Pseudouridine

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Pseudouridine
Pseudouridine.svg
Names
IUPAC name
5-[(2S,3R,4S,5R)-3,4-Dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-oxolan-2-yl]-1H-pyrimidine-2,4-dione
Preferred IUPAC name
5-(β-D-ribofuranosyl)pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione
Other names
psi-Uridine, 5-Ribosyluracil, beta-D-Pseudouridine, 5-(beta-D-Ribofuranosyl)uracil
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
Properties
C9H12N2O6
Molar mass 244.20 g/mol
Appearance White granular powder
Highly soluble in water.
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Pseudouridine (abbreviated by the Greek letter psi- Ψ or the letter Q)[1] is an isomer of the nucleoside uridine in which the uracil is attached via a carbon-carbon instead of a nitrogen-carbon glycosidic bond. (In this configuration uracil is sometimes referred to as 'pseudouracil'.) It is the most prevalent of the over one hundred different modified nucleosides found in RNA.[2] Ψ is found in all species and in many classes of RNA.[3][4] [5][6] Ψ is formed by enzymes called Ψ synthases, which post-transcriptionally isomerize specific uridine residues in RNA in a process termed pseudouridylation.[7] Currently, about ∼ 9500 pseudouridine (Ψ) modifications have been identified in mammals and yeast and deposited in RMBase database.[8]

Pseudouridine is biosynthesized from uridine via the action of Ψ synthases.

It is commonly found in tRNA, associated with thymidine and cytosine in the TΨC arm and is one of the invariant regions of tRNA; the function of it is not very clear, but it is expected to play a role in association with aminoacyl transferases during their interaction with tRNA, and hence in the initiation of translation. Recent studies suggest it may offer protection from radiation.[9]

A tRNAAla from S. cerevisiae.
Pseudouridine = Ψ

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ IUPAC-IUB Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature (1970). "Abbreviations and symbols for nucleic acids, polynucleotides, and their constituents". Biochemistry. 9 (20): 4022–4027. doi:10.1021/bi00822a023.
  2. ^ Hamma T, Ferré-D'Amaré AR (2006). "Pseudouridine synthases". Chem. Biol. 13 (11): 1125–1135. doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2006.09.009. PMID 17113994.
  3. ^ Charette M, Gray MW (2000). "Pseudouridine in RNA: what, where, how, and why". IUBMB Life. 49 (5): 341–351. doi:10.1080/152165400410182. PMID 10902565.
  4. ^ Liang XH, Xu YX, MIchaeli S (2002). "The spliced leader-associated RNA is a trypanosome-specific sn(o) RNA that has the potential to guide pseudouridine formation on the SL RNA". RNA. 8 (2): 237–246. doi:10.1017/S1355838202018290. PMC 1370245. PMID 11911368.
  5. ^ Carlile, Thomas (2014-09-05). "Pseudouridine profiling reveals regulated mRNA pseudouridylation in yeast and human cells". Nature. 515 (7525): 143–6. doi:10.1038/nature13802. PMC 4224642. PMID 25192136.
  6. ^ Schwartz, Schraga (2014-09-11). "Transcriptome-wide Mapping Reveals Widespread Dynamic-Regulated Pseudouridylation of ncRNA and mRNA". Cell. 159 (1): 148–62. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.08.028. PMC 4180118. PMID 25219674.
  7. ^ Ferré-D'Amaré AR (2003). "RNA-modifying enzymes". Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 13 (1): 49–55. doi:10.1016/S0959-440X(02)00002-7. PMID 12581659.
  8. ^ Sun, WJ; Li, JH; Liu, S; Wu, J; Zhou, H; Qu, LH; Yang, JH (4 January 2016). "RMBase: a resource for decoding the landscape of RNA modifications from high-throughput sequencing data". Nucleic Acids Research. 44 (D1): D259–65. doi:10.1093/nar/gkv1036. PMC 4702777. PMID 26464443.
  9. ^ Monobe, Manami; Arimoto-Kobayashi, Sakae; Ando, Koichi (2003). "β-Pseudouridine, a beer component, reduces radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes". Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis. 538 (1–2): 93–99. doi:10.1016/S1383-5718(03)00094-9. PMID 12834758.