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Ptolemaic dynasty

The Ptolemaic dynasty, sometimes known as the Lagids or Lagidae, was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period. Their rule lasted for 275 years, from 305 to 30 BC, they were the last dynasty of ancient Egypt. Ptolemy, one of the seven somatophylakes of Macedon who served as Alexander the Great's generals and deputies, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BC. In 305 BC, he declared himself Ptolemy I known as Sōter "Saviour"; the Egyptians soon accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt. Ptolemy's family ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest of 30 BC. Like the earlier dynasties of ancient Egypt, the Ptolemaic dynasty practiced inbreeding including sibling marriage, but this did not start in earnest until nearly a century into the dynasty's history. All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy, while queens regnant were all called Cleopatra, Arsinoe or Berenice; the most famous member of the line was the last queen, Cleopatra VII, known for her role in the Roman political battles between Julius Caesar and Pompey, between Octavian and Mark Antony.

Her apparent suicide at the conquest by Rome marked the end of Ptolemaic rule in Egypt. Dates in brackets represent the regnal dates of the Ptolemaic pharaohs, they ruled jointly with their wives, who were also their sisters. Several queens exercised regal authority. Of these, one of the last and most famous was Cleopatra, with her two brothers and her son serving as successive nominal co-rulers. Several systems exist for numbering the rulers. Ptolemy I Soter married first Thaïs Artakama Eurydice, Berenice I Ptolemy II Philadelphus married Arsinoe I Arsinoe II. Cleopatra II Philometora Soteira, in opposition to Ptolemy VIII Physcon Cleopatra III Philometor Soteira Dikaiosyne Nikephoros ruled jointly with Ptolemy IX Lathyros and Ptolemy X Alexander I Ptolemy IX Lathyros married Cleopatra IV Cleopatra Selene. Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos married Cleopatra V Tryphaena Cleopatra V Tryphaena ruled jointly with Berenice IV Epiphaneia and Cleopatra VI Tryphaena Cleopatra ruled jointly with Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator, Ptolemy XIV and Ptolemy XV Caesarion.

Arsinoe IV, in opposition to Cleopatra Ptolemy Keraunos - eldest son of Ptolemy I Soter. Became king of Macedonia. Ptolemy Apion - son of Ptolemy VIII Physcon. Made king of Cyrenaica. Bequeathed Cyrenaica to Rome. Ptolemy Philadelphus - son of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII. Ptolemy of Mauretania - son of King Juba II of Numidia and Mauretania and Cleopatra Selene II, daughter of Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony. King of Mauretania. In continuation of the tradition established by previous Egyptian dynasties, the Ptolemies engaged in inbreeding including sibling marriage, with many of the pharaohs being married to their siblings and co-ruling with them. Ptolemy I and other early rulers of the dynasty were not married to their relatives, the childless marriage of siblings Ptolemy II and Arsinoe II being an exception; the first child-producing incestuous marriage in the Ptolemaic dynasty was that of Ptolemy IV and Arsinoe III, who were succeeded as co-pharaohs by their son Ptolemy V, born 210 BC. The most famous Ptolemaic pharaoh, Cleopatra VII, was at different times married to and reigning with two of her brothers, their parents were siblings or cousins as well.

Contemporaries describe a number of the Ptolemaic dynasty members as obese, whilst sculptures and coins reveal prominent eyes and swollen necks. Familial Graves' disease could explain the swollen necks and eye prominence, although this is unlikely to occur in the presence of morbid obesity; this is all due to inbreeding within the Ptolemaic dynasty. In view of the familial nature of these findings, members of this dynasty suffered from a multi-organ fibrotic condition such as Erdheim–Chester disease or a familial multifocal fibrosclerosis where thyroiditis and ocular proptosis may have all occurred concurrently. Susan Stephens, Seeing Double. Intercultural Poetics in Ptolemaic Alexandria. A. Lampela and the Ptolemies of Egypt; the development of their political relations 273-80 B. C.. J. G. Manning, The Last Pharaohs: Egypt Under

Los Angeles Airport Police

The Los Angeles Airport Police Division is the largest police agency in the United States dedicated to 24-hour airport activities. LAXPD is the fourth largest law enforcement agency in Los Angeles County, with more than 1,100 law enforcement and staff, it has the largest civilian Airport security force in the nation. LAX Police is a division of Los Angeles Department of Airports, Los Angeles World Airports, the city department that owns and operates two airports in Southern California: Los Angeles International, Van Nuys. Although working closely with the Los Angeles Police Department, the Los Angeles Airport Police Department is a separate entity due to the Airport Police having specialized training and funding resources; the Los Angeles Airport Police traces its beginnings to 1946, when the Los Angeles Airport was transferred from the War Department to the City of Los Angeles. Six armed "Airport Guards" and one supervisor were hired to provide physical security over City properties; the number expanded to nine in 1949, the same year that the officers were re-classified as "Special Officers" of the City of Los Angeles.

The Special Officers were armed and worked for the Operations Bureau under the direction of the on-duty Superintendent of Operations. In 1959, the number increased to 12, led by the first "Chief of Security," George Dorian, with the organization being known as the "Security Division" of the "Operations Bureau." The organization was responsible for patrolling airport areas. In 1961, with the opening of the new "Jet Age" passenger terminal, a detachment of officers from the Los Angeles Police Department were permanently assigned to LAX, working with the airport Special Officers. In 1968, Special Officers of the Department of Airports were granted peace officer status by the California legislature. Slow growth occurred over the years, until 1973, when 70 officers and sergeants were assigned. A single lieutenant position was added in the early 1970s. 30 unarmed, non-sworn Security Officers were first employed in 1975, staffing airfield access control posts. They remain in service today, numbering 275, with their own supervisory ranks to the second level.

Their duties have been expanded to include traffic control, parking enforcement, vehicle inspection screening, crowd control and assisting travelers with information. In 1973, in response to worldwide aircraft hijacking concerns, a separate organization of peace officers was created, with responsibility to provide armed presence at passenger screening stations; this organization, the "Boarding Services Bureau, had 75 members, including one Director, one lieutenant, five sergeants. In 1981, the Security Division and the Boarding Services Bureau were merged, becoming the "Airport Security Bureau". In 1984, the Airport Security Bureau was renamed the "Los Angeles Airport Police." At various times, it has organizationally been a Bureau of LAWA or a Division of LAWA, depending on LAWA organizational structures. Other names include LAX Police, LAWA Police, LAX PD, LAXPD, LAWA PD and LAWAPD, in addition to "Los Angeles Airport Police.". In 2004, the City of Los Angeles Personnel Department changed their job classification from "Special Officer" to "Airport Police Officer".

The original issued uniform from 1946 to 1966 was slate gray, sometimes referred to by officers as "Confederate Gray." The gray uniforms were sometimes augmented by a blue-gray uniform when gray uniforms were not available. The uniform changed in 1966 to forest green trousers and caps, with tan shirts; the Boarding Services Bureau uniform consisted of midnight navy trousers and cap, white shirts. Supervisors wore gold colored accessories, such as nameplates etc.. In 1981, along with the merger of the Security Division and the Boarding Services Bureau, the uniform was standardized with dark navy trousers, shirts, a black jacket. All accessories were made in gold color for all ranks; the unarmed non-sworn Security Officers wore the same uniform as the sworn officers until 1999, when they reverted to the Sheriff style green/tan combination as an identification measure during emergency situations. Black NOMEX uniforms are worn by officers assigned to K-9 duties. Additionally, blue BDUs are issued to all sworn officers and are worn as a work/utility uniform as well as an Emergency Services uniform.

As is the case with most uniformed law enforcement agencies, the Los Angeles Airport Police has a paramilitary organizational structure. The rank structure has changed over the years. For example, Assistant Chief and Deputy Chief ranks were used from 1980 to 1986, but were dormant from 1986 to 2007; the rank of Commander is not currentlyin use. A four-stripe rank Sergeant, was used from 1980 until 1986 to differentiate active sergeants from other sergeants who had served in Boarding Service Bureau at a lower paygrade. Field Training Officers, Detectives and K9 officers receive a 5.5% bonus for those duties. Security Officers have their own rank struct

Letterkenny Army Depot

This is an article concerning a U. S. Army Installation, it is not an article about the town of Letterkenny in Ireland. Letterkenny Army Depot, the Center of Industrial and Technical Excellence for Air Defense and Tactical Missile Systems, was established in 1942; the Depot is under the command structure of the U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Command; the facilities at Letterkenny are used to conduct maintenance, modification and demilitarization operations on tactical missiles and ammunition. Located in Letterkenny Township and extending into Greene Township and Hamilton Township, all in Franklin County, just northwest of the borough of Chambersburg, the Depot consists of nearly 18,000 acres, it is the largest employer in Franklin County and adds over one-quarter of a billion dollars annually to the region's economy. Letterkenny has unique tactical missile repair capabilities repairing a variety of Department of Defense missile systems, including the MIM-104 PATRIOT missile and its ground support and radar equipment.

More Letterkenny expanded its product line to include designation of the CITE for Power Generation for the Army, the overhaul of tactical wheeled vehicles, material handling equipment, Mobile Kitchen Trailers. In 2007, during the Iraq conflict, Letterkenny began building new Mine Resistant Ambush Protected armored vehicles in partnership with BAE Systems, in 2010 was designated the Joint Depot Source of Repair for Route Clearance Vehicles for the DoD. In 1941, Letterkenny was chosen by the U. S. Department of War to be one of twelve new ordnance depots. On December 18, 1941, the Secretary of War, Henry L. Stimson, issued the directive to acquire 21,000 acres at Letterkenny for a depot; the mission would be to reduce the surplus of forthcoming material and to store and ship ammunition, trucks and other supplies. In 1942, the government obtained the James Finley House for use as the Commanding Officer's Residence, making it one of the largest depots of its kind; the first shipment of ammunition arrived by train in late 1942, more than three million tons of supplies were moved during World War II.

After the war, an enormous amount of ammunition was returned from overseas, some of, unserviceable and had to be destroyed. During the Korean War, with improved capabilities, Letterkenny took on the task and shifted to a wartime pace, increasing their workforce to 6,500 by adding as many as 50 new employees each day during their growth's peak. With new technologies in electronics and guided missile maintenance in the 1950s, the Depot saw a further increased workload. Newly trained employees began working on Project Nike missile components in 1953. On July 1, 1954, Letterkenny Ordnance Depot became a permanent military installation, it was renamed Letterkenny Army Depot in August 1962 under the U. S. Army Materiel Command, with the war in Vietnam, Letterkenny's missions again increased with greater materiel being funneled through the Depot, its maintenance division became one of the largest activities, with 1,400 workers reconditioning artillery, combat vehicles, guided missiles. Automation was introduced at this time along with the update of several facilities.

Soon after, in 1964, the 28th Ordnance Detachment moved from Fort Meade, Maryland, to Letterkenny, adding to their capabilities the disposal of explosive ordnance items including bombs, shells and guided missiles. They assisted police in the disposal of explosives and war souvenirs. In the 1970s, command of Savanna Army Depot Activity, fell under Letterkenny, the U. S. Army Depot System Command was headquartered there. DESCOM, a two-star command and major subordinate element of AMC, remained at the Depot until 1995. In 1974, Letterkenny's capabilities further expanded to include maintenance for the Air Tow Missile as well as long-term storage of war reserve stock packaged petroleum and lubricants, various chemicals and acids. By the late 1970s, the Depot was one of five installations in the United States to activate the Automated Multi-Media Exchange, leading to more effective communication service. Letterkenny was at that point the largest installation in Pennsylvania, with more than 5,400 workers.

During the 1980s and early 1990s, the Depot further evolved with the construction of new facilities and the establishment of modernization projects. Its mission was threefold: supply and ammunition; the Depot's efforts with the Paladin, PATRIOT, HAWK led to Letterkenny's designation as a Center for Technical Excellence. Their capabilities were again expanded, this time to include the AIM-7 Sparrow and the improved AIM-9 Sidewinder. With the downsizing and realignments of the DoD and the consolidation of tactical missile, Letterkenny was selected in 1990 to serve as the sole processing and storage location for all weapons captured during that year's invasion of Panama in Operation Just Cause. Two years the Depot was selected to be the center of all Tactical Missile Systems in the Army, Air Force and Marines; this involved support components from 21 new missile systems. Letterkenny's efforts for this mission gained it the reputation as "the well renowned depot for air defense and missile maintenance".

That same year, the Depot's supply mission was relocated to New Cumberland, Pennsylvania under the Defense Logistics Agency. In 1994, Letterkenny partnered with United Defense, Limited Partnership to produce the Paladin and completed 950 within five years. Following the Cold War