrated in 1111; this rebuilt church burned down in 1185. In 1047, the body of Pope Clement II was transferred from Rome to Bamberg and was buried in the cathedral. With the destruction of the tomb of Pope Benedict V at Hamburg at the beginning of the 19th century, this became the only papal grave in Germany.
All other popes are buried in Italy. The current late Romanesque cathedral was erected by three men of the house of Andechs-Merania: Otto and Poppo; the wealth of the cathedral chapter and the generosity of the House of Andechs-Merania resulted in a large, "splendid" building. It was consecrated on 6 May 1237. Heinrich had been canonized in 1146, as was Kunigunde in 1200. In 1499-1513, Tilman Riemenschneider created the tomb of the founders. Many other works of art were added during the Gothic period. During the 17th century, the interior of the cathedral was changed to Baroque style in two waves; the first came under Bishop Johann Gottfried von Aschhausen. The medieval coloured windows were removed. After 1626 the interior was whitened. A second wave followed after the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648-53 under Bishop Melchior Otto Voit von Salzburg; the tomb of Heinrich and Kunigunde was moved, the rood screens were demolished and new high altars set up in both choirs. In 1729-33, Balthasar Neumann, architect of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Würzburg Residence added the chapter house with administration offices for the cathedral chapter.
In 1802/3, the Bishopric of Bamberg became a part of the Electorate of Bavaria. In 1817, Bamberg became an archdiocese; the province includes the dioceses of Würzburg and Eichstätt. The Baroque alterations were removed in a "purification" in 1828-37 ordered in 1826 by Ludwig I of Bavaria, who saw the cathedral as a national monument. Altars and other sculptures were auctioned off in an attempt to return the church to its original, medieval state. Baroque art was replaced with Romanesque Revival art. During a renovation of 1969-74, the church was changed in accordance with the Second Vatican Council, e.g. by moving the main altar from the eastern choir to a location in front of the western choir. The cathedral is about 94 m long, 28 m broad, 26 m high, the four towers are each about 81 m high. Due to its long construction process, several styles were used in different parts of the cathedral the Romanesque and Gothic ones. Between