Pseudohistory is a form of pseudoscholarship that attempts to distort or misrepresent the historical record using methods resembling those used in legitimate historical research. The related term cryptohistory is applied to a pseudohistory based upon or derived from the superstitions inherent to occultism. Pseudohistory is related to pseudoscience and pseudoarchaeology and usage of the terms may overlap. Although pseudohistory comes in many forms, scholars have identified many features that tend to be common in pseudohistorical works. One such feature is that pseudohistory is nearly always motivated by a contemporary political, religious, or personal agenda. Pseudohistory frequently presents a big lie or sensational claims about historical facts which would require the radical revision of the historical record. Another common feature of pseudohistory is the assumption that there is a conspiracy among scholars to suppress the "true" history. Works of pseudohistory rely on sources that appear to support the thesis being promoted while ignoring sources that contradict it.
Many works of pseudohistory treat myths and other unreliable sources as literal historical truth while ignoring or dismissing evidence to the contrary. Sometimes a work of pseudohistory may adopt a position of extreme skepticism, sometimes insisting that there is no such thing as historical truth and that any hypothesis is just as good as any other. Many works of pseudohistory conflate mere possibility with actuality, assuming that if something could have happened it did; the term pseudohistory was coined in the early nineteenth century, which makes the word older than the related terms pseudo-scholarship and pseudoscience. In an attestation from 1815, it is used to refer to the Contest of Homer and Hesiod, a purportedly historical narrative describing an fictional contest between the Greek poets Homer and Hesiod; the pejorative sense of the term, labelling a flawed or disingenuous work of historiography, is found in another 1815 attestation. Pseudohistory is akin to pseudoscience in that both forms of falsification are achieved using the methodology that purports to, but does not, adhere to the established standards of research for the given field of intellectual enquiry of which the pseudoscience claims to be a part, which offers little or no supporting evidence for its plausibility.
Writers Michael Shermer and Alex Grobman define pseudohistory as "the rewriting of the past for present personal or political purposes". Other writers take a broader definition. Robert Todd Carroll has developed a list of criteria to identify pseudo-historic works, he states that: "Pseudohistory is purported history which: Treats myths, legends and similar literature as literal truth Is neither critical nor skeptical in its reading of ancient historians, taking their claims at face value and ignoring empirical or logical evidence contrary to the claims of the ancients Is on a mission, not a quest, seeking to support some contemporary political or religious agenda rather than find out the truth about the past Often denies that there is such a thing as historical truth, clinging to the extreme skeptical notion that only what is certain can be called'true' and nothing is certain, so nothing is true Often maintains that history is nothing but mythmaking and that different histories are not to be compared on such traditional academic standards as accuracy, empirical probability, logical consistency, completeness, honesty, etc. but on moral or political grounds Is selective in its use of ancient documents, citing favorably those that fit with its agenda, ignoring or interpreting away those documents which don't fit Considers the possibility of something being true as sufficient to believe it is true if it fits with one's agenda Often maintains that there is a conspiracy to suppress its claims because of racism, atheism or ethnocentrism, or because of opposition to its political or religious agenda"Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke prefers the term "cryptohistory."
He identifies two necessary elements as "a complete ignorance of the primary sources" and the repetition of "inaccuracies and wild claims". Other common characteristics of pseudohistory are: The arbitrary linking of disparate events so as to form – in the theorist's opinion – a pattern; this is then developed into a conspiracy theory postulating a hidden agent responsible for creating and maintaining the pattern. For example, the pseudohistorical The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail links the Knights Templar, the medieval Grail Romances, the Merovingian Frankish dynasty and the artist Nicolas Poussin in an attempt to identify lineal descendants of Jesus. Hypothesising the consequences of unlikely events that "could" have happened, thereby assuming tacitly that they did. Sensationalism, or shock value Cherry picking evidence that helps the historical argument being made and suppressing evidence that hurts it; the following are some common categories of pseudohistorical theory, with examples. Note that not all theories in a listed category are pseudohistorical.
Immanuel Velikovsky's books Worlds in Collision, Ages in Chaos, Earth in Upheaval, which became "instant bestsellers", demonstrated that pseudohistory based on ancient mythology held potential for tremendous financial success and became models of success for future works in the
Dean Edmund Haspiel is an American comic book artist and playwright. He is known for creating Billy Dogma, The Red Hook, for his collaborations with writer Harvey Pekar on his American Splendor series as well as the graphic novel The Quitter, for his collaborations with Jonathan Ames on The Alcoholic and HBO's Bored to Death, he has been nominated for numerous Eisner Awards, won a 2010 Emmy Award for TV design work. Haspiel grew up on Manhattan's Upper West Side and attended The High School of Music & Art/Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School, graduating in 1985. In the mid-1980s, Haspiel worked at Upstart Associates as an assistant for Howard Chaykin on American Flagg! and for Walter Simonson on Thor. Haspiel attended the State University of New York at Purchase, first majoring in illustration and switching to film. In 1987, while still an undergraduate, Haspiel inaugurated his professional comics career when he co-created The Verdict with Martin Powell. Haspiel went on to co-create the two-man comics anthology Keyhole with cartoonist Josh Neufeld.
Haspiel's "last romantic anti-hero" Billy Dogma made his comic book debut in Keyhole, has appeared in a number of comics and graphic novels since published by Top Shelf Productions and Alternative Comics. Recent works starring Billy Dogma include Brawl, a "creature romance double feature" mini-series with Michel Fiffe for Image Comics. Haspiel was a long-time collaborator with Harvey Pekar on American Splendor; the culmination of their work together was the 104-page nonfiction graphic novel The Quitter, published by Vertigo in 2005. In 2006 Haspiel spearheaded the foundation of ACT-I-VATE, a webcomics collective which featured the works of founding members Haspiel, Dan Goldman, Nick Bertozzi, Michel Fiffe, Leland Purvis, Nikki Cook, Tim Hamilton, Josh Neufeld. In fall 2008, Vertigo released the original graphic novel The Alcoholic, written by Jonathan Ames and drawn by Haspiel. In 2008, Françoise Mouly's Toon Books published Mo and Jo: Fighting Together Forever, written by Jay Lynch and drawn by Haspiel.
In 2008, Haspiel serialized Street Code, a webcomic for Zuda Comics, after editing the webcomics anthology Next-Door Neighbor for SMITH Magazine. In 2010, IDW/Graphic NYC Presents published the monograph Dean Haspiel: The Early Years, by writer Christopher Irving; that same year, Haspiel illustrated Inverna Lockpez's Cuba: My Revolution, published by Vertigo. The book was covered by, among others, NPR's Tell Me More, the New York Post, Graphic Novel Reporter. In 2010, Haspiel won an Emmy Award for outstanding main title design for the HBO show Bored to Death. In 2011, Haspiel helped spearhead the creation of Trip City, "a Brooklyn-filtered, literary arts salon featuring free regular exclusive content created by a fellowship of 21st Century auteurs." For a period, it was the online home of new Haspiel postings. Since 2016, Haspiel has been writing and drawing the serialized webcomic The Red Hook, about a master thief living in the "New Brooklyn Universe," for Line Webtoon. In 2019, Haspiel and long-time collaborator Josh Neufeld launched a weekly podcast, Scene by Scene with Josh & Dean, that focused on Harvey Pekar and the American Splendor movie.
The Verdict, 4-issue miniseries co-created with writer Martin Powell Keyhole, shared with Josh Neufeld #1–4 #5–6 Billy Dogma #1–3 SLC Punk! Written by James Merendino Daydream Lullabies Opposable Thumbs Boy In My Pocket The Thing: Night Falls on Yancy Street, 4-issue miniseries with writer Evan Dorkin Aim To Dazzle The Quitter with writer Harvey Pekar Immortal webcomic Brawl, 3-issue miniseries shared with Michel Fiffe Fear, My Dear webcomic The Alcoholic with writer Jonathan Ames Mo and Jo: Fighting Together Forever with writer Jay Lynch Street Code webcomic Next-Door Neighbor webcomics anthology, editor Cuba: My Revolution with writer Inverna Lockpez The Last Mortician webcomic with writer Tim Hall The Fox: Freak Magnet with writers Mark Waid and J. M. DeMatteis Beef with Tomato The Fox: Fox Hunt with writer Mark Waid The Red Hook Volume 1: New Brooklyn The Red Hook Volume 2: War Cry Detective Comics #589, 14-page story titled "Bonus Book #5: For the Love of Ivy" with writers Lewis Klahr & Steve Piersall Justice League International #24, 14-page story titled "Bonus Book #13: Maxwell Lord" with writer David Levin Caliber Presents #s 16–21, story titled "The Verdict: The Acolyte" with writer Martin Powell Negative Burn #27, 1-page story titled "Lionel's Lament" Negative Burn #28, 1-page story titled "Lionel's Lament" with cartoonist Josh Neufeld Negative Burn #32, 1-page story titled "You're Lying To Me" (Caliber Comics, 19
Bipul Chettri is an Indian singer/songwriter who sings in the Nepali language and plays Himalayan folk music with a contemporary touch. His debut album, Sketches of Darjeeling, was released in July 2014 and his follow-up album, Maya in 2016. Bipul's grandfather was his grandmother used to play the sitar, his father picked up his parent's talent and used to perform in Darjeeling and Kurseong but passed away when Bipul was young. Bipul credits his father for his choice of becoming a musician. One of the tracks, "Ram Sailee", from his debut album, is an ode to his father. Bipul attended St. Augustine's School in Kalimpong and subsequently graduated with a LTCL in Western Classical Guitar from the Trinity Music School of London. Bipul's voice and musical abilities were introduced to the world with his song "Wildfire", it was recorded and uploaded on SoundCloud in February 2013. This laid the foundation for his debut album Sketches of Darjeeling, his debut album Sketches of Darjeeling was well received.
He was the'Top Selling Artist for 2014-15, was in the Top Ten for 2015-16, on OKListen. Com, an indie retail music site in India, he won the'Pop-Rock Album of the Year' for'Sketches of Darjeeling','Best Pop-Rock Composition of the Year' &'Best Male Pop Vocal Performance of the Year for his song "Syndicate" at the Hero Hits FM 91.2 Awards. He released his follow-up album, Maya in 2016 and followed it up with five more singles'Basant','Gahiro Gahiro','Ashish','Teesta' and Mughlan. Sketches of Darjeeling Maya Chettri's Website
German submarine U-350 was a Type VIIC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. She carried out no patrols, she did not damage any ships. She was sunk by US bombs in Hamburg in March 1945. German Type VIIC submarines were preceded by the shorter Type VIIB submarines. U-350 had a displacement of 769 tonnes when at the 871 tonnes while submerged, she had a total length of 67.10 m, a pressure hull length of 50.50 m, a beam of 6.20 m, a height of 9.60 m, a draught of 4.74 m. The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower for use while surfaced, two Siemens-Schuckert GU 343/38-8 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower for use while submerged, she had two 1.23 m propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres; the submarine had a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots. When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles at 4 knots.
U-350 was fitted with five 53.3 cm torpedo tubes, fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm SK C/35 naval gun, 220 rounds, two twin 2 cm C/30 anti-aircraft guns. The boat had a complement of between sixty; the submarine was laid down on 15 February 1943 at the Nordseewerke yard at Emden as yard number 222, launched on 17 August and commissioned on 7 October under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Erich Niester. She served with the 31st flotilla from 1 March. U-350 was sunk on 30 March 1945 in Hamburg by bombs from the USAAF. Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIC boat U-350". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 26 December 2014. Hofmann, Markus. "U 350". Deutsche U-Boote 1935-1945 - u-boot-archiv.de. Retrieved 26 December 2014
The 1934 Philadelphia Eagles season was their second in the league. The team failed losing seven games, they failed to qualify for the playoffs for the second consecutive season. The Eagles held their preseason training camp in the New Jersey resort city of Atlantic City, New Jersey. Note: Tie games were not counted in the standings until 1972. In their second year of existence the Eagles failed to play for the NFL Championship. Being a 2nd year expansion team the Eagles were stocked with Rookies and 1st or 2nd years players; this was. All the NFL teams competed for the same players in an open market. A List of the 1933 Philadelphia Eagles. Tom "Swede" Hanson ties as NFL Leader in Rushing Attempts with 146 attempts Tom Hanson finishes 2nd in yards rushing with 805 yards. Joe Carter ties for league lead with 16 receptions, Receiving yards with 14.9 yards/catch. Joe Carter finished 2nd in 4 Receiving TDs Ed Matesic ties for league lead in Interception TD Returns with 1 Al Weiner finished the season with only 1 FG with.
The leader Jack Manders had 10, 5 finished second with 4 each
The Durham Museum is located at 801 South 10th Street in downtown Omaha, Nebraska. The museum is dedicated to preserving and displaying the history of the United States' western region; the museum is housed in Omaha's former Union Station. In 1971 after the establishment of the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, Union Pacific Railroad closed Union Station; the first suggestion in print that the building be used as a museum appeared in the Public Pulse of the World Herald on April 5, 1971 in a letter from John Edward Peterson. He suggested that either the City of Omaha or Joslyn purchase the building and develop it into a museum, he wrote, "Maybe the Union Pacific would be willing to sell the station rather cheaply or donate it." The station was donated to the City of Omaha in 1973 and two years the Western Heritage Museum opened. The museum closed from 1995 to 1996 for a $22 million renovation project funded by Charles and Margre Durham. For their contributions on the project, the Western Heritage Museum was renamed the Durham Western Heritage Museum the following year.
On April 6, 2008 the Durham Western Heritage Museum became the Durham Museum. The change was driven by recent partnerships Smithsonian Institution, the Library of Congress and the National Archives which have provided the museum with a larger range of exhibits and programming not limited to western heritage; the museum is an affiliate within the Smithsonian Affiliations program. According to experts, "Byron Reed was one of the greatest collectors of the 19th century," with a reputation as a numismatist, "largely unrecognized." According to Larry Wilson, a historian and numismatic researcher for the Independent Coin Grading Service, "The exhibit is an environmental museum where the visitors walk through a replication of the original Byron Reed Library. The coins are displayed in beautiful dark wooden cases that give the visitors the sense they are part of the exhibit, it gave me the feeling I was back in the 1880's sitting in Byron Reed's library examining his coins with him. The exhibit includes an abundance of historical information on the times.
I know visitors will be impressed with the quality of the exhibit and the magnificence of the coins displayed." Donated to the City of Omaha upon Reed's death, today the collection is housed at the Durham Museum. The Trish & Dick Davidson Gallery has a variety of commerce exhibits. Bekins Moving & Storage restored 1922 Mack flatbed truck and wall displays tell the story of one of Omaha's great companies. Buffett Grocery Store replica store front of the original Buffett Grocery Store that opened in 1915. Drew's Antiques are some of the finest antiques from the Museum's collections. O Scale Model Train has layout with a depot and diorama that represents Union Pacific's double track main line from Omaha to Ogden during the 1950s; the following train cars and locomotives are on display: Union Pacific 1243 Steam Locomotive Union Pacific 25559 Caboose Union Pacific 1202 Pullman Sleeper “National Command” Southern Pacific 2986 Lounge Car Pullman Observation Car “Cornhusker Club” Omaha and Council Bluffs Railway and Bridge Company Streetcar An authentic streetcar that took people through the neighborhoods of Omaha during the 1940s.
History of Omaha Union Station Durham Museum