The xylophone is a musical instrument in the percussion family that consists of wooden bars struck by mallets. Each bar is an idiophone tuned to a pitch of a musical scale, whether pentatonic or heptatonic in the case of many African and Asian instruments, diatonic in many western children's instruments, or chromatic for orchestral use; the term xylophone may be used to include all such instruments such as the marimba and the semantron. However, in the orchestra, the term xylophone refers to a chromatic instrument of somewhat higher pitch range and drier timbre than the marimba, these two instruments should not be confused; the term is popularly used to refer to similar instruments of the lithophone and metallophone types. For example, the Pixiphone and many similar toys described by the makers as xylophones have bars of metal rather than of wood, so are in organology regarded as glockenspiels rather than as xylophones; the bars of metal sound more high-pitched than the wooden ones. The modern western xylophone has bars of rosewood, padauk, or various synthetic materials such as fiberglass or fiberglass-reinforced plastic which allows a louder sound.
Some can be as small a range as 2 1⁄2 octaves but concert xylophones are 3 1⁄2 or 4 octaves. The xylophone is a transposing instrument: its parts are written one octave below the sounding notes. Concert xylophones have tube resonators below the bars to sustain. Frames are made of wood or cheap steel tubing: more expensive xylophones feature height adjustment and more stability in the stand. In other music cultures some versions have gourds that act as Helmholtz resonators. Others are "trough" xylophones with a single hollow body. Old methods consisted of arranging the bars on tied bundles of straw, and, as still practiced today, placing the bars adjacent to each other in a ladder-like layout. Ancient mallets were made of willow wood with spoon-like bowls on the beaten ends. Xylophones should be played with hard rubber, polyball, or acrylic mallets. Sometimes medium to hard rubber mallets hard core, or yarn mallets are used for softer effects. Lighter tones can be created on xylophones by using wooden-headed mallets made from rosewood, birch, or other hard woods.
The instrument has obscure ancient origins. According to Nettl, it originated in southeast Asia and came to Africa c. AD 500 when a group of Malayo-Polynesian speaking peoples migrated to Africa. One piece of evidence for this is the similarity between East African xylophone orchestras and Javanese and Balinese gamelan orchestras. This, however has been questioned by ethnomusicologist and linguist Roger Blench who posits an independent origin in Africa; the earliest evidence of a true xylophone is from the 9th century in southeast Asia, while a similar hanging wood instrument, a type of harmonicon, is said by the Vienna Symphonic Library to have existed in 2000 BC in what is now part of China. The xylophone-like ranat was used in Hindu regions. In Indonesia, few regions have their own type of xylophones. In North Sumatra, The Toba Batak people use wooden xylophones known as the Garantung. Java and Bali use xylophones in gamelan ensembles, they still have traditional significance in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and regions of the Americas.
Myanmar xylophone is known as Pattala and is made of bamboo. The term marimba is applied to various traditional folk instruments such as the West Africa balafon. Early forms were constructed of bars atop a gourd; the wood is first roasted around a fire before shaping the key to achieve the desired tone. The resonator is tuned to the key through careful choice of size of resonator, adjustment of the diameter of the mouth of the resonator using wasp wax and adjustment of the height of the key above the resonator. A skilled maker can produce startling amplification; the mallets used to play dibinda and mbila have heads made from natural rubber taken from a wild creeping plant. "Interlocking" or alternating rhythm features in Eastern African xylophone music such as that of the Makonde dimbila, the Yao mangolongondo or the Shirima mangwilo in which the opachera, the initial caller, is responded to by another player, the wakulela. This doubles an rapid rhythmic pulse that may co-exist with a counter-rhythm.
The mbila is associated in southern Mozambique. It is not to be confused with the mbira; the style of music played on it is believed to be the most sophisticated method of composition yet found among preliterate peoples. The gourd-resonated, equal-ratio heptatonic-tuned mbila of Mozambique is played in large ensembles in a choreographed dance depicting a historical drama. Ensembles consist of around ten xylophones of four sizes. A full orchestra would have two bass instruments called gulu with three or four wooden keys played standing up using heavy mallets with solid rubber heads, three tenor dibinda, with ten keys and played seated, the mbila itself, which has up to nineteen keys of which up to eight may be played simultaneously; the gulu uses dibinda Masala apple shells as resonators. They accompany the dance with long compositions called ngomi or mgodo and consist of about 10 pieces of music grouped into 4 separate movements, with an overture, in different tempos and styles; the ensemble leader serves as poet, composer and performer, creating a text, improvising a melody based on the features of the Chopi tone language and composin
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor. Monophyletic groups are characterised by shared derived characteristics, which distinguish organisms in the clade from other organisms; the arrangement of the members of a monophyletic group is called a monophyly. Monophyly is contrasted with polyphyly as shown in the second diagram. A paraphyletic group consists of all of the descendants of a common ancestor minus one or more monophyletic groups. A polyphyletic group is characterized by convergent habits of scientific interest; the features by which a polyphyletic group is differentiated from others are not inherited from a common ancestor. These definitions have taken some time to be accepted; when the cladistics school of thought became mainstream in the 1960s, several alternative definitions were in use. Indeed, taxonomists sometimes used terms without defining them, leading to confusion in the early literature, a confusion which persists.
The first diagram shows a phylogenetic tree with two monophyletic groups. The several groups and subgroups are situated as branches of the tree to indicate ordered lineal relationships between all the organisms shown. Further, any group may be considered a taxon by modern systematics, depending upon the selection of its members in relation to their common ancestor; the term monophyly, or monophyletic, derives from the two Ancient Greek words μόνος, meaning "alone, unique", φῦλον, meaning "genus, species", refers to the fact that a monophyletic group includes organisms consisting of all the descendants of a unique common ancestor. Conversely, the term polyphyly, or polyphyletic, builds on the ancient greek prefix πολύς, meaning "many, a lot of", refers to the fact that a polyphyletic group includes organisms arising from multiple ancestral sources. By comparison, the term paraphyly, or paraphyletic, uses the ancient greek prefix παρά, meaning "beside, near", refers to the situation in which one or several monophyletic subgroups are left apart from all other descendants of a unique common ancestor.
That is, a paraphyletic group is nearly monophyletic, hence the prefix pará. On the broadest scale, definitions fall into two groups. Willi Hennig defined monophyly as groups based on synapomorphy; some authors have sought to define monophyly to include paraphyly as any two or more groups sharing a common ancestor. However, this broader definition encompasses both monophyletic and paraphyletic groups as defined above. Therefore, most scientists today restrict the term "monophyletic" to refer to groups consisting of all the descendants of one common ancestor. However, when considering taxonomic groups such as genera and species, the most appropriate nature of their common ancestor is unclear. Assuming that it would be one individual or mating pair is unrealistic for sexually reproducing species, which are by definition interbreeding populations. Monophyly and associated terms are restricted to discussions of taxa, are not accurate when used to describe what Hennig called tokogenetic relationships—now referred to as genealogies.
Some argue that using a broader definition, such as a species and all its descendants, does not work to define a genus. The loose definition fails to recognize the relations of all organisms. According to D. M. Stamos, a satisfactory cladistic definition of a species or genus is impossible because many species may form by "budding" from an existing species, leaving the parent species paraphyletic. Clade Crown group Glossary of scientific naming Monotypic taxon Paraphyly Polyphyly Abbey, Darren. "Graphical explanation of basic phylogenetic terms". University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved 15 January 2010. Carr, Steven M.. "Concepts of monophyly, polyphyly & paraphyly". Memorial University. Retrieved 15 January 2010. Hyvönen, Jaako. "Monophyly, compromise". University of Helsinki. Retrieved 15 January 2010
The forms of Chinese furniture evolved along three distinct lineages which dates back to 1000 BC, based on frame and panel and rack and bamboo construction techniques. Chinese home furniture evolved independently of Western furniture into many similar forms including chairs, stools, cabinets and sofas; until about the 10th century CE the Chinese sat on mats or low platforms using low tables, in typical Asian style, but gradually moved to using high tables with chairs. Chinese furniture is in plain polished wood, but from at least the Song dynasty the most luxurious pieces used lacquer to cover the whole or parts of the visible areas. All the various sub-techniques of Chinese lacquerware can be found on furniture, become affordable down the social scale, so used, from about the Ming dynasty onwards. Carved lacquer furniture was at first only affordable by the imperial family or the rich, but by the 19th century was very expensive, found in smaller pieces or as decorated areas on larger ones.
It was popular on screens, which were common in China. Lacquer inlaid with mother of pearl was a technique used on furniture. Chinese furniture is light where possible, anticipating Europe by several centuries in this respect. Practical fittings in metal such as hinges, lock plates, drawer handles and protective plates at edges or feet are used, given considerable emphasis, but compared to classic fine European furniture purely decorative metal mounts were rare. From the Qing dynasty furniture made for export to Europe, became a distinct style made in rather different shapes to suit the destination markets and decorated in lacquer and other techniques. Chinese furniture for sitting or lying on was often used with cushions, but textiles and upholstery are not, until late historical periods, incorporated into the piece itself in the Western manner. Openwork in carved wood or other techniques is typical for practical purposes such as chair-backs, for decoration; the Ming period is regarded as the "golden age" of Chinese furniture, though few examples of earlier pieces survive.
Ming styles have set the style for furniture in traditional Chinese style in subsequent periods, though as in other areas of Chinese art, the 18th and 19th centuries saw increasing prosperity used for sometimes excessively elaborated pieces, as wider groups in society were able to imitate court styles. What is now considered the Chinese aesthetic had its origins in China as far back as 1500–1000 BC; the furniture present in some of the artwork from that early period shows woven mats on elevated floors, sometimes accompanied by arm rests, providing seating accompanied by low tables. In this early period both unadorned and intricately engraved and painted pieces were developing. High chairs single ones, had existed as status symbols thrones, since at least the Eastern Zhou period, but were not used with tables at the same level. Buddhism, entering China around AD 200, brought with it the idea of sitting upon a raised platform instead of mats; the platform was adopted as an honorific seat for dignitaries or officials.
Longer versions were used for reclining as well, which evolved into the bed and daybed. Taller versions evolved into higher tables as well; the folding stool proliferated after it was adapted from designs developed by nomadic tribes to the North and West, who used them for both their convenience and light weight in many applications such as mounting horses. Woven hourglass-shaped stools evolved; some of the styles now regarded as Chinese began appearing more prominently in the Tang dynasty. It is here that evidence of early versions of the round and yoke back chairs are found used by the elite. By the next two Dynasties the use of varying types of furniture, including chairs and stools was common throughout Chinese society. Two particular developments were waisted tables. Newer and more complex designs were limited to official and higher class use, it was from this basis that more modern Chinese furniture developed its distinguishing characteristics. Use of thick lacquer finish and detailed engraving and painted decoration as well as pragmatic design elements would continue to flourish.
Significant foreign design influence would not be felt until increased contact with the West began in the 19th century, due to efforts on the part of the ruling elite to limit trade. During the Ming and Qing dynasties previous bans on imports were lifted, allowing for larger quantities and varieties of woods to flood in from other parts of Asia; the use of denser wood led including more elaborate joinery. A Ming Imperial table covered in carved lacquer, now in London, is one of the finest survivals of the period. Chinese furniture traditionally consisted of four distinct categories, all formed by the mid Qing dynasty, but each with its own unique characteristics. Beijing category: characterized by its simple build, directly developed from Ming Dynasty furnitures. Guangzhou category: incorporating western influence formed in the 19th century but dating back to at least 17th century. Characterized by the adoptation of Baroque and Rococo artistic styles, use of native timbers in the Lingnan region, the decorative mounting of marble and the shells of shellfish.
Shanghai category: carved lacquer. Suzhou category (苏式家
In music, the organ is a keyboard instrument of one or more pipe divisions or other means for producing tones, each played with its own keyboard, played either with the hands on a keyboard or with the feet using pedals. The organ is a old musical instrument, dating from the time of Ctesibius of Alexandria, who invented the water organ, it was played throughout the Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman world during races and games. During the early medieval period it spread from the Byzantine Empire, where it continued to be used in secular and imperial court music, to Western Europe, where it assumed a prominent place in the liturgy of the Catholic Church. Subsequently it re-emerged as a recital instrument in the Classical music tradition. Pipe organs use air moving through pipes to produce sounds. Since the 16th century, pipe organs have used various materials for pipes, which can vary in timbre and volume. Hybrid organs are appearing in which pipes are augmented with electronic additions. Great economies of space and cost are possible when the lowest of the pipes can be replaced.
Non-piped organs include the reed organ or harmonium, which like the accordion and harmonica use air to excite free reeds. Electronic organs or digital organs, notably the Hammond organ, generate electronically produced sound through one or more loudspeakers. Mechanical organs include the barrel organ, water organ, Orchestrion; these are controlled by mechanical means such as book music. Little barrel organs dispense with the hands of an organist and bigger organs are powered in most cases by an organ grinder or today by other means such as an electric motor; the pipe organ is the largest musical instrument. These instruments vary in size, ranging from a cubic yard to a height reaching five floors, are built in churches, concert halls, homes. Small organs are called "positive" or "portative"; the pipes are controlled by the use of hand stops and combination pistons. Although the keyboard is not expressive as on a piano and does not affect dynamics, some divisions may be enclosed in a swell box, allowing the dynamics to be controlled by shutters.
Some organs are enclosed, meaning that all the divisions can be controlled by one set of shutters. Some special registers with free reed pipes are expressive, it has existed in its current form since the 14th century, though similar designs were common in the Eastern Mediterranean from the early Byzantine period and precursors, such as the hydraulic organ, have been found dating to the late Hellenistic period. Along with the clock, it was considered one of the most complex human-made mechanical creations before the Industrial Revolution. Pipe organs range in size from a single short keyboard to huge instruments with over 10,000 pipes. A large modern organ has three or four keyboards with five octaves each, a two-and-a-half octave pedal board. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart called the organ the "King of instruments"; some of the biggest instruments have 64-foot pipes, it sounds to an 8 Hz frequency fundamental tone. The most distinctive feature is the ability to range from the slightest sound to the most powerful, plein-jeu impressive sonic discharge, which can be sustained in time indefinitely by the organist.
For instance, the Wanamaker organ, located in Philadelphia, USA, has sonic resources comparable with three simultaneous symphony orchestras. Another interesting feature lies in its intrinsic "polyphony" approach: each set of pipes can be played with others, the sounds mixed and interspersed in the environment, not in the instrument itself. Most organs in Europe, the Americas, Australasia can be found in Christian churches; the introduction of church organs is traditionally attributed to Pope Vitalian in the 7th century. Due to its simultaneous ability to provide a musical foundation below the vocal register, support in the vocal register, increased brightness above the vocal register, the organ is ideally suited to accompany human voices, whether a congregation, a choir, or a cantor or soloist. Most services include solo organ repertoire for independent performance rather than by way of accompaniment as a prelude at the beginning the service and a postlude at the conclusion of the service. Today this organ may be a pipe organ, a digital or electronic organ that generates the sound with digital signal processing chips, or a combination of pipes and electronics.
It may be called a church organ or classical organ to differentiate it from the theatre organ, a different style of instrument. However, as classical organ repertoire was developed for the pipe organ and in turn influenced its development, the line between a church and a concert organ became harder to draw. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, symphonic organs flourished in secular venues in the United States and the United Kingdom, designed to replace symphony orchestras by playing transcriptions of orchestral pieces. Symphonic and orchestral organs fell out of favor as the orgelbewegung took hold in the middle of the 20th century, organ builders began to look to historical models for inspiration in constructing new instruments. Today, modern builders construct organs in a variety of styles for both secular a
Pterocarpus erinaceus is a species of tree, native to the Sahelian region of West Africa. It is used for fuel wood, for medicinal purposes, as a woodworking material, is useful as a nitrogen-fixing plant to improve nutrient-depleted farming land, it has several common names, including barwood, African kino tree, vène. Groves of the tree can be found on the savannahs of West Africa, but it is becoming rare and is sometimes cultivated; the tree grows in forests of Comoé National Park in Côte d'Ivoire, a region geographically close to the Sahel but with a higher moisture regime due to its location between two large rivers. The tree grows in abundance in Kurmi Local Govt. of Taraba State in Nigeria. The tree grows to about 11 meters in height on average, bears dark, scaly bark and yellow flowers; the fruits are winged pods. P. erinaceus grows well on sunny, hot African plains with frequent fires. The wood, which varies from yellowish to rosy reds and rich browns, is valued for woodworking, makes good charcoal and fuel wood.
The tree exudes a red sap called kino, used as a dye in tanning and cloth-making. As a legume, the tree harbors rhizobia; such plants are desirable on farmland. In addition, the foliage is a nutritious fodder for farm animals. Mali has an active market for P. erinaceus foliage, in high demand by sheep farmers for fodder. The tree has several medicinal uses, including reduction of cough suppression. Pterocarpus erinaceus is one of the traditional djembe woods, it is the only wood used to make the keys and part of the frame of the balafon and is the most common wood used to make the neck of the kora. Pterocarpus erinaceus was brought to Europe in the 19th century by the Scottish explorer Mungo Park, it is a threatened due to overexploitation, environmental degradation, climatic changes. However, the tree is somewhat prolific and easy to cultivate, so reforestation efforts have shown some success. Other names for the tree include bani in Fulfulde, tolo in Djerma, ban in Serer. Pterocarpus erinaceus in West African plants – A Photo Guide
Pterocarpus soyauxii, the African padauk or African coralwood, is a species of Pterocarpus in the family Fabaceae, native to central and tropical west Africa, from Nigeria east to Congo-Kinshasa and south to Angola. It is a tree growing to 27–34 m tall, with a trunk diameter up to 1 m with flaky reddish-grey bark; the leaves are pinnate, with 11–13 leaflets. The flowers are produced in panicles; the fruit is a thorny pod 6 -- 9 cm long. The leaves are edible, contain large amounts of vitamin C. Bark extracts are used in herbal medicine to treat fungal infections; the wood is valuable. It is resistant to termites, it is valued for making drums in Africa due to its tonal resonance. The wood is favored for its use in stringed instruments for its tonal attributes and durability. Dust from the wood produced during wood processing can cause dermatitis in some people. Native African names include Kisese, Mukula, N'gula, Tacula
A legume is a plant in the family Fabaceae, or the fruit or seed of such a plant. Legumes are grown agriculturally for human consumption, for livestock forage and silage, as soil-enhancing green manure. Well-known legumes include alfalfa, peas, lentils, lupin bean, carob, soybeans and tamarind. Legumes produce a botanically unique type of fruit – a simple dry fruit that develops from a simple carpel and dehisces on two sides. A common name for this type of fruit is a pod, although the term "pod" is applied to a number of other fruit types, such as that of vanilla and of the radish. Legumes are notable in that most of them have symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in structures called root nodules. For that reason, they play a key role in crop rotation; the term pulse, as used by the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization, is reserved for crops harvested for the dry seed. This excludes green peas, which are considered vegetable crops. Excluded are seeds that are grown for oil extraction, seeds which are used for sowing forage.
However, in common usage, these distinctions are not always made, many of the varieties used for dried pulses are used for green vegetables, with their beans in pods while young. Some Fabaceae, such as Scotch broom and other Genisteae, are leguminous but are not called legumes by farmers, who tend to restrict that term to food crops. Farmed legumes can belong to many agricultural classes, including forage, blooms, pharmaceutical/industrial, fallow/green manure, timber species. Most commercially farmed species fill two or more roles depending upon their degree of maturity when harvested. Grain legumes known as pulses, are cultivated for their seeds; the seeds are used for human and animal consumption or for the production of oils for industrial uses. Grain legumes include beans, lupins and peanuts. Legumes are a significant source of protein, dietary fiber and dietary minerals. Like other plant-based foods, pulses contain little fat or sodium. Legumes are an excellent source of resistant starch, broken down by bacteria in the large intestine to produce short-chain fatty acids used by intestinal cells for food energy.
Preliminary studies in humans include the potential for regular consumption of legumes in a plant-based diet to reduce the prevalence or risk of developing metabolic syndrome. There is evidence that a portion of pulses in a diet may help lower blood pressure and reduce LDL cholesterol levels, though there is a concern about the quality of the supporting data. FAO recognizes 11 primary pulses. Dry beans Kidney bean, navy bean, pinto bean, haricot bean Lima bean, butter bean Adzuki bean, azuki bean Mung bean, golden gram, green gram Black gram, urad Scarlet runner bean Ricebean Moth bean Tepary bean Dry broad beans Horse bean Broad bean Field bean Dry peas Garden pea Protein pea Chickpea, Bengal gram Dry cowpea, black-eyed pea, blackeye bean Pigeon pea, Arhar/Toor, cajan pea, Congo bean, gandules Lentil Bambara groundnut, earth pea Vetch, common vetch Lupins Pulses NES, Minor pulses, including: Lablab, hyacinth bean Jack bean, sword bean Winged bean Velvet bean, cowitch Yam bean Forage legumes are of two broad types.
Some, like alfalfa, vetch, stylo, or Arachis, are sown in pasture and grazed by livestock. Other forage legumes such as Leucaena or Albizia are woody shrub or tree species that are either broken down by livestock or cut by humans to provide livestock feed. Legumes base feed fed to animals improves animal performance compared to diets of perennial grass diet. Factors that attribute towards such result: larger consumption, quicker rate of digestion and feed conversion rate efficiency. Legume species grown for their flowers include lupins, which are farmed commercially for their blooms as well as being popular in gardens worldwide. Industrially farmed legumes include Indigofera and Acacia species, which are cultivated for dye and natural gum production, respectively. Fallow/green manure legume species are cultivated to be tilled back into the soil in order to exploit the high levels of captured atmospheric nitrogen found in the roots of most legumes. Numerous legumes farmed for this purpose include Leucaena and Sesbania species.
Various legume species are farmed for timber production worldwide, including numerous Acacia species and Castanospermum australe. Legume trees like the locust trees or the Kentucky coffeetree can be used in permaculture food forests. Other legume tre