Terminal Tower is a 52-story, 235 m, landmark skyscraper located on Public Square in downtown Cleveland, United States. Built during the skyscraper boom of the 1920s and 1930s, it was the second-tallest building in the world when it was completed. Terminal Tower stood as the tallest building in North America outside of New York City from its completion in 1930 until 1964, it was the tallest building in the state of Ohio until the completion of Key Tower in 1991, remains the second-tallest building in the state. The building is part of the Tower City Center mixed-use development, its major tenants include Forest City Enterprises, former owner of the building, which maintained its corporate headquarters there until 2018, Riverside Company; the tower, owned by Forest City Realty Trust since 1983, was purchased by Cleveland's K&D Management, LLC September 15, 2016 for $38.5 million. K&D plans to add a mixed-use element to the building, converting 12 of the lower, larger floors to residential use, with 293 one and two bedroom apartments.
Many older downtown Cleveland office buildings are undergoing similar conversions. The largest held owner/manager of apartment buildings in the area, K&D will maintain the upper floors of the building as office space. Construction is planned to start in 2018, with a completion date of 2020. Built for $179 million by the Van Sweringen brothers, the tower was to serve as an office building atop the city's new rail station, the Cleveland Union Terminal. Planned to be 14 stories, the structure was expanded to 52 floors with a height of 708 feet, it rests on 280-foot caissons. Designed by the firm of Graham, Probst & White, the tower was modeled after the Beaux-Arts New York Municipal Building by McKim and White; the Terminal Tower opened for tenants in 1928, though the Union Terminal complex wasn't dedicated until 1930. It remained the tallest building in the world outside of New York City until the completion of the main building of Moscow State University in Moscow in 1953. Radio station WHK placed antennas on the building to increase the range of its 1420 kHz signal.
In the 1980s, developers sought approval to make their proposed BP Building taller than the Terminal Tower, but city officials forced them to scale it down. The Terminal Tower remained the tallest building in Ohio until the 1991 completion of Society Center, now Key Tower. On a clear day, visitors on the observation deck can see 30 miles from downtown Cleveland. On August 26, 1976, gunman Ashby Leach stormed a Chessie System conference room on the 42nd floor. Leach, disgruntled with Chessie System's decision not to pay into a G. I. Bill fund that would have increased his wages and benefits during his apprenticeship with the company, held 13 hostages before his arrest, he was jailed for three months pending trial was acquitted of kidnapping and convicted of assault and carrying an illegal weapon. Upon his release, he embarked on a speaking tour for the group Vietnam Veterans Against the War. After the hostage incident, direct access to the floor was removed; the observation deck reopened. After the September 11, 2001 attacks, the observation deck was again closed to the public.
In 2007, a proposal was brought to Forest City to reopen the deck. The proposal included a renovation of the deck and the addition of an express elevator to take visitors to it; this was to be done after the upper floors were renovated and the scaffolding removed. In 2010, Forest City Enterprises finished renovating the complex's elevators, upper floors, spire; the observation deck reopened on July 10, 2010 for a limited period, with plans to expand public access. To reach the observation deck, visitors take the elevator to the 32nd floor and transfer to another elevator to reach the 42nd floor. Before its original closure, the deck was open only on weekends to prevent disruption to the law firm that has offices on the 32nd floor; the Terminal Tower was lit when it opened in 1930. A strobe light on top of the tower rotated 360 degrees, it helped ships in Cleveland's port and airplane pilots landing at Cleveland Hopkins International Airport. The external spotlights that lit the tower at night were turned off as a safety measure at the beginning of World War II.
They were not turned on again until September 22, 1974. They were relit on the same day. Lights were installed on the 44th, 48th, 52nd floors. In the 1960s, the strobe was replaced with conventional aircraft warning lights; the tower only once went dark, during the 2003 blackout. Today, the tower's external lights include 508 LEDs that can be configured into various color schemes, such as red and green during the Christmas season and red and blue for various federal holidays. Many Cleveland medical groups light Terminal Tower for their causes. In February, Terminal Tower is red for the American Heart Association Go Red for Women campaign, pink for Breast Cancer Awareness month in October; some of Cleveland's ethnic groups have had the Terminal Tower lit in their traditional colors, such as green on Saint Patrick's Day. On Polish Constitution Day May 3, Cleveland's Pol-Am community lights the tower in white and red, the tower goes red and white for Columbus Day. Terminal Tower sports the colors of the various sports teams in town, such as red and blue for the Cleveland Indians and brown for the Cleveland Browns, wine and gold for the Cleveland Cavaliers.
Sheraton Hotels and Resorts
Sheraton Hotels and Resorts is an international hotel chain owned by Marriott International. Sheraton operates over 500 hotels globally, including locations in North America, Asia Pacific and South America, the Middle East and the Caribbean; the origins of Sheraton Hotels date to 1933, when Harvard classmates Ernest Henderson and Robert Moore purchased the Continental Hotel in Cambridge, Massachusetts. In 1937, Henderson and Moore purchased the Standard Investing Company and made it the company through which they would run their hotels. In 1937, they purchased their second hotel, the first as part of the new company, the Stonehaven Hotel in Springfield, Massachusetts, a converted apartment building; the chain got its name from the third hotel the pair acquired, in Boston, which had a large lighted sign on the roof saying "Sheraton Hotel,", too expensive to change. Instead and Moore decided to call all of their hotels by that name. Henderson and Moore purchased Boston's famed Copley Plaza Hotel in 1944, continued expanding buying existing properties along the East Coast from Maine to Florida.
In 1947, Sheraton was the first hotel chain to be listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Sheraton Hotels merged with U. S. Realty and Improvement Corp. in 1948, forming Sheraton Corporation of America. In 1950, Sheraton expanded internationally, paying $4.8 million to purchase Cardy Hotels, a chain of six properties in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. In 1956, Sheraton paid $30 million to buy the Eppley Hotel Company, the largest held hotel business in the United States, with 22 properties across six Midwestern states. In 1957, which had focused on acquiring existing hotels, opened its first newly built hotel, the Philadelphia Sheraton Hotel. In 1958, Sheraton became the first hotel chain to centralize and computerize its reservations when it introduced Reservatron, the hotel industry's first automatic electronic reservations system. In 1959, Sheraton acquired its first properties outside North America, purchasing four hotels owned by the Matson Lines on Waikiki Beach in Honolulu, Hawaii.
The early 1960s saw the arrival of the first Sheraton hotels outside the US and Canada, with the opening of the Sheraton-Tel Aviv Hotel in Israel in March 1961. In 1962, the Sheraton Motor Inns franchise division was created to operate large highway motels providing free parking. In 1965, the 100th Sheraton property, the Sheraton-Boston Hotel, opened. In 1967, Sheraton unveiled a computer system for personalized reservations; the multinational conglomerate ITT purchased the chain in 1968, after which it was known as ITT Sheraton. In late 1969, ITT Sheraton introduced the hotel industry's first nationwide toll-free number, which displaced two hundred local Sheraton reservation numbers. In 1985, ITT Sheraton became the first western chain to operate a hotel bearing the name of an international companyin the People's Republic of China, when it assumed management of the Great Wall Hotel in Beijing, a financially troubled two-year-old Chinese-American joint venture, which became the Great Wall Sheraton.
On January 13, 1992, ITT Sheraton designated 28 of its premier hotels and 33 of the Sheraton Towers, the luxury "hotel-within-a-hotel" facilities located within Sheraton's largest and most exclusive hotels, as the ITT Sheraton Luxury Collection. The flagship of the division was The St Regis in New York City. In 1994, ITT Sheraton purchased a controlling interest in the Italian CIGA chain, the Compagnia Italiana Grandi Alberghi, or Italian Grand Hotels Company, seized from its previous owner, the Aga Khan, by its creditors; the chain had begun by operating hotels in Italy, but over-expanded across Europe just as a recession hit. The majority of these hotels were placed in the ITT Sheraton Luxury Collection, though a few were placed in the Sheraton division. After Sheraton's purchase by Starwood, The Luxury Collection was marketed as a separate division, though it contained a large number of hotels still named Sheraton. Most have been renamed over the last few years, there are only three such hotels remaining today - Sheraton Addis, Sheraton Grande Sukhumvit, Sheraton Kuwait.
In April 1995, ITT Sheraton introduced a new, mid-scale hotel brand, Four Points by Sheraton Hotels, to replace the designation of certain hotels as Sheraton Inns. In 1998, Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, Inc. acquired ITT Sheraton. Under Starwood's leadership, Sheraton began renovating many hotels and expanding the brand's footprint. In 2016, Marriott International purchased Starwood Hotels, the newly-merged company became the largest hotel and resort company in the world. Hawaii Bowl Sheraton Hotels and Resorts Eppley Hotel Company Holiday Inn List of chained-brand hotels List of hotels Sheraton on the Falls Sheraton Hawaii Bowl Official website Sheraton Roma new years event site Sheraton Residences
Hartford is the capital city of Connecticut. It was the seat of Hartford County until Connecticut disbanded county government in 1960; the city is nicknamed the "Insurance Capital of the World", as it hosts many insurance company headquarters and is the region's major industry. It is the core city in the Greater Hartford area of Connecticut. Census estimates since the 2010 United States Census have indicated that Hartford is the fourth-largest city in Connecticut, behind the coastal cities of Bridgeport, New Haven, Stamford. Hartford is among the oldest cities in the United States, it is home to the nation's oldest public art museum, the oldest publicly funded park, the oldest continuously published newspaper, the second-oldest secondary school. It is home to the Mark Twain House, where the author wrote his most famous works and raised his family, among other significant sites. Mark Twain wrote in 1868, "Of all the beautiful towns it has been my fortune to see this is the chief." Hartford was the richest city in the United States for several decades following the American Civil War.
Today, it is one of the poorest cities in the nation, with 3 out of every 10 families living below the poverty threshold. In sharp contrast, the Greater Hartford metropolitan area is ranked 32nd of 318 metropolitan areas in total economic production and 8th out of 280 metropolitan statistical areas in per capita income. Hartford coordinates certain Hartford-Springfield regional development matters through the Knowledge Corridor economic partnership. Various tribes lived around Hartford, all part of the Algonquin people; these included the Podunks east of the Connecticut River. The first Europeans known to have explored the area were the Dutch under Adriaen Block, who sailed up the Connecticut in 1614. Dutch fur traders from New Amsterdam returned in 1623 with a mission to establish a trading post and fortify the area for the Dutch West India Company; the original site was located on the south bank of the Park River in the present-day Sheldon/Charter Oak neighborhood. This fort was called Fort Hoop or the "House of Hope."
In 1633, Jacob Van Curler formally bought the land around Fort Hoop from the Pequot chief for a small sum. It was home to a couple families and a few dozen soldiers; the fort was abandoned by 1654. The Dutch outpost and the tiny contingent of Dutch soldiers who were stationed there did little to check the English migration, the Dutch soon realized that they were vastly outnumbered; the House of Hope remained an outpost, but it was swallowed up by waves of English settlers. In 1650, Peter Stuyvesant met with English representatives to negotiate a permanent boundary between the Dutch and English colonies; the English began to arrive in 1636, settling upstream from Fort Hoop near the present-day Downtown and Sheldon/Charter Oak neighborhoods. Puritan pastors Thomas Hooker and Samuel Stone, along with Governor John Haynes, led 100 settlers with 130 head of cattle in a trek from Newtown in the Massachusetts Bay Colony and started their settlement just north of the Dutch fort; the settlement was called Newtown, but it was changed to Hartford in 1637 in honor of Stone's hometown of Hertford, England.
The etymology of Hartford is the ford where harts cross, or "deer crossing." The Seal of the City of Hartford features a male deer. The fledgling colony along the Connecticut River was outside of the jurisdiction of the Massachusetts Bay Colony's charter and had to determine how it was to be governed. Therefore, Hooker delivered a sermon that inspired the writing of the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, a document ratified January 14, 1639 which invested the people with the authority to govern, rather than ceding such authority to a higher power. Historians suggest that Hooker's conception of self-rule embodied in the Fundamental Orders inspired the Connecticut Constitution, the U. S. Constitution. Today, one of Connecticut's nicknames is the "Constitution State."The original settlement area contained the site of the Charter Oak, an old white oak tree in which colonists hid Connecticut's Royal Charter of 1662 to protect it from confiscation by an English governor-general. The state adopted the oak tree as the emblem on the Connecticut state quarter.
The Charter Oak Monument is located at the corner of Charter Oak Place, a historic street, Charter Oak Avenue. Throughout the 19th century, Hartford's residential population, economic productivity, cultural influence, concentration of political power continued to grow; the advance of the Industrial Revolution in Hartford in the mid-1800s made this city by late century one of the wealthiest per capita in United States. On December 15, 1814, delegates from the five New England states gathered at the Hartford Convention to discuss New England's possible secession from the United States. During the early 19th century, the Hartford area was a center of abolitionist activity, the most famous abolitionist family was the Beechers; the Reverend Lyman Beecher was an important Congregational minister known for his anti-slavery sermons. His daughter Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin.
Two Prudential Plaza
Two Prudential Plaza is a 64-story skyscraper, built in the Loop area of Chicago, United States in 1990. At 995 feet tall, it is the sixth-tallest building in Chicago and the seventeenth-tallest in the U. S. being only five feet from 1,000 feet, making it the closest of any building under 1,000. The building was designed by the firm Loebl Schlossman & Hackl, with Stephen T. Wright as the principal in charge of design, it has been honored with 8 awards, including winning the Best Structure Award from the Structural Engineers Association of Illinois in 1995. At the time of completion Two Prudential was the world's tallest reinforced concrete building, its distinctive shape features stacked chevron setbacks on the north and south sides, a pyramidal peak rotated 45°, an 80-foot spire. The building is attached to One Prudential Plaza. Without its spire, the building's height is still greater than that of One Prudential Plaza's pinnacle. In May 2006, BentleyForbes, a Los Angeles-based real estate investment firm, run by Frederick Wehba and his family purchased Two Prudential Plaza, along with its sister property, One Prudential Plaza for $470 million.
In 2015, BentleyForbes defaulted on the mortgage for the towers due to the Great Recession and New York-based investors 601W Companies and Berkley Properties took control of the property after investing more than $100 million in equity to recapitalize. BentleyForbes, the prior controlling owner of the towers, continues to have an interest in the owning partnership; the building is the new home of the Chicago Tribune and tronc, Inc. after leaving Tribune Tower in July 2018. The Consulate General of Canada in Chicago is located in Suite 2400; the Taipei Economic and Cultural Office of the Republic of China is on the 57th and 58th floors of the building. Jet Support Services Inc. JSSI. Entercom occupies the ninth through twelfth floors, including WBBM, WBBM-FM, WBMX, WXRT, WUSN, WSCR, WCFS; the building and the plaza appear in the 1994 film Richie Rich as Rich Industries Inc. List of buildings and structures List of tallest buildings List of tallest buildings in Chicago List of tallest buildings in the United States List of tallest buildings and structures Official website Two Prudential Plaza on CTBUH Skyscraper Center Emporis entry for Two Prudential Plaza
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Prudential Financial, Inc. is an American Fortune Global 500 and Fortune 500 company whose subsidiaries provide insurance, investment management, other financial products and services to both retail and institutional customers throughout the United States and in over 30 other countries. Principal products and services provided include life insurance, mutual funds, pension- and retirement-related investments and asset management, securities brokerage services, commercial and residential real estate in many states of the U. S, it provides these products and services to individual and institutional customers through distribution networks in the financial services industry. Prudential has operations in the United States, Asia and Latin America and has organized its principal operations into the Financial Services Businesses and the Closed Block Business. Prudential is composed of hundreds of subsidiaries and holds more than $3 trillion of life insurance; the company uses the Rock of Gibraltar as its logo.
The use of Prudential's symbol, the Rock of Gibraltar, began after an advertising agent passed Laurel Hill, a volcanic neck, in Secaucus, New Jersey, on a train in the 1890s. The related slogans "Get a Piece of the Rock" and "Strength of Gibraltar" are still quite associated with Prudential, though current advertising uses neither of these. Through the years, the symbol went through various versions, but in 1989, a simplified pictogram symbol of the Rock of Gibraltar was adopted, it has been used since. The logotype was updated with a proprietary font in 1996; the font, Prudential Roman, was designed by Doyald Young and John March, based on the Century font family. Started in Newark, New Jersey, in 1875, Prudential Financial was called The Widows and Orphans Friendly Society the Prudential Friendly Society, it was founded by John F. Dryden, who became a U. S. Senator, it sold one product in burial insurance. Dryden was president of Prudential until 1912, he was succeeded by his son Forrest F. Dryden, the president until 1922.
A history of The Prudential Insurance Company of America up to about 1975 is the topic of the book Three Cents A Week, referring to the premium paid by early policyholders. At the turn of the 20th century and other large insurers reaped the bulk of their profits from industrial life insurance, or insurance sold by solicitors house-to-house in poor urban areas. For their insurance, industrial workers paid double what others paid for ordinary life insurance, due to high lapse rates, as few as 1 in 12 policies reached maturity. Prominent lawyer and future U. S. Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis helped pass a 1907 Massachusetts law to protect workers by allowing savings banks to sell life insurance at lower rates. Prudential has evolved from a mutual insurance company to a joint stock company, it is now traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol PRU. The Prudential Stock was issued and started trading on the New York Stock Exchange on December 13, 2001. On October 16, 2007 the Fox Business Channel picked Prudential as part of its Fox50 Index.
On August 1, 2004, the U. S. Department of Homeland Security announced the discovery of terrorist threats against the Prudential Headquarters in Newark, New Jersey, prompting large-scale security measures that included concrete barriers outside the premises and internal X-ray machines. In the same year, a joint venture was formed between Prudential Financial and China Everbright Limited. On August 28, 2006 federal and state securities regulators and the Department of Justice announced parallel settlements and a total of $600 million in monetary sanctions against Prudential Securities, Inc. for misconduct relating to improper market timing. On November 28, 2007, Prudential Financial board of directors elected a new CEO, John R. Strangfeld, to replace retiring Arthur F. Ryan. In 1981, the company acquired Bache & Co. a stock brokerage service that operated as a wholly owned subsidiary until 2003, when Wachovia and Prudential combined their retail brokerage operations into Wachovia Securities, with Prudential a minority stake holder.
In 1999, Prudential sold Prudential HealthCare, to Aetna for $1 billion. On May 1, 2003, Prudential formalized the acquisition of American Skandia, the largest distributor of variable annuities through independent financial professionals in the United States; the CEO of American Skandia, Wade Dokken, partnered with Goldman Sachs and sold the division to Prudential for $1.2 billion. The combination of American Skandia variable annuities and Prudential fixed annuities was part of Prudential's strategy to acquire complementary businesses that help meet retirement goals. In April 2004, the company acquired the retirement business of CIGNA Corporation. In late 2009, Prudential sold its minority stake in Wachovia Securities Financial Holdings LLC to Wells Fargo & Co. In 2011, Prudential sold Prudential Bache LLC to Jefferies. In February 2011, the company acquired AIG Edison and AIG Star both in Japan from American International Group, Inc for a total of $4.8 billion. This acquisition bolstered Prudential's operations in Asia while giving cash to AIG to pay back the federal government from its bailout in 2008.
In January 2013, the company acquired the individual life insurance business from The Hartford for $615 million in cash. The acquisition includes 700,000 in force life insurance policies with a face amount of $135 billion; this move by Prudential not only brought over additional life insurance revenue, it brought in new talent that the U. S. Life Insurance division needed for innovation; as Prudential's Variable Annuity bu
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play with 15 teams in each league; the NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000; the organization oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseball's first all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869; the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier; the 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team. Today, MLB is composed of 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world.
MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution; this document has undergone several incarnations since its creation in 1876. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, negotiates marketing and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball; this is due in large part to the 1922 U. S. Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, which held that baseball is not interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law; this ruling has been weakened only in subsequent years. The weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLB's primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916.
The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner Rob Manfred. The chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president, chief communications officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, chief baseball officer; the multimedia branch of MLB, based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media. This branch oversees each of the 30 teams' websites, its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, but it is under the same ownership group and revenue-sharing plan. MLB Productions is a structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media. MLB owns 67 percent of MLB Network, with the other 33 percent split between several cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV, it operates out of studios in Secaucus, New Jersey, has editorial independence from the league. In 1920, the weak National Commission, created to manage relationships between the two leagues, was replaced with the much more powerful Commissioner of Baseball, who had the power to make decisions for all of professional baseball unilaterally.
From 1901 to 1960, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams apiece. In the 1960s, MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first non-U. S. Team. Two teams were added in the 1970s. From 1969 through 1993, each league consisted of an West Division. A third division, the Central Division, was formed in each league in 1994; until 1996, the two leagues met on the field only during the All-Star Game. Regular-season interleague play was introduced in 1997. In March 1995 two new franchises, the Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Devil Rays, were awarded by MLB, to begin play in 1998; this addition brought the total number of franchises to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to assign one new team to each league: Tampa Bay joined the AL and Arizona joined the NL; the original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league, but in order for every team to be able to play daily, this would have required interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire season. However, it