Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Florida, Georgia and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was dependent upon agriculture cotton, a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves; each state declared its secession from the United States, which became known as the Union during the ensuing civil war, following the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U. S. presidency on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories. Before Lincoln took office in March, a new Confederate government was established in February 1861, considered illegal by the government of the United States. States volunteered militia units and the new government hastened to form its own Confederate States Army from scratch overnight.
After the American Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South—Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina—also declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The Confederacy accepted Missouri and Kentucky as members, although neither declared secession nor were they largely controlled by Confederate forces; the government of the United States rejected the claims of secession and considered the Confederacy illegally founded. The War began with the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. No foreign government recognized the Confederacy as an independent country, although Great Britain and France granted it belligerent status, which allowed Confederate agents to contract with private concerns for arms and other supplies. In early 1865, after four years of heavy fighting which led to 620,000–850,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered and the Confederacy vanished; the war lacked a formal end.
By 1865 Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederate States of America for the duration of the civil war, lamented that the Confederacy had "disappeared". On February 22, 1862, the Confederate Constitution of seven state signatories – Mississippi, South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and Texas – replaced the Provisional Constitution of February 8, 1861, with one stating in its preamble a desire for a "permanent federal government". Four additional slave-holding states – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy following a call by U. S. President Abraham Lincoln for troops from each state to recapture Sumter and other seized federal properties in the South. Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions adopting the forms of state governments without control of substantial territory or population in either case; the antebellum state governments in both maintained their representation in the Union. Fighting for the Confederacy were two of the "Five Civilized Tribes" – the Choctaw and the Chickasaw – in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona.
Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of martial law. A Unionist government was formed in opposition to the secessionist state government in Richmond and administered the western parts of Virginia, occupied by Federal troops; the Restored Government recognized the new state of West Virginia, admitted to the Union during the war on June 20, 1863, re-located to Alexandria for the rest of the war. Confederate control over its claimed territory and population in congressional districts shrank from 73% to 34% during the course of the American Civil War due to the Union's successful overland campaigns, its control of the inland waterways into the South, its blockade of the southern coast. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal; as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers; the most notable advance was Sherman's "March to the Sea" in late 1864.
Much of the Confederacy's infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs and bridges. Plantations in the path of Sherman's forces were damaged. Internal movement became difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and limiting army mobility; these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance. Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Davis's administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, allegations of autocratic government. After four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. A few days General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant signalling the collapse of the Confederacy. President Davis was captured on May 10, 1865, jailed in preparation for a treason trial, never held; the initial Confederacy was established in the Montgomery Convention in February 1861 by seven states (South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana
Carl W. Ackerman
Carl William Ackerman was an American journalist and educational administrator, the first dean of the Columbia School of Journalism. In 1919, as a correspondent of the Public Ledger of Philadelphia, he published the first excerpts of an English translation of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, but changed the text so that it appeared to be a Bolshevist tract. In 1931, he was appointed as the director of the journalism department, succeeding John William Cunliffe, became the first dean of the newly established graduate School of Journalism program at Columbia University, he was instrumental in developing the school through its first two decades, as he served in that position until 1954. Ackerman graduated from Earlham College and worked as a correspondent in World War I with the United Press, he first gained public attention with his book, The Next Republic?, which discussed the possibility of a successful democracy in post-Kaiser Germany. At the time, during World War I, his position was considered quite radical.
Ackerman became a journalist with the Philadelphia Public Ledger. In 1919, he published articles headlined as "The Red Bible", featuring the first English edition of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, an anti-Semitic hoax, published in Europe and recounted a Jewish plan for world domination. By replacing all the references to Jews with references to Bolshevists, he turned it into an anti-Bolshevist hoax. Ackerman married Mabel VanderHoof in 1914, they had one son, Robert VanderHoof Ackerman, born in 1915 when Ackerman was living in Berlin as a correspondent for the United Press Associations during World War I. In 1931 Ackerman was recruited to serve as the director and as the first dean, of Columbia University's School of Journalism graduate program; the Journalism Department was established in 191w by an estate gift of Joseph Pulitzer, a major publisher in Saint Louis and New York City. The philanthropist's money was used to establish the Pulitzer Prize awards in journalism, literature and music.
Ackerman was a provocative figure. Known to be reclusive, he worked to establish the school as one of the foremost schools of journalism in the nation, he served on the board of trustees for Science Service, now known as Society for Science & the Public, from 1936-1938. In 1954, after the death of his wife, Ackerman notified the university of his intention to resign, after Columbia had found a replacement, he did so, he was known to visit the university only until his death in New York, New York in 1970. Works by Carl W. Ackerman at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Carl W. Ackerman at Internet Archive Images of Ackerman at Columbia Alumni Magazine, Spring 2005
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events and is typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as politics, business and art, include materials such as opinion columns, weather forecasts, reviews of local services, birth notices, editorial cartoons, comic strips, advice columns. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; the journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves metonymically called newspapers. Newspapers have traditionally been published in print. However, today most newspapers are published on websites as online newspapers, some have abandoned their print versions entirely. Newspapers developed as information sheets for businessmen. By the early 19th century, many cities in Europe, as well as North and South America, published newspapers; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record.
Newspapers are published daily or weekly. News magazines are weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news; the news includes political events and personalities and finance, crime and natural disasters. The paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings. Most traditional papers feature an editorial page containing editorials written by an editor and expressing an opinion on a public issue, opinion articles called "op-eds" written by guest writers, columns that express the personal opinions of columnists offering analysis and synthesis that attempts to translate the raw data of the news into information telling the reader "what it all means" and persuading them to concur. Papers include articles which have no byline. A wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. Besides the aforementioned news and opinions, they include weather forecasts; as of 2017, newspapers may provide information about new movies and TV shows available on streaming video services like Netflix.
Newspapers have classified ad sections where people and businesses can buy small advertisements to sell goods or services. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; some newspapers are at least government-funded. The editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record. Many newspapers, besides employing journalists on their own payrolls subscribe to news agencies, which employ journalists to find and report the news sell the content to the various newspapers; this is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world. Circa 2005, there were 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the world selling 395 million print copies a day; the late 2000s–early 2010s global recession, combined with the rapid growth of free web-based alternatives, has helped cause a decline in advertising and circulation, as many papers had to retrench operations to stanch the losses.
Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in 2005-7 plunged during the worldwide financial crisis of 2008-9. Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major publisher as their efforts to gain online income fell far short of the goal; the decline in advertising revenues affected both the print and online media as well as all other mediums. Besides remodeling advertising, the internet has challenged the business models of the print-only era by crowdsourcing both publishing in general and, more journalism. In addition, the rise of news aggregators, which bundle linked articles fro
The Philadelphia Bulletin was a daily evening newspaper published from 1847 to 1982 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was the largest circulation newspaper in Philadelphia for 76 years and was once the largest evening newspaper in the United States, its known slogan was: "In Philadelphia, nearly everybody reads The Bulletin." Describing the Bulletin's style, publisher William L. McLean once said: "I think the Bulletin operates on a principle which in the long run is unbeatable; this is. Therefore, it should behave as a guest, telling the news rather than shouting it." As Time magazine noted: "In its news columns, the Bulletin was solid if unspectacular. Local affairs were covered extensively, but politely. Muckraking was frowned upon." The Bulletin was first published by Alexander Cummings on April 17, 1847 as Cummings’ Evening Telegraphic Bulletin. When Cummings sold in 1860, James S. Chambers succeeded him as publisher, it made history with its inaugural edition by publishing the first telegraph report in a U.
S. newspaper, a dispatch from the Mexican War. Cummings lost control of the Bulletin to stockholders in the 1850s. From 1859 until 1895, the paper was edited by Gibson Peacock; the Bulletin was last in circulation of Philadelphia's 13 daily newspapers for the remainder of the 19th century. Upon Peacock's death, the paper was bought by businessman William L. McLean; when McLean bought the last-place Bulletin in 1895, it sold for 2 cents, equal to $0.60 today. McLean cut increased coverage of local news. By 1905 the paper was the city's largest. In 1912, the Bulletin was one of a cooperative of four newspapers, including the Chicago Daily News, The Boston Globe, The New York Globe, to form the Associated Newspapers syndicate. McLean's son Robert took over in 1931. In the 1930s, the paper bought WPEN, one of Philadelphia's early radio stations. In 1946, it acquired. In 1947 the Bulletin bought out its evening competitor, The Philadelphia Record, incorporated features of the Record's Sunday edition into the new Sunday Bulletin.
By 1947 the Bulletin was the nation's biggest evening daily, with 761,000 readers. Along with the Record, it acquired the rights to buy Philadelphia's third-oldest radio station, WCAU. In a complex deal, the Bulletin sold off WPEN and WCAU's FM sister, changed WPEN-FM's call letters to WCAU-FM, the calls for its under-construction television station to WCAU-TV; the WCAU stations were sold to CBS in 1957. The Bulletin's understated brand of journalism won Pulitzer Prizes in 1964 and 1965. James V. Magee, Albert V. Gaudiosi and Frederick Meyer won the 1964 Pulitzer Prize for Local Investigative Specialized Reporting for their expose of numbers racket operations with police collusion in South Philadelphia, which resulted in arrests and a cleanup of the police department. J. A. Livingston won the 1965 Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting for his reports on the growth of economic independence among Russia's Eastern European satellites and his analysis of their desire for a resumption of trade with the West.
As readers and advertisers moved from the city to the suburbs, the Bulletin attempted to follow. It introduced regional editions for four suburban counties and leased a plant in southern New Jersey to print a state edition. Reporters attended school and county meetings, but their efforts could not match the combined resources of the smaller suburban dailies; the Bulletin faced difficulties that plagued all big-city evening newspapers: Late afternoon traffic made distribution more costly than for morning papers. The Bulletin faced greater competition from television evening newscasts; the Bulletin's biggest problem, may have been the morning Philadelphia Inquirer. The Inquirer was on the verge of extinction until Eugene L. Roberts Jr. became executive editor in 1972 and William Boyd Dickinson retired as executive editor of The Bulletin in 1973. Under Roberts, The Inquirer won six consecutive Pulitzer Prizes and gained national reputation for quality journalism; the Inquirer grabbed the circulation lead in 1980.
By 1982, The Inquirer was receiving 60 percent of the city’s newspaper advertising revenue, compared to The Bulletin's 24-percent share. The Bulletin launched a morning edition in 1978, but by the momentum had shifted decisively. In 1980, the Bulletin was acquired by the Charter Company of Jacksonville, Florida a conglomerate which would spend most of the 1980s in various financial troubles. In December 1981, Charter put it up for sale; the Bulletin continued publishing while speaking with prospective buyers. City residents organized a “Save Our Bulletin” campaign. On January 18, 1982, 300 loyal supporters sporting S. O. B. Buttons held a candlelight vigil in front of the paper's offices in subfreezing weather. Philadelphia Mayor William Green offered tax breaks and low-interest loans to help finance a purchase. With no prospective buyers, Charter attempted to give the newspaper away. No publisher, would assume the paper's $29.5 million in promissory notes and $12 million in severance costs to the paper's 1,943 employees.
Four groups of buyers did come forward. After losing $21.5 million in 1981, The Bulletin was dropping nearly $3 million per month when it published its final edition on January 29, 1982. Said Charter Communications President J. P. Smith Jr.: "In the final analysis, the paper was unable to generate the circulation and additional advertising revenues... it needed to survive."The headline of the final edition read "Goodbye: After 134 years, a Philadelphia voice is silent" and the paper’s slogan was changed to "Nearly Everybody Rea
Adolph Simon Ochs was an American newspaper publisher and former owner of The New York Times and The Chattanooga Times. Ochs was born to a Jewish family in Cincinnati, Ohio, on March 12, 1858, his parents, Julius Ochs and Bertha Levy, were both German immigrants. His father had left Bavaria for the United States in 1846. Julius was a educated man and fluent in six languages that he taught at schools throughout the South, though he supported the Union during the Civil War. Ochs' mother Bertha had come to the United States in 1848 as a refugee from the revolution in Rhenish Bavaria, had lived in the South before her 1853 marriage with Julius, sympathized with the South, though their differing sympathies didn't separate their household. After the war, the family moved to Tennessee. In Knoxville, Adolph studied during his spare time delivered newspapers. At 11, he went to work at the Knoxville Chronicle as office boy to William Rule, the editor, who became a mentor. In 1871 he was a grocer's clerk at Rhode Island, attending a night school meanwhile.
He returned to Knoxville, where he was a druggist's apprentice for some time. In 1872, he returned to the Chronicle as a "printer's devil," who looked after various details in the composing room of the paper, his siblings worked at the newspaper to supplement the income of their father, a lay religious leader for Knoxville's small Jewish community. The Chronicle was the only Republican, pro-Reconstruction, newspaper in the city, but Ochs counted Father Ryan, the Poet-Priest of the Confederacy, among his customers. At the age of 19, he borrowed $250 from his family to purchase a controlling interest in the Chattanooga Times Free Press, becoming its publisher; the following year he founded. He served as president. In 1896, at the age of 38, he was advised by The New York Times reporter Henry Alloway that the paper could be bought at a reduced price due to its financial losses and wide range of competitors in New York City. After borrowing money to purchase The New York Times for $75,000, he formed the New York Times Co. placed the paper on a strong financial foundation, became the majority stockholder.
In 1904, he hired Carr Van Anda as his managing editor. Their focus on objective journalism, in a time when newspapers were and partisan, a well-timed price decrease led to its rescue from near oblivion; the paper's readership increased from 9,000 at the time of his purchase to 780,000 by the 1920s. He added the Times' well-known masthead motto: "All the News That's Fit to Print."In 1904, Ochs moved the New York Times to a newly built building on Longacre Square in Manhattan, which the City of New York renamed as Times Square. On New Year's Eve 1904, he had pyrotechnists illuminate his new building at One Times Square with a fireworks show from street level. On August 18, 1921, the 25th anniversary of reorganization, the staff of The New York Times numbered 1,885, it was classified as an independent Democratic publication, opposed William Jennings Bryan in his presidential campaigns. By its fairness in the presentation of news, editorial moderation and ample foreign service, it secured a high place in American journalism, becoming read and influential throughout the United States.
Beginning with 1896, there was issued weekly a supplement called The New York Times Book Review and Magazine. Other auxiliary publications were added: The Annalist, a financial review appearing on Mondays; the New York Times Index was published quarterly. In 1901, Ochs became proprietor and editor of the Philadelphia Times merged in the Philadelphia Public Ledger, of which he was sole owner from 1902 to 1912, when he sold it to Cyrus H. K. Curtis. According to Wolfgang Disch, it was during this time in 1916 that Ochs relayed one of his most famous quotes "I affirm that more than 50% of money spent on advertising is squandered and is a sheer waste of printers' ink." This quote might be the origin of the common marketing saying "I know half the money I spend on advertising is wasted, but I can never find out which half", attributed to John Wanamaker. In 1884, Ochs married Effie Wise, the daughter of Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise of Cincinnati, the leading exponent of Reform Judaism in America and the founder of Hebrew Union College.
In 1928 Ochs built the Mizpah Congregation Temple in Chattanooga in memory of his parents and Bertha Ochs. The Georgian colonial building was designated as a Tennessee Historical Preservation Site in 1979. Ochs was engaged in crusading against anti-Semitism, he was active in the early years of the Anti-Defamation League, serving as an executive board member, used his influence as publisher of the New York Times to convince other newspapers nationwide to cease the unjustified caricaturing and lampooning of Jews in the American press. Ochs died on April 1935, during a visit to Chattanooga, he is buried at the Temple Israel Cemetery in Westchester County, New York. His only daughter, Iphigene Bertha Ochs, married Arthur Hays Sulzberger, who became publisher of the Times after Adolph died, her son-in-law Orvil Dryfoos was publisher from 1961–63, followed by her son Arthur Ochs "Punch" Sulzberger. Her daughter, Ruth Holmberg, became publisher of The Chattanooga Times. Ruth Holmberg's son is author of Memoirs of a Geisha.
Ochs' great-grandson Arthu
The North American
The North American was an American newspaper published in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was founded in 1839, though it could claim a lineage back to 1771, published until 1925, when it was purchased by the owner of the rival Public Ledger; the North American, a daily newspaper in Philadelphia, was first published on March 26, 1839, by S. C. Brace and T. R. Newbold. At the end of the year, the paper absorbed Zachariah Poulson's Poulson's American Daily Advertiser, the direct descendant of John Dunlap's Pennsylvania Packet, the country's first successful daily paper, on January 1, 1840, publishing under a new name: The North American and Daily Advertiser; that year, the paper was acquired by C. G. Childs and J. Reese Fry, along with the Commercial Herald. In October 1845, the paper was acquired by George R. Graham, well known as the publisher of Graham's Magazine, Alexander Cummings, who went on to found the New York World; the "Daily Advertiser" suffix was dropped. Cummings soon departed over political differences, Morton McMichael joined Graham as publisher in January 1847.
At that point, it was an influential Whig newspaper. In July of that year and playwright Robert Montgomery Bird was brought in as a one-third owner, the paper was merged with the United States Gazette, another Whig paper in town; the paper was redubbed as United States Gazette. Graham left the paper in 1848, McMichael and Bird became the driving forces in making the paper a journalistic and financial success. After Bird died in 1854, McMichael continued as the sole owner until his death in 1879; the paper was a staunch supporter of Abraham Lincoln, as it developed to become a supporter of the Republican party. The "United States Gazette" suffix was dropped from the paper's name in 1876. McMichael's two sons assumed control of the paper in his final years, his son Clayton assuming chief editorial duties. In 1899, the paper was acquired by Thomas B. Wanamaker, son of John Wanamaker. In 1925, Cyrus Curtis, owner of the Public Ledger, acquired the North American from Thomas B. Wanamaker's estate as part of his bid to grow the Ledger by shutting down some of its competitors.
The Ledger adopted the official title Public Ledger and North American, until late 1927. North American Building
George William Childs
George William Childs was an American publisher who co-owned the Philadelphia Public Ledger newspaper with financier Anthony Joseph Drexel. Childs was born in Baltimore, Maryland, on May 12, 1829, the illegitimate son of unidentified parents, he was raised by a unidentified aunt in comfortable circumstances, a fact he concealed to make his rise from obscurity seem more remarkable. He began work at age 12 in a bookstore for $2 per week while attending public school, he served 15 months at Norfolk. After leaving the Navy in 1843, he moved to Philadelphia, becoming a clerk in a bookshop at age 14. Childs found favor with his employer. After shutting the shop for the evening, he was entrusted with buying books at auction for the store. By the time he was 16, he was going to New Boston to attend publishing trade shows; when Childs turned 18, he took his savings, which amounted to several hundred dollars, leasing space in the offices of the Philadelphia Public Ledger, started his own firm. While working on building his business, Childs was noted for commenting on his desire to own the Ledger some day.
At age 21, Childs was offered a partnership in the publishing firm of R. E. Peterson & Co, which he accepted, the name of the firm was changed to Childs & Peterson. Childs & Peterson grew prosperous by publishing useful if unexciting titles that reached a broad market. Peterson excelled in scientific knowledge; the two partners grew the title Familiar Science into a 200,000-issue sale by interesting schools in using it as a textbook. A marketing genius, Childs was the first book publisher to use the now ubiquitous "blurb" endorsements by other famous persons, he conceived the notion of the author's book tour. Childs was known throughout his life for philanthropy, he was quoted to say, "Meanness is not necessary to success in business, but economy is." This approach won him a wide circle of friends whose friendship ran deep. Childs was married to Emma B. Peterson, the granddaughter of Judge John Bouvier, a jurist born in Codognan, France, her father was a lawyer and scientist. They left no children.
On 5 December 1864, with Anthony J. Drexel, he purchased the Philadelphia Public Ledger, at that time a money-losing newspaper, losing about $150,000 per year; the business was squeezed by rising paper and printing costs due to wartime shortages as the country engaged in the Civil War. The paper had lost circulation by supporting the Copperhead Policy of opposing the American Civil War and advocating an immediate peace settlement with the Confederate States. Most readers in Philadelphia at the time supported the Union. Publishers were reluctant to increase the one-cent subscription cost to cover the actual costs of production in the face of declining circulation. Childs bought the paper for a reported $20,000. Upon buying the paper Childs changed its policy and methods, he changed the editorial policy to the Loyalist line, raised advertising rates, he doubled the cover price to two cents. After an initial drop, circulation rebounded and the paper resumed profitability. Childs was intimately involved in all operations of the paper, from the press room to the composing room, he intentionally upgraded the quality of advertisements appearing in the publication to suit a higher end readership.
For four years he left the paper before midnight. Childs' efforts bore fruit and the Ledger became one of the most influential journals in the country. Circulation growth led the firm to outgrow its facilities, in 1866 Childs bought property at Sixth and Chestnut Streets in Philadelphia and constructed the Public Ledger Building, called at the time "...the finest newspaper office in the country." It was estimated that toward the end of Childs' association the Ledger was generating profits of $500,000 per year. Close friends with Anthony Drexel for more than 40 years, Childs served as the second President of the Board of Trustees of Drexel University, succeeding the founder. In 1872, he was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society; the Antiquarian Society holds a substantial file of original issues of the Public Ledger encompassing over 11,000 issues between 1836 and 1876. In 1880 Childs and Drexel purchased 300 acres west of Philadelphia along the tracks of the Pennsylvania Railroad, an area, to become known as the Pennsylvania Main Line, from banker J.
H. Askin; the two laid out roads, public utilities, community amenities and building lots to create "Wayne Estate" the unincorporated community of Wayne, Pennsylvania, an early example of a planned community. The suburban village known as Wayne, on the Pennsylvania Railroad, fourteen miles from Philadelphia, differs so much from the ordinary town allowed to grow up hap-hazard and to develop conveniences as population increases, that it is necessary, in describing it as it appears, to keep in mind some facts about its history. Wayne is not an accidental aggregation of cottages; the scheme of the town was well thought out and planned before any of the new cottages were built, and, as it was undertaken by liberal gentlemen of abundant means, no expense was spared in the preliminary municipal work. Childs built his own summer home, outside of nearby Bryn Mawr. A 2013 article on Ch