SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Pseudoscience

Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual but are incompatible with the scientific method. Pseudoscience is characterized by contradictory, exaggerated or unfalsifiable claims; the term pseudoscience is considered pejorative, because it suggests something is being presented as science inaccurately or deceptively. Those described as practicing or advocating pseudoscience dispute the characterization; the demarcation between science and pseudoscience has scientific implications. Differentiating science from pseudoscience has practical implications in the case of health care, expert testimony, environmental policies, science education. Distinguishing scientific facts and theories from pseudoscientific beliefs, such as those found in astrology, alternative medicine, occult beliefs, religious beliefs, creation science, is part of science education and scientific literacy. Pseudoscience can be harmful. For example, pseudoscientific anti-vaccine activism and promotion of homeopathic remedies as alternative disease treatments can result in people forgoing important medical treatment with demonstrable health benefits.

The word pseudoscience is derived from the Greek root pseudo meaning false and the English word science, from the Latin word scientia, meaning "knowledge". Although the term has been in use since at least the late 18th century, the concept of pseudoscience as distinct from real or proper science seems to have become more widespread during the mid-19th century. Among the earliest uses of "pseudo-science" was in an 1844 article in the Northern Journal of Medicine, issue 387: That opposite kind of innovation which pronounces what has been recognized as a branch of science, to have been a pseudo-science, composed of so-called facts, connected together by misapprehensions under the disguise of principles. An earlier use of the term was in 1843 by the French physiologist François Magendie, that refers to phrenology as "a pseudo-science of the present day". During the 20th century, the word was used pejoratively to describe explanations of phenomena which were claimed to be scientific, but which were not in fact supported by reliable experimental evidence.

From time-to-time, the usage of the word occurred in a more formal, technical manner in response to a perceived threat to individual and institutional security in a social and cultural setting. Pseudoscience is differentiated from science because – although it claims to be science – pseudoscience does not adhere to accepted scientific standards, such as the scientific method, falsifiability of claims, Mertonian norms. A number of basic principles are accepted by scientists as standards for determining whether a body of knowledge, method, or practice is scientific. Experimental results should be verified by other researchers; these principles are intended to ensure experiments can be reproduced measurably given the same conditions, allowing further investigation to determine whether a hypothesis or theory related to given phenomena is valid and reliable. Standards require the scientific method to be applied throughout, bias to be controlled for or eliminated through randomization, fair sampling procedures, blinding of studies, other methods.

All gathered data, including the experimental or environmental conditions, are expected to be documented for scrutiny and made available for peer review, allowing further experiments or studies to be conducted to confirm or falsify results. Statistical quantification of significance and error are important tools for the scientific method. During the mid-20th century, the philosopher Karl Popper emphasized the criterion of falsifiability to distinguish science from nonscience. Statements, hypotheses, or theories have falsifiability or refutability if there is the inherent possibility that they can be proven false; that is, if it is possible to conceive of an argument which negates them. Popper used astrology and psychoanalysis as examples of pseudoscience and Einstein's theory of relativity as an example of science, he subdivided nonscience into philosophical, mythological and metaphysical formulations on one hand, pseudoscientific formulations on the other. Another example which shows the distinct need for a claim to be falsifiable was stated in Carl Sagan's publication The Demon-Haunted World when he discusses an invisible dragon that he has in his garage.

The point is made. Whatever test one thinks can be devised, there is a reason why it does not apply to the invisible dragon, so one can never prove that the initial claim is wrong. Sagan concludes, he states that "your inability to invalidate my hypothesis is not at all the same thing as proving it true", once again explaining that if such a claim were true, it would be outside the realm of scientific inquiry. During 1942, Robert K. Merton identified a set of five "norms" which he characterized as what makes a real science. If any of the norms were violated, Merton considered the enterprise to be nonscience; these are not broadly accepted by the scientific community. His norms were: Originality: The tests and research done must present something new to the scientific co

Colegio Japon├ęs de Las Palmas

Colegio Japonés de Las Palmas was a Japanese international school in Tafira Alta, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. It opened in October 1973, making it the first Japanese school in Spain and the third-oldest in Europe if the Canary Islands are counted as being in Europe. A Japanese teacher arrived to the island; the school served members of the Japanese community involved in the fishing industry. Due to regulations, the business decreased in size, accordingly the school decreased in size. In 2001 the Japanese fleet was moved from Las Palmas, leading to a reduction in the area's Japanese community; the student body fell below the minimum number supported by the Japanese government. It closed in March 2001, was replaced by the Escuela Complementaria Japonesa de Las Palmas, a part-time school; the decline of the Japanese community of Las Palmas led many institutions catering to the Japanese community, including the day school, to close. The closure of the day school resulted in the demise of the island's Japanese cultural exchange programme.

Colegio Japonés de Las Palmas at the Wayback Machine 坂東省次. "カナリア諸島 たびたびの旅". スペイン語圏を知る本(その31). Kyoto University of Foreign Studies

NUTS 1 statistical regions of England

The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics is a geocode standard by Eurostat for referencing the subdivisions of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland for statistical purposes. The NUTS code for the UK is UK and there are 12 first level regions within the State; as a country of the UK, there are 9 such regions in England. The standard is regulated by the European Union; the NUTS standard is instrumental in delivering the EU's Structural Funds. A hierarchy of three levels is established by Eurostat; the sub-structure corresponds to administrative divisions within the country. The further NUTS divisions IV and V existed. Between 1994 and 2011, the nine regions had an administrative role in the implementation of UK Government policy, as the areas covered by elected bodies; the NUTS 1 statistical regions correspond with the regions of England as used by the UK's Office for National Statistics. UKC. North East UKD. North West UKE. Yorkshire and the Humber UKF. East Midlands UKG.

West Midlands UKH. East of England UKI. London UKJ. South East UKK. South WestGreater London has Assembly; the other eight regions have Local authority leaders' boards, which have a role in coordinating local government on a regional level, with members appointed by local government bodies. These boards replaced indirectly elected regional assemblies, which were established in 1994 and undertook a range of co-ordinating, lobbying and strategic planning functions until their abolition; each region of England is divided into a range of non-metropolitan counties. For NUTS purposes, these subdivisions are formally known as NUTS levels 2 and 3. London region is divided intoLondon boroughs All other regions are divided intometropolitan counties shire counties and unitary authorities. Regions of England Historical and alternative regions of England NUTS statistical regions of the United Kingdom List of articles about local government in the United Kingdom Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics Local Government Boundary Commission for England Dept of Communities and Local Government