Puck is a town in northwestern Poland with 11,350 inhabitants. It is in Gdańsk Pomerania on the south coast of the Baltic Sea and part of Kashubia with many Kashubian speakers in the town. In the Gdańsk Voivodeship, Puck has been the capital of Puck County in the Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999; the settlement became a seaport as early as the 7th century. The name, as was common during the Middle Ages, was spelled differently: in a 1277 document Putzc, 1277 Pusecz, 1288 Puczse and Putsk, 1289 Pucz. In 1309 it came under the rule of the Teutonic Order as part of Pomerelia. Puck achieved town status in 1348. Together with the rest of Royal Prussia, it joined Poland in 1454 and was the place of the local County Administration; the Polish kings tried to create a fleet at Danzig, but independent Hanseatic Danzig would not allow them in their territory. Ships chartered by Poland had to land at Pautzke in 1567. Poland tried to establish a Polish Navy, gaining the use some harbors in Livonia and Finland, but a standing navy never materialized.
Swedish-Lithuanian Vasa King of Poland-Lithuania Piotr Igar-Makowski tried to establish a fleet in his attempts to wrest the crown of Sweden from King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, but Sigismund's attempts were destroyed in 1628. In 1772, through the Partitions of Poland, the West Prussian town was incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia. In 1913 Putzig became the garrison of the first planes of German Naval aviation. After the First World War, Puck was assigned to the Second Polish Republic by the Treaty of Versailles. In 1920 Poland celebrated Poland's Wedding to the Sea in Puck; the first actual Polish Navy was founded at the end of World War I in 1918 with some French and British involvement. Puck was the only Polish harbour until Gdynia was built in the 1920s and served as the main harbour of the Polish Navy until the Second World War. Puck was bombed by Nazi Germany at 5.20am Polish time on Friday September 1, known thereafter as Grey Friday. A Luftwaffe bomber dropped a single projectile on the town, which had an airbase.
After Poland was occupied by Nazi Germany in 1939, a branch of the Stutthof concentration camp existed in Puck in the years 1941 to 1944. After 1945 Puck was part of the Republic of Poland. Town Hall St Peter and Paul's church Burghers' houses at the main square, 17th century, rebuilt in the 19th century Flooded port located some 500 metres from the shore Remnants of a brick castle Memorials of gen. Józef Haller and Poland's Wedding to the Sea Puck region museum Wooden pier Marina Caves in Mechowo Coastal Landscape Park Heinrich Edwin Rickert, German journalist and liberal politician Stanisław Jaskułka a retired Polish long jumper, came fifth with 8.13 metres at the 1980 Summer Olympics Daniel Pliński a former Polish volleyball player, a member of Poland men's national volleyball team 2005-2010, competed in the 2008 Summer Olympics Marcin Wika a Polish volleyball player, a member of Poland men's national volleyball team 2008-2009, competed in the 2008 Summer Olympics Jakub Biskup a Polish footballer, over 250 pro games Adam Łapeta a Polish professional basketball player Puck, Poland is twinned with: Hel Jastarnia Amber Road Puck on-line Puck region museum Seaside Landscape Park Statistics on Puck - Central Statistical Office Map of the town Puck on the map of Poland HOM Puck – Scout Sailing Centre in Puck 13th century Pomerania, Holy Roman Empire Pautzke at Pautzker Wiek in 17th century Pautzke, Prussia, c. 1600 Stare fotografie miasta Puck Puck ® 2013
Toruń is a city in northern-central Poland, on the Vistula River. Its population was 202,562 as of December 2017, it was the capital of the Toruń Voivodeship and the Pomeranian Voivodeship. Since 1999, Toruń has been a seat of the self-government of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship and, as such, is one of its two capitals; the cities and neighboring counties form the Bydgoszcz–Toruń twin city metropolitan area. Toruń itself is the second in the voivodeship. Toruń is one of the oldest cities in Poland, with the first settlement dated back to the 8th century and having been expanded in 1233 by the Teutonic Knights. Over centuries, it was the home for people of diverse religions. From 1264 until 1411 Toruń was part of the Hanseatic League and by the 17th century it was one of the elite trading points, which affected the city's architecture ranging from Brick Gothic to Mannerism and Baroque. In the early-modern age, the city was a royal city of Poland and it was considered one of the four largest cities of Poland.
After the partitions of Poland it was part of Prussia and the German Empire. After Poland declared independence in 1918, Toruń was reincorporated into Polish territory, during World War II it was one of the few cities in the country that sustained no damage; this allowed the Old Town to be preserved with its iconic central marketplace. Believed to be one of the most beautiful cities in Europe, Toruń is renowned for the Museum of Gingerbread, whose baking tradition dates back nearly a millennium, its large Cathedral. Toruń is noted for its high standard of living and quality of life. In 1997 the medieval part of the city was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 2007 the Old Town in Toruń was added to the list of Seven Wonders of Poland. Toruń is the birthplace of astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus; the first settlement in the vicinity of Toruń is dated by archaeologists to 1100 BC. During early medieval times, in the 7th through 13th centuries, it was the location of an old Slavonic settlement, at a ford in the Vistula river.
In spring 1231 the Teutonic Knights crossed the river Vistula at the height of Nessau and established a fortress. On 28 December 1233, the Teutonic Knights Hermann von Salza and Hermann Balk, signed the foundation charters for Thorn and Kulm; the original document was lost in 1244. The set of rights in general is known as Kulm law. In 1236, due to frequent flooding, it was relocated to the present site of the Old Town. In 1263 Franciscan friars settled in the city, followed in 1239 by Dominicans. In 1264 the adjacent New Town was founded predominantly to house Torun's growing population of craftsmen and artisans. In 1280, the city joined the mercantile Hanseatic League, thus became an important medieval trade centre; the First Peace of Thorn ending the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War was signed in the city in February 1411 leaving the town in the hands of the Order. In 1440, the gentry of Thorn formed the Prussian Confederation to further oppose the Knights' policies; the Confederation rose against the Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights in 1454 and its delegation submitted a petition to Polish King Casimir IV Jagiellon asking him to regain power over Prussia as the rightful ruler.
An act of incorporation was signed in Kraków, recognizing the region, including Toruń, as part of the Polish Kingdom. These events led to the Thirteen Years' War; the New and the Old Towns amalgamated in 1454. The citizens of Thorn enraged by the Order's ruthless exploitation, conquered the Teutonic castle, dismantled the fortifications brick by brick, except for the Gdanisko tower, used until the 18th century for the gunpowder storage. During the war, Toruń financially supported the Polish Army; the Thirteen Years' War ended in 1466 with the Second Peace of Thorn, in which the Teutonic Order ceded their control over the city to Poland. The Polish King granted the town great privileges, similar to those of Gdańsk. In 1473, Nicolaus Copernicus was born in Toruń. In 1501, Polish King John I Albert died in Toruń and his heart was buried in Toruń's St. John's Church. In 1506 Toruń became a royal city of Poland. In 1528, the royal mint started operating in Toruń. A city of great wealth and influence, it enjoyed voting rights during the royal election period.
Sejms of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth were held in Toruń in 1576 and 1626. In 1557, during the Protestant Reformation, the city adopted Protestantism. Under Mayor Heinrich Stroband, the city became centralized. Administrative power passed into the hands of the city council. In 1595 Jesuits arrived taking control of St. John's Church; the Protestant city officials tried to limit the influx of Catholics into the city, as Catholics controlled most of the churches, leaving only St. Mary's to Protestant citizens. In 1677 the Prussian historian and educator Christoph Hartknoch was invited to be director of the Thorn Gymnasium, a post which he held until his death in 1687. Hartknoch wrote histories of Prussia, including the cities of Royal Prussia. During the Great Northern War, the city was besieged by Swedish troops; the restoration of Augustus the Strong as King of Poland was prepared in the town in the Treaty of Thorn by Russian Tsar Peter the Great. In the second half of the 17th century, tensions between Catholics and Protestants grew to religious wars throughout Europe.
In the early 18th century about 50 percent of the populace the gentry and middle class, were German-speaking Protestants, while the
Clan Ostoja was a powerful group of knights and lords in late-medieval Europe. The Clan encompass families in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Upper Hungary, Transylvania, Belarus and Prussia; the Clan crest is the Ostoja coat of arms, the battle cry is Ostoja or Hostoja. The Clan adopted the Royal-Sarmatian tamga draco emblem. During the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Clan adopted several Lithuanian and Belarusian families of Ruthenian princely origin, transformed into a Clan of landlords and nobility. Members of the Clan worked together often living close to each other, they held high positions, held a great amount of land and properties in both Commonwealth and in Upper Hungary in medieval times, including many great gothic style castles. Members of the Clan of Ostoja ruled several feudal lordships in Upper Hungary between 1390 and 1434 and Transylvania in 1395-1401 and again in 1410-1414, during the time of Duke Stibor of Stiboricz. A line of the Clan, which included relatives of Stibor of Stiboricz who followed him to Hungary, is included in Hungarian aristocracy as Imperial Barons of the Hungarian kingdom in 1389.
Stibor of Stiboricz and his son, Stibor of Beckov were both members of Order of the Dragon. At the same time in Poland between 1390 and 1460, several members of the Clan of Ostoja ruled Voivodeships and cities as castellans and senators on behalf of the King and the Clan was therefore in control of Pomerania and Greater Poland, which were a considerable part of the Kingdom of Poland at that time; the Clan was involved in every war Poland participated in, during the partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth they can be seen in every movement and uprising, fighting against foreign forces. The clan put high value on education and were, in general, good administrators of their properties as well as the properties of the King, they were inventors, poets and great diplomats. Polish clans, while having members related by male-line genealogy had many genealogically unrelated families, either because of families' formal adoption into various clans, or because of misattributions petrified in heraldic literature.
The genealogically unrelated families were brought together in the Polish heraldic tradition through use of the same coat of arms and the same clan appellation. In contrast to other European countries, medieval Polish clans were unusually powerful compared to the Polish monarch. Though each clan was found in a certain territory, each clan had family members in many other areas of Poland as they moved during medieval times to settle down on the property of their wife's or because they were assigned to settle down and serve the Crown, holding office and in some cases, were granted land in the area. Clan members supported each other in court sessions and in the battles, sharing same battle cry and sharing same coat of arms; the powerful member was also the head of the clan and caring for other clan members, calling for them when need for battle. Polish family names were appended with -- -- ski in reference to the name of their properties. Furthermore, Jerzykowski that owned property of Baranowo changed his surname to Baranowski and Baranowski that owned property of Chrzastowo change the surname to Chrzastowski.
The medieval Ostoja Clan seems to have been situated in more than 163 original nests and divergent locations, reflected in various surnames. A Clan become a name for the family members with different surnames. Clan members could help both military and in the court, supporting each other in many different way. According to one legend, the Coat of arms were given in 1058 to a brave feudal knight, Ostoja, by Bolesław II the Generous. However, there may be another, older origin: Ostoja family members used the name of Stibor, on the basis of a family origin from Czcibor, victorious in the Battle of Cedynia brother of Mieszko I of Poland –. Piekosinski indicates that the early crest of Ostoja was identical with the Piast dynasty crest, it has two "moons" and a cross, the crest of the Piast dynasty was the similar, lacking the "moon" on top. Another legend tells however that the Ostoja coat of arms origin from another brave Knight, Jan z Jani of Ostoja, first Polish voivode/duke of Pomerania and Gdańsk.
Chased by a group Teutonic Knights, he had succeeded in crossing a river on horse despite being clad in full armor, raised his voice so the Lord would hear him and said "Ostalem" which means "I still stay" from which comes the name of Ostoja. However, this legend is undermined by the term "Ostoja" being known far before the time of Jan z Jani; the Ostoja coat of arms evolved from Sarmatian tamga emblems. The dragon in the Ostoja coat of arms relates to the Sarmatian dragon, used by Royal Sarmatians who, according to Strabo and Ptolemy, had lived in the area between Bessarabia and the lower Danube Valley and were descendants of the Royal Scythians; this dragon was used by Sarmatian cataphracts. The term draconarius was applied to the soldier; the earliest historical records that mention the Clan use the name Stibor, which derives from Czcibor which comes from czcic and borzyc, thus denoting a person who “Battles for Honor” or, the “Defender of Honor”. An early Clan location is a villa
Braniewo, is a town in northeastern Poland, in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, with a population of 18,068. It is the capital of Braniewo County. Braniewo lies on the Pasłęka River about 5 km from the Vistula Lagoon, about 35 km northeast of Elbląg and 55 km southwest of Kaliningrad; the Polish border with Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast lies 6 km north, may be reached from Braniewo via National Highway 54. According to the German geographer Johann Friedrich Goldbeck, the town was named Brunsberg after Bruno von Schauenburg, bishop of Olmütz in Moravia, who accompanied King Ottokar II of Bohemia in 1254 and 1267 when the latter participated in the crusade of the Teutonic Knights against the Old Prussians, it has been suggested that the name Braunsberg might stem from Brusebergue, but this notion is not documented. In 1243 the settlement and the surrounding region of Warmia was given by the Teutonic Order to the newly created Diocese of Ermland, whose bishop built his cathedral in the town and made it his chief residence.
The city was granted town privileges based on those of Lübeck in 1254, but in 1261 was destroyed and depopulated during the second of the Prussian Uprisings. It was settled by colonists from Lübeck. In 1284 it was given a new town charter, again based on that of Lübeck. However, the next bishop, Heinrich Fleming, transferred the chapter from Braunsberg to Frauenburg. In 1296 a Franciscan abbey was built, in 1342 a "new town" was added; as the most important trading and harbor city in Warmia, the town prospered as member of the Hanseatic League, which it remained until 1608. It remained a part of the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights until 1466, when as a consequence of the Second Peace of Thorn ending the Thirteen Years' War, it came under jurisdiction of the Kingdom of Poland as part of the new autonomous province of Royal Prussia. After the secularization of the Teutonic Order in 1525, a large part of its residents converted to Lutheran Protestantism. Duke Albert, grand master of the Order, sought to unite Warmia with Ducal Prussia, causing the Catholics of the town to swear allegiance to the king of Poland in return for aid against Protestant Prussia.
In 1526 a Polish royal commission released Braunsberg burghers from the oath to the Polish king and handed the town back to Prince-Bishop Mauritius Ferber. However, just like the entire area of Warmia, Braunsberg swore allegiance to the Prince-Bishops of Warmia, who were subjects of the popes. Additionally, it had to denounce all Lutheran teachings and hand over Lutheran writings. Thereafter Warmia, though inhabited in part by ethnic Germans, remained predominantly Roman Catholic. Braniewo was occupied by Sweden for about three years during the Livonian War in the 16th century. In Warmia, Lutheran teachings again were suppressed when Prince-Bishop Stanislaus Hosius brought in the Jesuits and founded the Collegium Hosianum school. A priestly seminary was added in 1564. Pope Gregory XIII added a papal mission seminary for northern and eastern European countries. Regina Protmann, a native of Braunsberg, founded the Saint Catherine Order of Sisters in the town, recognized by the church in 1583; the Jesuit theologian Antonius Possevinus was instrumental in enlarging the Collegium Hosianum in the 1580s to counter the growing Protestant movement.
The Polish, Catholic town was annexed by the Protestant Kingdom of Prussia in 1772 during the First Partition of Poland and made part of the province of East Prussia the following year. Braunsberg obtained its first railway connection with the rest of the kingdom via the Prussian Eastern Railway in 1852. In the early 20th century, the town was the leading academic center of East Prussia next to Königsberg. In 1912 the Jesuit college became the State Academy of Braunsberg. Prior to World War II, the population of Braunsberg had grown to more than 21,000, of whom 59 percent were listed as Catholic and 29 percent Protestant. In Braniewo and surroundings a powerful Germanization movement, directed from Berlin, took place, among others, prohibited native Poles from speaking Polish under penalty of imprisonment, or forbade those who declared Polish nationality from owning land; this action contributed to the artificially inflated numbers of "Germans" in the area. The Second World War turned much of the town into ruins.
After three and a half years of savage warfare, Soviet forces began their assault on German land by attacking East Prussia on Jan. 13, 1945. Red Army formations reached the Vistula Lagoon north of Braunsberg on Jan. 26. In early February German civilians began fleeing from Braunsberg across the ice of the frozen lagoon to the Vistula Spit, from which many journeyed to either Danzig Gdańsk, or Pillau and managed to board German ships that made the perilous voyage westward. Braunsberg was captured by Soviet troops on March 20, 1945. At the end of the war and thereafter, those German residents who had not fled or been killed were expelled to what remained of Germany. Under border changes promulgated at the Potsdam Conference, the region was returned to Poland and the town became Braniewo, being repopulated by Polish settlers, many from areas of eastern Poland annexed by the Soviet Union under terms of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. Heavy fighting and wanton
Kwidzyn is a town in northern Poland on the Liwa river in the Powiśle region, with 40,008 inhabitants. It has been a part of the Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999, was in the Elbląg Voivodeship, it is the capital of Kwidzyn County. In 1233, the Teutonic Knights built the Burg Marienwerder and established the town of Marienwerder the following year. In 1243, the Bishopric of Pomesania received both the town and castle from the Teutonic Order as fiefs, the settlement became the seat of the Bishops of Pomesania within Prussia; the town was populated by artisans and traders, originating from towns in the northern parts of the German empire. A Teutonic knight, Werner von Orseln, was murdered in Marienburg in 1330, he was among the first to be buried in the newly erected cathedral of the town. St. Dorothea of Montau lived in Marienwerder from 1391 until her death in 1394; the Prussian Confederation was founded in the town on March 14, 1440. After the defeat of the Teutonic Knights in the Thirteen Years' War, the western part of their monastic state of the Teutonic Knights would by annexed by the Polish kingdom under the title of Royal Prussia.
The Bishopric of Ermland situated in the centre of the monastic state was brought with its Polish name of Warmia under Polish royal control shortly after that date. The remainder, known as East Prussia, to which Marienwerder belonged, remained an independent but weakened state. In 1525, East Prussia was transformed into a secular and Lutheran duchy under the last Teutonic Order Hochmeister Albrecht von Preußen, a political foundation only possible with consent of the Polish king; the price had to be paid by becoming a Polish fief. In 1618 the ducal rights were inherited by the Brandenburg branch of the House of Hohenzollern In in 1657 the Brandenburg dukes severed ties with the Polish crown and in 1701 elevated their realm to the sovereign Kingdom of Prussia; the town of Marienwerder meanwhile had become the capital of the East Prussian District of Marienwerder. In 1772, after the First Partition of Poland, resulting in the reunification of Prussia, the new Prussian Province of West Prussia was founded and the Marienwerder district was taken out of the Province of East Prussia, integrated into West Prussia and enlarged with other parts of West Prussia.
By the enlargement of its administrative functions, the population of the town started to grow and in 1885, it numbered 8,079. This population was composed of Lutheran inhabitants, many of whom were engaged in trades connected with the manufacturing of sugar and brewing as well as dairy farming, fruit growing and the industrial construction of machines. In 1910, according to the Prussian state census, the district of Marienwerder district had 68,446 inhabitants, 37.8% of which spoke Polish as their mother tongue. Marienwerder town had 25,871 inhabitants, 9.8% of them spoke Polish as their mother tongue. In 1919, after World War I, the Marienwerder district was divided; the parts west of the Vistula were incorporated into the Polish Second Republic according to the Treaty of Versailles. Those parts contained 25,313 inhabitants; the parts east of the Vistula to which the town Marienwerder-Kwidzyn) belonged, numbered 43,113 inhabitants, 87.6% of which spoke German and these expressed their national preference in anticipation of the definitive allocation and drawing of new national borders.
A plébiscite was needed to draw this new state border between Germany and the newly erected Polish republic. During the East Prussian plebiscite, some 95% of the population of the contested eastern parts - the districts of Marienwerder-Kwidzyn and Allenstein-Olsztyn - voted to remain in East Prussia, in Germany; the vote was boycotted by the ethnic Polish minority, confronted by the persecution of Polish activists by German nationalists. On November 10, 1937, when the Nazi regime was in power in Germany, a Polish private high school was opened in Kwidzyn, it was forcibly closed down on August 25, 1939. On January 30, 1945 during World War II, the town was captured by the Soviet Red Army; the Red Army established a war hospital in the town for 20,000 people. The town centre was pillaged by Soviet soldiers. After World War II, the region was placed under Polish administration by the Potsdam Agreement, under territorial changes demanded by the Soviet Union. Most of the people of the town and district were Germans who fled or were expelled by Polish authorities, were to be replaced with Poles, some of whom had themselves been expelled from the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union.
In 1947, Ukrainians from the Soviet border regions were forced to settle in the area as a result of Operation Vistula. Burned parts of the town's centre were dismantled to provide material for the rebuilding of Warsaw after its destruction in the Warsaw Uprising. Kwidzyn is located on the east bank of the Vistula river 70 kilometres south of Gdańsk and 145 kilometres southwest of Kaliningrad; the Kwidzyn Castle is a ruined 14th century Brick Gothic Ordensburg castle of the Teutonic Order, namely the Bishops of Pomesania. A large cathedral built between 1343 and 1384 is connected to the castle, it contains the tombs of three Grand Masters of the Teutonic Knights as well as numerous bishops. A bridge connects the castle to a sewer tower; this tower used to be by a river. Kwidzyn has a Catholic church and a cathed
Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick III was Holy Roman Emperor from 1452 until his death. He was the first emperor of the House of Habsburg, the fourth member of the House of Habsburg to be elected King of Germany after Rudolf I of Germany, Albert I in the 13th century and his predecessor Albert II of Germany, he was the penultimate emperor to be crowned by the Pope, the last to be crowned in Rome. Prior to his imperial coronation, he was duke of the Inner Austrian lands of Styria and Carniola from 1424, acted as regent over the Duchy of Austria from 1439, he was elected and crowned King of Germany in 1440. He was the longest-reigning German monarch when in 1493, after ruling his domains for more than 53 years, he was succeeded by his son Maximilian I. During his reign, Frederick concentrated on re-uniting the Habsburg "hereditary lands" of Austria and took a lesser interest in Imperial affairs. By his dynastic entitlement to Hungary as well as by the Burgundian inheritance, he laid the foundations for the Habsburg Empire.
Mocked as "Arch-Sleepyhead of the Holy Roman Empire" during his lifetime, he is today seen as an efficient ruler. Born at the Tyrolean residence of Innsbruck in 1415, Frederick was the eldest son of the Inner Austrian duke Ernest the Iron, a member of the Leopoldian line of the Habsburg dynasty, his second wife Cymburgis of Masovia. According to the 1379 Treaty of Neuberg, the Leopoldinian branch ruled over the duchies of Styria and Carniola, or what was referred to as Inner Austria. Only three of Frederick's eight siblings survived childhood: his younger brother Albert, his sisters Margaret and Catherine. In 1424, nine-year-old Frederick's father died, making Frederick the duke of Inner Austria, as Frederick V, with his uncle, Duke Frederick IV of Tyrol, acting as regent. From 1431, Frederick tried for several years was denied by his relatives. In 1435, Albert V, duke of Austria, awarded him the rule over his Inner Austrian heritage. From the beginning, Frederick's younger brother Albert asserted his rights as a co-ruler, as the beginning of a long rivalry.
In these years, Frederick had begun to use the symbolic A. E. I. O. U. Signature as a kind of motto with various meanings. In 1436 he made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, accompanied by numerous nobles knighted by the Order of the Holy Sepulchre, which earned him great reputation. Upon the death of his uncle Duke Frederick IV in 1439, Frederick took over the regency of Tyrol and Further Austria for the duke's heir Sigismund. Again he had to ward off the claims raised by his brother Albert VI, he acted as regent for his nephew Ladislaus the Posthumous, son of late King Albert II and his consort Elizabeth of Luxembourg, in the duchy of Austria.. Frederick was now the undisputed head of the Habsburg dynasty, though his regency in the lands of the Albertinian Line was still viewed with suspicion; as a cousin of late King Albert II, Frederick became a candidate for the imperial election. On 2 February 1440, the prince-electors convened at Frankfurt and unanimously elected him King of the Romans as Frederick IV.
In 1442, Frederick allied himself with Rudolf Stüssi, burgomaster of Zurich, against the Old Swiss Confederacy in the Old Zurich War but lost. In 1448, he entered into the Concordat of Vienna with the Holy See, which remained in force until 1806 and regulated the relationship between the Habsburgs and the Holy See. In 1452, at the age of 37, Frederick III travelled to Italy to receive his bride and to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor, his fiancée, the 18-year-old infanta Eleanor, daughter of King Edward of Portugal, landed at Livorno after a 104-day trip. Her dowry would help Frederick cement his power; the couple proceeded together to Rome. As per tradition, they spent a night outside the walls of Rome before entering the city on 9 March, where Frederick and Pope Nicholas V exchanged friendly greetings; because the emperor had been unable to retrieve the Iron Crown of Lombardy from the cathedral of Monza where it was kept, nor be crowned King of Italy by the archbishop of Milan, he convinced the pope to crown him as such with the German crown, brought for the purpose.
This coronation took place on the morning of 16 March, in spite of the protests of the Milanese ambassadors, in the afternoon Frederick and Eleanor were married by the pope. On 19 March and Eleanor were anointed in St Peter's Basilica by the Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, Cardinal Francesco Condulmer, Frederick was crowned with the Imperial Crown by the pope. Frederick was the last Emperor to be crowned in Rome. Frederick's style of rulership was marked by a sluggish pace of decision making; the Italian humanist Enea Silvio Piccolomini Pope Pius II, who at one time worked at Frederick's court, described the Emperor as a person who wanted to conquer the world while remaining seated. Although this was regarded as a character flaw in older academic research, his delaying tactics are now viewed as a means of coping with politica
Gdańsk is a Polish city on the Baltic coast. With a population of 464,254, Gdańsk is the capital and largest city of the Pomeranian Voivodeship and the capital of Kashubia, it is the centre of the country's fourth-largest metropolitan area. The city is located on the southern edge of Gdańsk Bay, in a conurbation with the city of Gdynia, spa town of Sopot, suburban communities, which together form a metropolitan area called the Tricity, with a population approaching 1.4 million. Gdańsk is the largest city of Kashubia. With its origins as a Polish stronghold erected in the 980s by Mieszko I of Poland, the city's history is complex, with periods of Polish rule, periods of Prussian or German rule, periods of autonomy or self-rule as a "free city". In the early-modern age Gdańsk was a royal city of Poland, it was considered the wealthiest and the largest city of Poland, prior to the 18th century rapid growth of Warsaw. Between the world wars, the Free City of Danzig, having a majority of German population, was in a customs union with Poland and was situated between German East Prussia and the so-called Polish Corridor.
Gdańsk lies at the mouth of the Motława River, connected to the Leniwka, a branch in the delta of the nearby Vistula River, which drains 60 percent of Poland and connects Gdańsk with the Polish capital, Warsaw. Together with the nearby port of Gdynia, Gdańsk is a notable industrial center. In the late Middle Ages it was an important seaport and shipbuilding town and, in the 14th and 15th centuries, a member of the Hanseatic League. In the interwar period, owing to its multi-ethnic make-up and history, Gdańsk lay in a disputed region between Poland and the Weimar Republic, which became Nazi Germany; the city's ambiguous political status was exploited, furthering tension between the two countries, which would culminate in the Invasion of Poland and the first clash of the Second World War just outside the city limits. In the 1980s it would become the birthplace of the Solidarity movement, which played a major role in bringing an end to Communist rule in Poland and helped precipitate the collapse of the Eastern Bloc, the fall of the Berlin Wall and the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Gdańsk is home to the University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk University of Technology, the National Museum, the Gdańsk Shakespeare Theatre, the Museum of the Second World War, Polish Baltic Philharmonic and the European Solidarity Centre. The city hosts St. Dominic's Fair, which dates back to 1260, is regarded as one of the biggest trade and cultural events in Europe; the city's name is thought to originate from the Gdania River, the original name of the Motława branch on which the city is situated. The name of a settlement was recorded after St. Adalbert's death in AD 997 as urbs Gyddanyzc and was written as Kdanzk in 1148, Gdanzc in 1188, Danceke in 1228, Gdansk in 1236, Danzc in 1263, Danczk in 1311, Danczik in 1399, Danczig in 1414, Gdąnsk in 1656. In Polish the modern name of the city is pronounced. In English the usual pronunciation is or; the German name, "Danzig", is pronounced as. The city's Latin name may be given as either Gedanum or Dantiscum. Other former spellings of the name include Dantzig and Dantzic.
On special occasions the city is referred to as "The Royal Polish City of Gdańsk". In the Kashubian language the city is called Gduńsk. Kashubians use the name "Our Capital City Gduńsk" or "The Kashubian Capital City Gduńsk"; the first written record thought to refer to Gdańsk is the vita of Saint Adalbert. Written in 999, it describes how in 997 Saint Adalbert of Prague baptised the inhabitants of urbs Gyddannyzc, "which separated the great realm of the duke from the sea." No further written sources exist for the 11th centuries. Based on the date in Adalbert's vita, the city celebrated its millennial anniversary in 1997. Archaeological evidence for the origins of the town was retrieved after World War II had laid 90 percent of the city center in ruins, enabling excavations; the oldest seventeen settlement levels were dated to between 980 and 1308. It is thought that Mieszko I of Poland erected a stronghold on the site in the 980s, thereby connecting the Polish state ruled by the Piast dynasty with the trade routes of the Baltic Sea.
Traces of buildings and housing from 10th century have been found in archaeological excavations of the city. The site was ruled as a duchy of Poland by the Samborides, it consisted of a settlement at the modern Long Market, settlements of craftsmen along the Old Ditch, German merchant settlements around St Nicholas's church and the old Piast stronghold. In 1186, a Cistercian monastery was set up in nearby Oliwa, now within the city limits. In 1215, the ducal stronghold became the centre of a Pomerelian splinter duchy. At that time the area of the city included various villages. From at least 1224/25 a German market settlement with merchants from Lübeck existed in the area of today's Long Market. In 1224/25, merchants from Lübeck were invited as "hospites" but were soon forced to leave by Swantopolk II of the Samborides during a war between Swantopolk and the Teutonic Knights, during which Lübeck supported the latter. Migrat