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Prussian Academy of Sciences

The Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences was an academy established in Berlin, Germany on 11 July 1700, four years after the Akademie der Künste, or "Arts Academy," to which "Berlin Academy" may refer. In the 18th century, it was a French-language institution, its most active members were Huguenots who had fled religious persecution in France. Prince-elector Frederick III of Brandenburg, Germany founded the Academy under the name of Kurfürstlich Brandenburgische Societät der Wissenschaften upon the advice of Gottfried Leibniz, appointed president. Unlike other Academies, the Prussian Academy was not directly funded out of the state treasury. Frederick granted it the monopoly on producing and selling calendars in Brandenburg, a suggestion from Leibniz; as Frederick was crowned "King in Prussia" in 1701, creating the Kingdom of Prussia, the Academy was renamed Königlich Preußische Sozietät der Wissenschaften. While other Academies focused on a few topics, the Prussian Academy was the first to teach both sciences and humanities.

In 1710, the Academy statute was set, dividing the Academy into two sciences and two humanities classes. This was not changed until 1830, when the physics-mathematics and the philosophy-history classes replaced the four old classes; the reign of King Frederick II of Prussia saw major changes to the Academy. In 1744, the Nouvelle Société Littéraire and the Society of Sciences were merged into the Königliche Akademie der Wissenschaften. An obligation from the new statute were public calls for ideas on unsolved scientific questions with a monetary reward for solutions; the Academy acquired its own research facilities in the 18th century, including an observatory in 1709. However, those were taken over by the University of Berlin; as a French-language institution its publications were in French such as the Histoire de l'Academie royale des sciences et belles lettres de Berlin, published between 1745 and 1796. A linguistics historian from Princeton University, Hans Aarsleff, notes that before Frederick ascended the throne in 1740, the academy was overshadowed by similar bodies in London and Paris.

Frederick made French the official language and speculative philosophy the most important topic of study. The membership was strong in mathematics and philosophy, included notable philosophers such as Immanuel Kant, Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert, Pierre-Louis de Maupertuis, Etienne de Condillac. However, the academy was in a crisis for two decades at mid-century, due to scandals and internal rivalries such as the debates between Newtonianism and Leibnizian views, the personality conflicts between the philosopher Voltaire and the mathematician Maupertuis. At a higher level, the director from 1746 to 1759 and a monarchist, argued that the action of individuals was shaped by the character of the institution that contained them, they worked for the glory of the state. By contrast, d'Alembert took a republican rather than monarchical approach and emphasized the international Republic of Letters as the vehicle for scientific advance. By 1789, the academy had gained an international repute while making major contributions to German culture and thought.

Frederick invited Joseph-Louis Lagrange to succeed Leonhard Euler as director. Other intellectuals attracted to the philosopher's kingdom were Francesco Algarotti, Jean-Baptiste de Boyer, Julien Offray de La Mettrie. Immanuel Kant published religious writings in Berlin which would have been censored elsewhere in Europe. Beginning in 1815, research businesses led by Academy committees were founded at the Academy, they employed scientists to work alongside the corresponding committee's members. University departments emanated from some of these businesses after 1945. On 25 November 1915 Albert Einstein presented his field equations of general relativity to the Academy. Under the rule of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945, the Academy was subject to the Gleichschaltung, a "Nazification" process, established to take totalitarian control over various aspects of society. However, compared with other institutions, such as the universities where Jewish employees and members were expelled starting in 1933, Jewish Academy members were not expelled until 1938, following a direct request by the Ministry of Education.

The new Academy statute went in effect on 8 June 1939, reorganizing the Academy according to the Nazi leadership principle known as Führerprinzip. Following World War II, the Soviet Military Administration in Germany, or SMAD, reorganized the Academy under the name of Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin on 1 July 1946. In 1972, it was renamed Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR or AdW. At its height, the AdW had 24,000 employees in locations across East Germany. Following German Reunification, the Academy was disbanded and the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften was founded in its place, in compliance with a 1992 treaty between the State Parliaments of Berlin and Brandenburg. 60 of the AdW members broke off and created the private Leibniz Society in 1993. Jacob Paul von Gundling Dimitrie Cantemir, foreign member 1714 Gassen von Stein, Vice President and member.

Keeper of the Seven Keys: Part I

Keeper of the Seven Keys: Part I is the second studio album by German power metal band Helloween, released in 1987. It marks the first appearance of vocalist Michael Kiske, is considered the album that created the genre of European-style power metal. Kai Hansen stepped away from doing vocal duties as he had difficulties singing and playing the guitar at the same time during the previous tour, it was an album dominated by Hansen, due to an injury to co-guitarist Michael Weikath which prevented him from performing on much of the album. "Future World" was released as a single and a music video was made for "Halloween" but with 8 minutes omitted from the song. The band planned to release Keeper of the Seven Keys: Part I and Part II as a double album, but their record label refused, insisting that the albums be released separately. In 1993, both albums were released as a double CD set with bonus tracks. Loudwire named the album at third in their list "Top 25 Power Metal Albums of All Time" and commented the album is "a tireless LP and the first genuine power metal album."

ThoughtCo named the album in their list "Essential Power Metal Albums." All songs written except where noted. Tracks 10 and 11 appear on the "Future World" single. Track 12 appears on the "Pumpkin Box" single. Michael Kiske - vocals Kai Hansen - guitar, front cover concept, backing vocals Michael Weikath - guitar, backing vocals Markus Grosskopf - bass, backing vocals Ingo Schwichtenberg - drums Tommy Newton - producer, engineer Tommy Hansen - co-producer, mixing, emulator Edda & Uwe Karczewski - cover design Limb - sleeve & back cover concept The Russian band, covered the song "I'm Alive" in a single they titled, "Я живой", Romanized as "Ya zhivoy"

Moss Elixir

Moss Elixir is the eleventh studio album by Robyn Hitchcock, released in 1996, containing twelve original compositions, predominantly acoustic, released by Warner Music. Following the traumatic loss of his father, Hitchcock had recorded little in the preceding five years; when he re-emerged, he had dispensed with old group The Egyptians and begun working here with new musicians, including Deni Bonet, a violinist with whom Hitchcock would collaborate several times in the years following. Moss Elixir came packaged in green and gold, continuing the theme of his earlier solo acoustic albums, I Often Dream of Trains and Eye; the CD insert includes a short story: a vaguely autobiographical, surrealist account of Hitchcock in the afterlife, which weaves several images and titles from the album's contents into its storyline, including the elixir of the album's title. The name of the track "De Chirico Street" refers to metaphysical painter Giorgio de Chirico. All tracks composed by Robyn Hitchcock "Sinister but She Was Happy" "The Devil's Radio" "Heliotrope" "Alright, Yeah" "Filthy Bird" "The Speed of Things" "Beautiful Queen" "Man with a Woman's Shadow" "I Am Not Me" "De Chirico Street" "You and Oblivion" "This Is How It Feels"

Argentina and the International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Argentina joined the International Monetary Fund on September 20, 1956 and has since participated in 21 IMF Arrangements. The first Stand-By Arrangement began on December 2, 1958, the most recent Stand-By Arrangement began on June 20, 2018, will expire on June 19, 2021; the most recent arrangement approved Argentina to borrow SDR 40,714.00 million, of which Argentina has borrowed SDR 31,913.71 million as of December 10, 2019. Over the past 63 years, Argentina has used the resources of the IMF and holds the record for the largest loan distributed, reaching nearly $57 billion in 2018. However, in 2006 under the leadership of Néstor Kirchner, Argentina was able to pay off its debts, thus escaping Article IV IMF surveillance. In 2016 under the leadership of Mauricio Macri relations between the IMF and Argentina were reestablished due to the continuous decline of the country's GDP, leading to the 2018 arrangement. November 30th marks the beginning of the 2001 economic crisis in Argentina caused by the rising fear at how the Argentinian peso was being devalued.

This crisis was caused in part by the extensive borrowing Argentina implemented during the presidency of Carlos Menem, the governments dwindling tax revenue. On December 5th, 2001 the IMF made an announcement that they would no longer provide aid due to Argentina's inability to meet the conditionality set by the IMF to receive loans. President Aldolfo Rodriguez Saá resigned shortly after the announcement of Argentina’s default; the 2018 Arrangement allowed Argentina the option to purchase US$15 billion while the remainder of the funds would be disbursed at the discretion of the Executive Board's quarterly review throughout the three year arrangement period. As of 2018, Argentina is ranked the 24th largest economy with a GDP of US$518,475 million, the GDP has continued to decline throughout the Macri presidency; the goals of the 2018 Stand-By Arrangement are "to strengthen the country’s economy by restoring market confidence via a consistent macroeconomic program that lessens financing needs, puts Argentina’s public debt on a firm downward trajectory, strengthens the plan to reduce inflation by setting more realistic inflation targets and reinforcing the independence of the central bank".

Furthermore, the goal of the Arrangement is intended to bolster social spending and continue on the trajectory of spending for healthcare, implemented. As of October 27, 2019, Alberto Fernández won the presidency in the general election against Mauricio Macri among others. Fernández's presidential term begins December 10, 2019. In a 2019 press briefing with the IMF, it is stated that Alberto Fernández "hopes the IMF will help Argentina pay down its debt". Many account Fernández's victory to the economic failures of his predecessor Mauricio Macri and the fear that Argentina may default on their 2018 SBA as they did in 2001 after mass economic decline within their economy; as of 2019 in Argentina, 25.4% of households live under the poverty line and 35.4% of the general population is living in poverty. Recent telephone communication between the IMF Managing Director, Kristalina Georgieva, president-elect Alberto Fernández indicate that both parties hope to “pursue an open dialogue for the benefit of the Argentinian people”

N3 road (Ireland)

The N3 road is a national primary road in Ireland, running between Dublin and the border with County Fermanagh. The A509 and A46 roads in Northern Ireland form part of an overall route connecting to Enniskillen, northwest to the border again where the N3 reappears to serve Ballyshannon in County Donegal. Rush hour congestion between Navan and Dublin city was heavy, problems occurred at most built-up areas between these points. A tolled motorway bypass replacement, the M3 motorway, was opened to traffic on 4 June 2010; the former section from its junction with the M50 to Dublin city centre, as well as the bypassed section from Clonee to the border with County Cavan have been reclassified as the R147 road. The route, known as the Navan Road as it leaves Dublin, starts at its junction with the M50 motorway and bypasses Blanchardstown and Clonee with a dual carriageway; the dual carriageway changes into the M3 motorway near the Meath border by-passing Dunshaughlin and Navan. Near Kells the route continues as the N3 dual carriage way to the border with County Cavan.

It passes through Virginia, past Cavan Town and continues past Butlersbridge and through Belturbet. The route crosses the border with Northern Ireland, becoming the A509 to Enniskillen; the A46 connects Enniskillen and the Donegal border, becoming the N3 across the border at Belleek, connecting to Ballyshannon. In Ballyshannon certain road signs have destinations A46 Enniskillen with N3 Dublin with the requisite single arrow pointing in the same direction. During the Troubles in Northern Ireland, the border crossing over the River Woodford north of Belturbet was closed; the bridge was targeted by Loyalist paramilitaries and left impassable in 1973. The shortest route was along the A32 via Swanlinbar; the crossing was reopened in 1999 when a new bridge named after US Senator George Mitchell was built. The National Roads Authority in conjunction with Cavan and Donegal County Councils plan major improvements to the N3 route in Ulster. A 6.7 kilometre bypass of the village of Belturbet in Co. Cavan was opened to traffic on 2 August 2013, the entire section including a bridge over the River Erne was opened in December 2013.

Part of the old N3 route has been bypassed by the construction of 51 kilometres of new motorway. This stretch of motorway, designated M3, was opened on 4 June 2010; the M3 begins near the end of the dual carriageway outside Clonee and terminates south west of Kells just before the N52. The works were carried out by a joint venture of Ferrovial and SIAC; the construction scheme did not terminate at this point as a new realigned N3 2+2 Non Motorway section continued from the end of the Motorway past Kells before terminating near the County Cavan border. The overall scheme included the N52 Kells northern bypass. Since completion, the M3 now bypasses Dunshaughlin and Kells along with Cavan, bypassed much earlier; the motorway was contested because the route passes near the Hill of Tara and through the archaeologically rich Tara-Skryne valley or Gabhra. The planned route corridor was approved by An Bord Pleanála in August 2003. On 30 September 2008, the Department of Transport announced the second round of proposed motorway reclassifications under the Roads Act 2007.

A short section of the existing dual-carriageway N3 bypassing Clonee, from northwest of Mulhuddart to the start of the M3 toll motorway scheme, is affected by this. Following a public consultation process, on 10 July 2009 the Minister for Transport, Noel Dempsey, made a Statutory Instrument reclassifying this section of the N3 as motorway effective from 28 August 2009, it was the first section of M3 to come into being. The most expensive single contract road project undertaken in Ireland coming in at €650 million according to SIAC, it is tolled at two locations, one point north of Navan and another point between Dunshaughlin and Clonee for 45 years running from 2007. The Government have the option to buy out this contract at any time; the price level of tolls are controlled by the Board of the NRA and they can reduce, increase or remove the tolls as they see appropriate. Should they lower the tolls on the M3 the government would have to make up the difference of what is owed yearly to Eurolink M3 Ltd through tax revenue.

An expected minimum traffic level, growing year-on-year, was agreed as part of the contract, with "Variable Operational Payments" made in lieu of toll revenue to Eurolink M3 if this figure was not reached. These payments were made every year with traffic below predicted levels, it was planned to open in 2006. An Bord Pleanála approved the project on 22 August 2003. 4 years on 22 August 2007, they directed that the excavation of the Lismullin monument did not require fresh planning approval. Roads in Ireland Motorways in Ireland National secondary road Regional road National Development Plan History of roads in Ireland Transport Infrastructure Ireland Official M3 website NRA project page for M3 motorway Zoney Irish Roads website Website of group of people working to re-route the M3 BBC News article Washington Post article Roads Act 1993 Order 2006 – Department of

Archie Collins

Archie Finn Collins is an English professional footballer who plays for Exeter City, as a midfielder and striker. Collins was born in Taunton, grew up in Bridgwater. Collins began his career with Exeter City, turning professional in April 2017, he joined Weston-super-Mare on loan in August 2017, making 8 league appearances, scoring 1 goal. He joined Dorchester Town on loan in December 2017, extended in January 2018, again in February 2018. For Dorchester he scored 2 goals in 14 league appearances, he made his debut for Exeter City on 28 November 2017, in the Football League Cup. Collins has been described by Exeter City as a "versatile player who can play up front, just behind the striker, wide right, wide left or in central midfield"; as of 5 May 2019