Claudius Ptolemy was a Greek mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. He lived in the city of Alexandria in the Roman province of Egypt, under the rule of the Roman Empire, had a Latin name, which several historians have taken to imply he was a Roman citizen, cited Greek philosophers, used Babylonian observations and Babylonian lunar theory; the 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes gave his birthplace as the prominent Greek city Ptolemais Hermiou in the Thebaid. This attestation is quite late and there is no other evidence to confirm or contradict it, he died in Alexandria around AD 168. Ptolemy wrote several scientific treatises, three of which were of importance to Byzantine and Western European science; the first is the astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest, although it was entitled the Mathematical Treatise and known as the Great Treatise. The second is the Geography, a thorough discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world; the third is the astrological treatise in which he attempted to adapt horoscopic astrology to the Aristotelian natural philosophy of his day.

This is sometimes known as the Apotelesmatika but more known as the Tetrabiblos from the Greek meaning "Four Books" or by the Latin Quadripartitum. Ptolemaeus is a Greek name, it occurs once in Greek mythology, is of Homeric form. It was common among the Macedonian upper class at the time of Alexander the Great, there were several of this name among Alexander's army, one of whom made himself pharaoh in 323 BC: Ptolemy I Soter, the first king of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. All male kings of Hellenistic Egypt, until Egypt became a Roman province in 30 BC ending the Macedonian family's rule, were Ptolemies; the name Claudius is a Roman name. Several historians have made the deduction that this indicates that Ptolemy would have been a Roman citizen. Gerald Toomer, the translator of Ptolemy's Almagest into English, suggests that citizenship was granted to one of Ptolemy's ancestors by either the emperor Claudius or the emperor Nero; the 9th-century Persian astronomer Abu Maʿshar presents Ptolemy as a member of Egypt's royal lineage, stating that the descendants of Alexander's general Ptolemy I, who ruled Egypt, were wise "and included Ptolemy the Wise, who composed the book of the Almagest".

Abu Maʿshar recorded a belief that a different member of this royal line "composed the book on astrology and attributed it to Ptolemy". We can evidence historical confusion on this point from Abu Maʿshar's subsequent remark: "It is sometimes said that the learned man who wrote the book of astrology wrote the book of the Almagest; the correct answer is not known." Not much positive evidence is known on the subject of Ptolemy's ancestry, apart from what can be drawn from the details of his name, although modern scholars have concluded that Abu Maʿshar's account is erroneous. It is no longer doubted that the astronomer who wrote the Almagest wrote the Tetrabiblos as its astrological counterpart. Ptolemy can be shown to have utilized Babylonian astronomical data, he was ethnically either a Greek or a Hellenized Egyptian. He was known in Arabic sources as "the Upper Egyptian", suggesting he may have had origins in southern Egypt. Arabic astronomers and physicists referred to him by his name in Arabic: بَطْلُمْيوس‎ Baṭlumyus.

Ptolemy's Almagest is the only surviving comprehensive ancient treatise on astronomy. Babylonian astronomers had developed arithmetical techniques for calculating astronomical phenomena. Ptolemy, claimed to have derived his geometrical models from selected astronomical observations by his predecessors spanning more than 800 years, though astronomers have for centuries suspected that his models' parameters were adopted independently of observations. Ptolemy presented his astronomical models in convenient tables, which could be used to compute the future or past position of the planets; the Almagest contains a star catalogue, a version of a catalogue created by Hipparchus. Its list of forty-eight constellations is ancestral to the modern system of constellations, but unlike the modern system they did not cover the whole sky. Across Europe, the Middle East and North Africa in the Medieval period, it was the authoritative text on astronomy, with its author becoming an mythical figure, called Ptolemy, King of Alexandria.

The Almagest was preserved, in Arabic manuscripts. Because of its reputation, it was sought and was translated twice into Latin in the 12th century, once in Sicily and again in Spain. Ptolemy's model, like those of his predecessors, was geocentric and was universally accepted until the appearance of simpler heliocentric models during the scientific revolution, his Planetary Hypotheses went beyond the mathematical model of the Almagest to present a physical realization of the universe as a set of nested spheres, in which he used the epicycles of his planetary model to compute the dimensions of the universe. He estimated the Sun was at an average distan

Vincent D'Souza

Vincent D'Souza is a journalist and media entrepreneur based in Chennai. He is the editor and publisher of two community newspapers, The Mylapore Times and The Arcot Road Times in the city, he is the executive editor of the largest neighbourhood newspaper in Chennai, The Adyar Times. The three newspapers have a combined circulation of over 85,000 copies a week. D'Souza began his career as a journalist in 1980 after completing his BS in physics from Chennai's Loyola College, he has reported for The Week magazine of the Malayala Manorama group, was a stringer for BBC Radio. He covered the 1998 Coimbatore serial bomb blasts, its aftermath for the Beeb. For a brief while D'Souza was the editor of Indian Express Friday supplement on cinema and entertainment, he teaches Reporting at Bharthya Vidya Bhavan in Mylapore, Chennai. He edits three free English community newspapers in Chennai: Adyar Times, Mylapore Times and Arcot Road Times. In 1999 he started the internet website, focused on south Indian classical music and dance.

Along with the website, he brings out a monthly 8-12 page Kutcheribuzz newsletter. During the fortnight long December Music Season in Chennai, Kutcheribuzz morphs into a single-sheet eveninger, distributed for free outside concert halls. Over the last couple of years, has added audio and video news reports of popular classical music and dance events such as the Tiruvaiyyaru Thyagaraja Aradhana, the Chidambaram dance festival that takes place at the Nataraja Temple during Shivaratri. D'Souza's experiment with a free community newspaper in the former French enclave of Puducherry was a short lived one, he pulled the shutter on the paper, the Pondicherry Times, in 2001. He promotes two other major events in Chennai - the Mylapore Festival, held in Mylapore on Pongal eve, the Madras Day celebrations held to celebrate the city. Besides fulfilling the unique communication needs of specific neighbourhoods, D'Souza's publications have been a training ground for aspiring journalists. Unlike several other community papers, Mylapore Times, Arcot Road Times and Adyar Times are professionally run papers with reasonably good production standards.

Despite being small publications, D'Souza's papers have steadfastly tried to keep the wall between news and advertising intact

List of Catholic charities in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York covers New York and Richmond Counties in New York City, as well as Dutchess, Putnam, Sullivan and Westchester counties in New York state. It is home to over 100 charitable organizations, run by many different religious orders, as well as by Catholic Charities of the Archdiocese. Astor Home for Children - Opened in 1953 and staffed by the Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul until 2002. Sponsorship turned over to the archdiocese in 2002. Cardinal Hayes Home for Children - Opened in 1941. Cardinal McCloskey School & Home for Children - Opened in 1948. Hayden House - Opened in 1980 as a home for maltreated children and run by Cardinal McCloskey School & Home for Children. Lincoln Hall - Opened in 1938 to replace the Bronx Protectorate. Nazareth Day Nursery - Opened in 1902 at 214 W. 15th Street. The New York Foundling - Established in 1869 by the Sisters of Charity of New York. Queen's Daughters' Day Nursery - Assumed in 1948 by the Missionary Canonesses of St. Augustine.

St. Agatha Home for Children - Opened in 1885 and staffed by the Sisters of Charity. Has now merged with the New York Foundling. St. Cabrini Home - Opened in 1890 and known as the Sacred Heart Orphan Asylum. Staffed by the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. St. Dominic Home - Opened in 1890 as St. Dominic Orphan Asylum and staffed by the Dominican Sisters of Blauvelt. St. Ignatius Day Nursery - Established in 1910. Carmel Richmond Nursing Home - Sponsored by the Carmelite Sisters for the Aged and Infirm. Ferncliff Nursing Home - Opened in 1973. Francis Schervier Home and Hospital - Opened and operated by the Franciscan Sisters of the Poor, transferred to the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart. Jeanne Jugan Residence - Sponsored by the Little Sisters of the Poor, built to replace their Home for Aged, last located on 183rd Street in the Bronx. Kateri Residence - Sponsored by the Archdiocese. Mary Manning Walsh Nursing Home - Opened in 1952. Providence Rest Nursing Home - Opened in 1921.

Rosary Hill Home - Opened in 1901. St. Cabrini Nursing Home - Sponsored by the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart. St. Elizabeth Ann Rehabilitation Center - Opened in 1993. St. Joseph's Hospital Nursing Home - Opened in 1976, operated by St. Joseph's Medical Center. Sponsored by the Sisters of Charity of New York. St. Patrick Home for the Aged - Sponsored by the Carmelite Sisters for the Aged and Infirm. St. Teresa Nursing & Rehabilitation Center - Opened in 1971. St. Vincent de Paul Residence - Opened in 1992. Bethany Spiritual Center - Operated by the Religious of Jesus and Mary. Divine Compassion Spirituality Center - Operated by the Sisters of the Divine Compassion. Dominican Spiritual Center - Operated by the Dominican Sisters of Sparkill. Franciscan Spiritual Center - Operated by the Sisters of St. Francis. Graymoor Spiritual Life Center - Operated by the Franciscan Friars of the Atonement. Jogues Retreat Center - Operated by the Society of Jesus. Linwood Spiritual Center - Opened in 1968.

Mariandale Retreat Center - Operated by the Dominican Sisters of Hope. Mount Alvernia Retreat Center - Opened in 1968. Mount St. Alphonsus Retreat Center - Opened in 1984. Our Lady of Mount Kisco Retreat Center - Opened in 1994. Our Lady of Thornwood Retreat Center - Opened in 1996. Trinity Retreat Center - Opened in 1974. Villa St. Dominic - Operated by the Dominican Sisters of Sparkill. Villa St. Joseph - Operated by the Dominican Sisters of Sparkill. Most hospitals in the archdiocese are sponsored by different religious orders, not the archdiocese itself: Benedictine Hospital - Established in 1901 by the Benedictine Sisters of Elizabeth, N. J.. Bon Secours Community Hospital - Founded by the Sisters of Bon Secours of Maryland, now sponsored by the Bon Secours Charity Health System. Calvary Hospital - Opened in 1899 as a hospice facility. Good Samaritan Hospital - Sponsored by the Bon Secours Charity Health System. St. Anthony Community Hospital - Founded by the Fr