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Pterodactylus

Pterodactylus is an extinct genus of pterosaurs, whose members are known as pterodactyls. It is thought to contain only a single species, Pterodactylus antiquus, the first pterosaur species to be named and identified as a flying reptile; the fossil remains of this species have been found in the Solnhofen limestone of Bavaria, dated to the late Jurassic Period, about 150.8–148.5 million years ago, though more fragmentary remains have been tentatively identified from elsewhere in Europe and in Africa. It was a carnivore and preyed upon fish and other small animals. Like all pterosaurs, Pterodactylus had wings formed by a skin and muscle membrane stretching from its elongated fourth finger to its hind limbs, it was supported internally by externally by keratinous ridges. Pterodactylus is known from over 30 fossil specimens, though most of those are juveniles, many preserve complete skeletons. Pterodactylus antiquus was a small pterosaur, with an estimated adult wingspan of about 1.04 meters. Other "species" were once thought to be smaller.

However, these smaller specimens have been shown to represent juveniles of Pterodactylus, as well as its contemporary relatives including Ctenochasma, Aurorazhdarcho, Gnathosaurus. The skulls of adult Pterodactylus were thin with about 90 narrow, conical teeth; the teeth extended back from the tips of both jaws, became smaller farther away from the jaw tips. The teeth extended farther back into the jaw than in close relatives, as some were present below the front of the nasoantorbital fenestra, the largest opening in the skull. Unlike related species, the skull and jaws were straight, not curved upwards. Pterodactylus, like related pterosaurs, had a crest on its skull composed of soft tissues. In adult Pterodactylus, this crest extended between the back edge of the antorbital fenestra and the back of the skull. In at least one specimen, the crest had a short bony base seen in related pterosaurs like Germanodactylus. Solid crests have only been found on large adult specimens of Pterodactylus, indicating that this was a display structure that became larger and more well developed as individuals reached maturity.

Bennett noted that other authors claimed that the soft tissue crest of Pterodactylus extended backward behind the skull. Two specimens of P. antiquus have a low bony crest on their skulls. Several specimens referred to P. antiquus preserved evidence of the soft tissue extensions of these crests, including an "occipital lappet", a flexible, tab-like structure extending from the back of the skull. Most of these specimens have been reclassified in the related species Aerodactylus scolopaciceps, which may however be nothing more than a junior synonym. If Aerodactylus were valid, at least one specimen with these features is still considered to belong to Pterodactylus; this is BSP 1929 I 18, which has an occipital lappet similar to the proposed Aerodactylus definition. This specimen has a small triangular soft tissue crest with the peak of the crest positioned above the eyes. Like other pterosaurs, Pterodactylus specimens can vary based on age or level of maturity. Both the proportions of the limb bones and shape of the skull, size and number of teeth changed as the animals grew.

This has led to various growth stages being mistaken for new species of Pterodactylus. Several detailed studies using various methods to measure growth curves among known specimens have suggested that there is only one valid Pterodactylus species, P. antiquus. The youngest immature Pterodactylus antiquus specimens have a small number of teeth, the teeth have a broad base; the teeth of other P. antiquus specimens are both more numerous. Pterodactylus specimens can be divided into two distinct year classes. In the first year class, the skulls are only 15-45mm in length; the second year class is characterized by skulls still immature. These first two size groups were once classified as juveniles and adults of the species P. kochi, until further study showed that the supposed "adults" were immature, belong to a distinct genus. A third year class is represented by specimens of the "traditional" P. antiquus, as well as a few isolated, large specimens once assigned to P. kochi that overlap P. antiquus in size.

However, all specimens in this third year class show sign of immaturity. Mature Pterodactylus specimens remain unknown, or may have been mistakenly classified as a different genus; the distinct year classes of Pterodactylus antiquus specimens show that this species, like the contemporary Rhamphorhynchus muensteri bred seasonally and grew during its lifetime. A new generation of 1st year class P. antiquus would have been produced seasonally, an

Sperris Quoit

Sperris Quoit is a ruined megalithic burial chamber or dolmen, one of a type of tomb unique to West Penwith, located on a moor around 365 metres northeast of Zennor Quoit, being halfway between Zennor and Amalveor, Cornwall. It is the northernmost quoit in a Scheduled Monument; the word "Sperris" is believed to have been derived from the identical Cornish word "sperris", which means hobgoblin, ghost, or sprite, whereas the word "Quoit" is believed to derive from the Old French word "coite", means "a large flat stone atop a cromlech", or tomb. Sperris Quoit is over 4000 years old, may be older as old as 7000 years, as it has been dated variously at late- or post-neolithic, late mesolithic or neolithic, it was in good condition until at least the early 19th century, but there is evidence that stones have been removed since for local building work in the village of Zennor. The site was rediscovered in 1954 by Wakes, who excavated it in part; the quoit is situated in rough moorland on the side of Zennor Hill, at about 230 metres above sea level, is close to several rocky outcrops.

About 12 metres in diameter, five stones were found during the excavations, two standing, three fallen, of which one has eroded to a stump, although due to heavy vegetation and dense gorse, only one upright of the chamber is visible, over 1.5 metres tall. It is surrounded on all sides by bracken and thick vegetation; the capstone is missing entirely. A cremation pit was discovered during the excavations, the antechamber faces south. Spolia "Sperris Quoit". Megalithic Portal. How to Find Sperris Quoit

The Canon of Judo

The Canon of Judo is a book, published in 1956, written by Kodokan 10th dan, Kyuzo Mifune. The book covers all of the Kodokan recognized techniques, adds variations and new techniques, including Do-Jime in passing as well; the book describes fifteen Kata developed by Mifune to teach adaptation through reversal and counters. The book organizes the techniques differently from the official Kodokan Gokyo; this book is based on new and revised material by the author made between the original publish date and the authors death. The original book, "Canon of Judo", does not contain this information. Furthermore, the original book was translated by K. Sugai; the book gives a brief history of Jujutsu in Japan, gives the lineage of Judo, referencing Jujutsu masters prior to Jigoro Kano. To show the early origins and continuous development of the martial arts in Japan, a long list of historical text sources and schools and styles are mentioned. In the book, Kyuzo Mifune explains his metaphysical view of Judo, its role in Japanese society, benefits to the individual player.

He notes that Judo only included throws, explains the difference between Judo and Ju-jutsu. He discusses the role of competition in Judo, the purpose of free practice and explains that it is an indispensable part of the sport. Although the book mentions the five kata, Nage Kime Katame Ju Koshiki it does not cover them. Furthermore, it does not cover Atemi-waza, but states that Atemi-waza include strikes, kicks and attacks using the fist, elbow, side of the palm, shoulder, or head, to attack the opponents vital points. Lastly before going into each technique in detail, the book covers some basic concepts of techniques, such as Tai-sabaki and Hen-nou, it can be surmised that throwing techniques have at least three phases: Kuzushi, balance breaking Tsukuri, positioning Kake, execution Mifune, Kyuzo. The Canon Of Judo. Kodansha International Ltd. ISBN 4-7700-2979-9

Ford Model A (1927–31)

The Ford Model A was the Ford Motor Company's second market success after its predecessor, the Model T. First produced on October 20, 1927, but not introduced until December 2, it replaced the venerable Model T, produced for 18 years; this new Model A was available in four standard colors. By February 4, 1929, one million Model As had been sold, by July 24, two million; the range of body styles ran from the Tudor at US$500 to the Town Car with a dual cowl at US$1200. In March 1930, Model A sales hit three million, there were nine body styles available. Model A production ended in March 1932, after 4,858,644 had been made in all body styles, its successor was the Model B, which featured an updated inline four-cylinder engine, as well as the Model 18, which introduced Ford's new flathead V8 engine. Prices for the Model A ranged from US$385 for a roadster to US$1400 for the top-of-the-line Town Car; the engine was a water-cooled L-head inline. This engine provided 40 hp. Top speed was around 65 mph.

The Model A had a 103.5 in wheelbase with a final drive ratio of 3.77:1. The transmission was a conventional unsynchronized three-speed sliding gear manual with a single speed reverse; the Model A had four-wheel mechanical drum brakes. The 1930 and 1931 models were available with stainless steel radiator headlamp housings; the Model A came in a wide variety of styles including a Coupe, Business Coupe, Sport Coupe, Roadster Coupe, Convertible Cabriolet, Convertible Sedan, Tudor Sedan, Town Car, Victoria, Town Sedan, Station Wagon, Taxicab and Commercial. The rare Special Coupe started production around March 1928 and ended mid-1929; the Model A was the first Ford to use the standard set of driver controls with conventional clutch and brake pedals and gearshift. Previous Fords used controls; the Model A's fuel tank was situated in the cowl, between the engine compartment's fire wall and the dash panel. It had a visual fuel gauge, the fuel flowed to the carburetor by gravity. A rear-view mirror was optional.

In cooler climates, owners could purchase an aftermarket cast iron unit to place over the exhaust manifold to provide heat to the cab. A small door provided adjustment of the amount of hot air entering the cab; the Model A was the first car to have safety glass in the windshield. The Soviet company GAZ, which started as a joint venture between Ford and the Soviet Union, made a licensed version from 1932–1936; this served as the basis for the FAI and BA-20 armored cars which saw use as Soviet scout vehicles in the early stages of World War II. In addition to the United States, Ford made the Model A in plants in Argentina, Denmark, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. In Europe, where in some countries cars were taxed according to engine size, Ford in the UK manufactured the Model A with a smaller displacement engine of 2,043 cc, providing a claimed output of 28 hp. However, this equated to a British fiscal horsepower of 14.9 hp and attracted a punitive annual car tax levy of £1 per fiscal hp in the UK.

It therefore was expensive to own and too heavy and uneconomical to achieve volume sales, so unable to compete in the newly developing mass market, while too crude to compete as a luxury product. European manufactured Model As failed to achieve the sales success in Europe that would greet their smaller successor in Britain and Germany. From the mid 1910s through the early 1920s, Ford dominated the automotive market with its Model T. However, during the mid-1920s, this dominance eroded as competitors the various General Motors divisions, caught up with Ford's mass production system and began to better Ford in some areas by offering more powerful engines, new convenience features, or cosmetic customization. Features Henry Ford considered to be unnecessary, such as electric starters, were shifting in the public's perception from luxuries to essentials. Ford's sales force advised Henry to respond to it, he resisted, but the T's sagging market share forced him to admit a replacement was needed. When he agreed to begin development of this new model, he focused on the mechanical aspects and on what today is called design for manufacturability, which he had always embraced and for which the Model T production system was famous.

Although successful, the development of the Model A included many problems that had to be resolved. For example, the die stamping of parts from sheet steel, which the Ford company had led to new heights of development with the Model T production system, was something Henry had always been ambivalent about, he was determined that the Model A would rely more on drop forgings than the Model T, but his ideas to improve the DFM of forging did not prove practical. Ford's engineers persuaded him to relent, lest the Model A's production cost force up its retail price too much. Henry's disdain for cosmetic vanity as applied to automobiles led him to leave the Model A's styling to a team led by his son Edsel though he would take credit for it despite his son doing more of the work, it wa

Reliance of the Traveller

Umdat as-Salik wa'Uddat an-Nasik is a classical manual of fiqh for the Shafi'i school of Islamic jurisprudence. The author of the main text is 14th-century scholar Shihabuddin Abu al-'Abbas Ahmad ibn an-Naqib al-Misri. Al-Misri based his work on the previous Shafi'i works of Imam Nawawi and Imam Abu Ishaq as-Shirazi, following the order of Shirazi's al-Muhadhdhab and the conclusions of Nawawi's Minhaj at-Talibin. Umdat as-Salik was translated into English by the American Muslim scholar Nuh Ha Mim Keller in 1991 and became the first translation of a standard Islamic legal reference in a European language to be certified by Al-Azhar; the translation comprises 26 sections titled according to the letters of the English alphabet, Book A, Book B, Book C, etc. Books A through C contain introductory material forming a guide to fiqh compiled by Keller. Books D through O correspond to the original work of al-Misri, commencing with an "Author's Introduction". Following are translations of eight shorter works - Books P through V - which address topics such as personal ethics and traditional Islamic Sufism, include famous classical texts such as Al-Ghazzali's Ihya’ ʿulum al-din and Nawawi's Riyadh as-Saaliheen.

Book W consists of extensive notes and appendices, Book X offers thumbnail biographies of hundreds of figures mentioned throughout the work, Books Y and Z conclude it with a bibliography and indexes. Certain sections of the book were left untranslated, as Nuh considered them irrelevant to modern societies; these parts include a section on slavery, describing the rights and duties of slaves and their masters, as well as some smaller sections such as, for example, a discussion on fixing utensils using gold. A. Sacred Knowledge B; the Validity of Following Qualified Scholarship C. The Nature of Legal Rulings D. Author's Introduction to'Umdat al-Salik E. Purification F; the Prayer G. The Funeral Prayer H. Zakat I. Fasting J; the Pilgrimage K. Trade L. Inheritance M. Marriage N. Divorce O. Justice P. Enormities Q. Commanding the Right and Forbidding the Wrong R. Holding One's Tongue S. Delusions T. A Pure Heart U; the Gabriel Hadith V. Belief in Allah and His Messenger W. Notes and Appendices X. Biographical Notes Y.

Works Cited Z. Indexes List of Sunni books Keller, Nuh Ha Mim. Reliance of the Traveller: Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law. Amana Publications. ISBN 978-0-915957-72-9

Christopher North (Ambrosia)

Christopher Reed North is the founding keyboardist for the American progressive rock band Ambrosia. North was born in San Francisco, he grew up in San Pedro, playing in various bands through junior high and high school. Some of the early bands he played with were The Proones, The Livin End, Thee Exceptions. In 1968 he formed the psychedelic rock band Blue Toad Flax with Tom Trefethen playing organ and singing lead vocals. In 1970 he formed the progressive rock band Ambrosia with David Pack, Joe Puerta and Burleigh Drummond, he is known for his intense live performances. North and the other members of Ambrosia contributed to the album Tales of Mystery and Imagination by The Alan Parsons Project, he played organ and piano on the hit songs "Galilee" and "Rock'N' Roll Preacher" from the debut album by Chuck Girard and on Girard's 1980 album The Stand. North played organ on the John Lennon tribute single "Johnny's Gone Away" written and produced by Tom Trefethen with Alan Parsons as executive producer.

In 2014 North played on the song "The Soft Parade" from Light My Fire: A Classic Rock Salute to The Doors. North is listed on the All Time Hammond Pops list three times for his solos on Ambrosia hits “Holdin' on to Yesterday”, “Biggest Part of Me” and “You're the Only Woman ”, he was listed from 1976-1981 as one of the top multi-keyboardists by Keyboard Magazine at which time they discontinued the list. Ambrosia - Official Website Ambrosia - Official Facebook Page https://web.archive.org/web/20110203021946/http://christophernorthmusic.com/