Public Works Administration, part of the New Deal of 1933, was a large-scale public works construction agency in the United States headed by Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes, it was created by the National Industrial Recovery Act in June 1933 in response to the Great Depression. It built large-scale public works such as dams, bridges and schools, its goals were to spend $3.3 billion in the first year, $6 billion in all, to provide employment, stabilize purchasing power, help revive the economy. Most of the spending came in two waves in 1933-35, again in 1938. Called the Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works, it was renamed the Public Works Administration in 1935 and shut down in 1944; the PWA spent over $7 billion in contracts to private construction firms. It created an infrastructure that generated national and local pride in the 1930s and remains vital eight decades later; the PWA was much less controversial than its rival agency with a confusingly similar name, the Works Progress Administration, headed by Harry Hopkins, which focused on smaller projects and hired unemployed unskilled workers.
Frances Perkins had first suggested a federally financed public works program, the idea received considerable support from Harold L. Ickes, James Farley, Henry Wallace. After having scaled back the initial cost of the PWA, Franklin Delano Roosevelt agreed to include the PWA as part of his New Deal proposals in the "Hundred Days" of spring 1933; the PWA headquarters in Washington planned projects, which were built by private construction companies hiring workers on the open market. Unlike the WPA, it did not hire the unemployed directly. More than any other New Deal program, the PWA epitomized the progressive notion of "priming the pump" to encourage economic recovery. Between July 1933 and March 1939 the PWA funded and administered the construction of more than 34,000 projects including airports, large electricity-generating dams, major warships for the Navy, bridges, as well as 70% of the new schools and one-third of the hospitals built in 1933–1939. Streets and highways were the most common PWA projects, as 11,428 road projects, or 33% of all PWA projects, accounted for over 15% of its total budget.
School buildings, 7,488 in all, came in second at 14% of spending. PWA functioned chiefly by making allotments to the various Federal agencies. For example, it provided funds for the Indian Division of the CCC to build roads and other public works on and near Indian reservations; the PWA became, with its "multiplier-effect" and first two-year budget of $3.3 billion, the driving force of America’s biggest construction effort up to that date. By June 1934, the agency had distributed its entire fund to 13,266 federal projects and 2,407 non-federal projects. For every worker on a PWA project two additional workers were employed indirectly; the PWA accomplished the electrification of rural America, the building of canals, bridges, streets, sewage systems, housing areas, as well as hospitals and universities. The PWA electrified the Pennsylvania Railroad between New York and Washington, DC. At the local level it built courthouses, schools and other public facilities that remain in use in the 21st century.
Lincoln Tunnel in New York City Detroit Sewage Disposal Project Overseas Highway connecting Key West, Florida, to the mainland Triborough Bridge Cape Cod Canal Railroad Bridge Bourne Bridge Sagamore Bridge Fort Peck Dam Hoover Dam Grand Coulee Dam in Washington state Pensacola Dam Mansfield Dam Tom Miller Dam Upper Mississippi River locks and dams List of New Deal airports The PWA created three Greenbelt communities based on the ideas of Ebenezer Howard which are now the municipalities of Greenbelt, Greenhills and Greendale, Wisconsin. The PWA was the centerpiece of the New Deal program for building public housing for the poor people in cities; however it did not create as much affordable housing as supporters would have hoped, building only 29,000 units in 4 1⁄2 years. The PWA constructed the Williamsburg Houses in Brooklyn, NY, one of the first public housing projects in New York City; the PWA spent over $6 billion, but did not succeed in returning the level of industrial activity to pre-depression levels.
Though successful in many aspects, it has been acknowledged that the PWA's objective of constructing a substantial number of quality, affordable housing units was a major failure. Some have argued that because Roosevelt was opposed to deficit spending, there was not enough money spent to help the PWA achieve its housing goals. Reeves argues that the competitive theory of administration used by Roosevelt proved to be inefficient and produced delays; the competition over the size of expenditure, the selection of the administrator, the appointment of staff at the state level, led to delays and to the ultimate failure of PWA as a recovery instrument. As director of the budget, Lewis Douglas overrode the views of leading senators in reducing appropriations to $3.5 billion and in transferring much of that money to other agencies in lieu of their own specific appropriations. The cautious and penurious Ickes won out over the more imaginative Hugh S. Johnson as chief of public works administration. Political competition between rival Democratic state organizations and between Democrats and Progressive Republicans led to delays in implementing PWA efforts on the local level.
Ickes instituted quotas for hiring skilled and unskilled black people in co
Psalm 128 is the 128th psalm of the Book of Psalms in the Old Testament. It is one of fifteen psalms which begins with the words "A song of ascents", it contains only six verses, discusses the blessed state of those who follow Yahweh. Its opening words in the King James Version are "Blessed is every one that feareth the LORD. In the Greek Septuagint version of the bible, in its Latin translation in the Vulgate, this psalm is Psalm 127 in a different numbering system. Written anonymously, it dates to the post-exilic period; the Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary describes Zechariah 8:1-8 as a "virtual commentary on this psalm". The psalm ends with a prayer for peace upon Israel; this is best taken as a "detached clause", like the concluding clause of Psalm 125, according to the Pulpit Commentary. In traditional Jewish practice, this psalm is recited following Mincha between Sukkot and Shabbat Hagadol, it is recited prior to Aleinu during Motzei Shabbat Maariv, among the prayers of the Bedtime Shema.
Its second verse is found in Pirkei Avot Chapter 4, no. 1 and Chapter 6, no. 4. Traditionally, since the Middle Ages, this psalm has been recited within the Office of none from Tuesday until Saturday, according to the Rule of St. Benedict. In the liturgy of the current Mass, Psalm 128 is used on the feast of the Holy Family, the 33rd Sunday in Ordinary Time of the year A and the 27th Sunday in Ordinary Time of the year B, it is the traditional psalm for wedding masses. This psalm was used by Michel-Richard Delalande in 1698 to compose a grand motet, played in the royal chapel of Versailles to celebrate the offices. Psalm 128 in Hebrew and English - Mechon-mamre Psalm 128 King James Bible - Wikisource
Dominic Bozzelli is an American professional golfer. Bozzelli was born in New York, he played college golf at Auburn University after transferring from University of Central Florida. At Auburn, he won three events, he won the Eastern Amateur and the New York State Amateur twice. Bozzelli turned professional in 2013 and played on the NGA Pro Golf Tour in 2014, winning four times, earning NGA Player of the Year and Rookie of the Year honors, he played five Web.com Tour events in 2014, finishing in the top-10 twice. He gained his 2015 Web.com Tour card through qualifying school and picked up his first Tour win in June 2016 at the Corales Puntacana Resort and Club Championship. 2010 Eastern Amateur 2011 New York State Amateur, U. S. Collegiate Championship 2012 SunTrust Gator Invitational, New York State Amateur 2013 The Amer Ari InvitationalSource: 2014 Spring Hill Classic, NGA Tour Classic, Lake County Classic, Southern Ontario Open 2016 Web.com Tour Finals graduates Dominic Bozzelli at the PGA Tour official site Dominic Bozzelli at the Official World Golf Ranking official site
Hiam Abbass Hiyam Abbas, is an Israeli-French actress and film director. Hiam Abbass was born in Israel, to a Muslim Arab family, she was raised in the village of Deir Hanna. During the filming of the Steven Spielberg film Munich, Abbass lived in a hotel with the Palestinian Arab and Israeli actors for three months. During that time, they had many discussions that "helped both sides grow closer." In an interview in 2006, Abbass said, "I still remember how difficult it was for the Arab actors to manhandle the Israeli actors in the first scene where the Israeli national team is taken hostage." Abbass is known for her roles in Red Satin, Paradise Now, The Syrian Bride, Free Zone, Dawn of the World, The Visitor, Lemon Tree, Every Day is a Holiday and Amreeka. In Spielberg's film, depicting the response to the Munich Massacre, she served as a dialect and acting consultant, she directed two short films, Le Pain, La Danse éternelle. She portrays humanitarian Hind al-Husseini in Julian Schnabel's film Miral, based on the life of Husseini and her orphanage.
In 2002, she appeared in Satin Rouge by Raja Amari, a film about the self-discovery of a middle aged Tunisian widow. She a similar role in The Syrian Bride, about a Druze woman eager to break down barriers. Abbass appeared in the French films Le sac de Le temps de la balle. In 2008, she played the mother of an illegal Syrian immigrant in Tom McCarthy's movie The Visitor, the mother of an Iraqi soldier in Abbas Fahdel's film Dawn of the World. In 2008, she played the principal role in Israeli director Eran Riklis's film Lemon Tree. For this role, she won Best Performance by an Actress at the 2008 Asia Pacific Screen Awards. In Jim Jarmusch's 2009 film The Limits of Control, in the role of Driver, she recites in Classical Arabic one of the film's leitmotif-phrases, "He who thinks he is bigger than the rest must go to the cemetery. There he will see what life is." Abbass appears in A Bottle in the Gaza Sea, a French-Québéecois-Israeli film produced by Thierry Binisti. It is based upon the young adult novel Une bouteille dans la mer de Gaza by Valérie Zenatti.
She plays the role of Naïm's mother. In 2012, she was named as a member of the Jury for the Main Competition at the 2012 Cannes Film Festival, she made her directorial feature film debut with The Inheritance in 2012. In 2017 she played Freysa, the head of the replicant freedom movement, in Blade Runner 2049. Abbass has acted in three TV shows: The Promise, The State, Succession. List of Arab citizens of Israel List of Israeli actors Hiam Abbass on IMDb G21 Interview: Hiam Abbass, by Brad Balfour Photos of Hiam Abbass at Berlin Film Festival 2008
Gan is a surname. It may be a Latin-alphabet spelling of four different Chinese surnames, a Korean surname, a surname in other cultures; as a Chinese surname, Gan may be one of the following surnames, listed by their spelling in Pinyin, which reflects the Mandarin Chinese pronunciation: Gān. Ancient sources differ on the origin of this surname. Yuanhe Xingzuan states that the first bearer of the surname was an official in the court of King Wu Ding, while Mingxian Shizu Yanxing Leigao states that it originated as a toponymic surname, referring to a place called Gan District, located in what is now Huyi District, Xi'an, where some descendants of King Wen of Zhou had settled. Gān, homophonous with the above surname in Mandarin Chinese, though not in other varieties of Chinese. According to the Wanxing Tongpu, this originated as a toponymic surname, referring to a place called Gan District, located in what is now Jiangdu District, Jiangsu. Yán, spelled Gan based on its Hokkien pronunciation. Again, traditional sources mention two different origins for this surname: according to Yuanhe Xingzuan, the first bearer of the surname was Yi Fu, a great grandson of Lu Zhong, while the Tongzhi encyclopedia says that it originated as a toponymic surname, as the descendants of Bo Qin took the surname Yan in reference to one of his vassal states, Yan District.
The spelling Gan of this surname is common in Malaysia and Singapore, where many descendants of Chinese migrants can trace their roots to the Fujian province of China. Jiǎn, spelled Gan based on its Cantonese pronunciation As a Korean surname, Gan is the Revised Romanization of Korean spelling of the surname written using the hanja Daejjok Gan, the same one, used to write the Chinese surname Jiǎn mentioned above; the bearers of this surname in Korea identify with a number of bon-gwan, which are hometowns of a clan lineage. The most common of these is the Gapyeong Gan clan; the clan's founding ancestor Gan Gyun, an official under Myeongjong of Goryeo, settled in Gapyeong County, Gyeonggi Province, which became the clan hometown. Gan may be an Irish surname, originating from Mag Gana. Another surname with the same origin is McGann; the Ashkenazi Jewish surnames Gan and Gang are short for Gangolf, which itself originated by metathesis from the German masculine given name Wolfgang. Gan is further the origin of the patronymic surnames Ganer and Ganet.
Gan coincidentally means "garden" in Modern Hebrew. According to statistics cited by Patrick Hanks, 328 people on the island of Great Britain and eight on the island of Ireland bore the surname Gan as of 2011. In 1881 there had been 40 people in Great Britain with the surname Gan at Durham, Lancashire and London; the 2000 South Korean census found 2,429 people in 753 households with the surname spelled Gan in Revised Romanization. The 2010 United States Census found 2,891 people with the surname Gan, making it the 11,003rd-most-common name in the country; this represented an increase from 2,301 in the 2000 Census. In the 2010 census, about three-quarters of the bearers of the surname identified as Asian, two-tenths as White, it was the 310th-most-common surname among respondents to the 2000 Census. Gan De, Chinese astronomer and astrologer of the State of Qi Gan Ying, Chinese military ambassador sent on a mission to Rome Gan Ning, Eastern Han dynasty military general Gan Siqi, Chinese People's Liberation Army general Gan Yetao, Chinese diplomat Jay Gan, Chinese-born American agricultural and environmental scientist Gan Yao-ming, Taiwanese writer Gan Wei, Chinese actress Gan Rui, Chinese football midfielder Bobo Gan, Chinese actress Gan Quan, Chinese baseball pitcher Gan Jiang, swordsmith of the Spring and Autumn period Gan Ji, Eastern Han dynasty Taoist priest Gan Bao, Eastern Jin dynasty historian Gan Kim Yong, Singaporean politician Gan Thiam Poh, Singaporean politician Steven Gan, Malaysian journalist Frankie Gan, Malaysian politician Gan Siow Huang, Singaporean general Jeremy Gan, Malaysian badminton player Gan Teik Chai, Malaysian badminton player Heidi Gan, Malaysian swimmer Luisa Gan, Singaporean actress Gan Peck Cheng, Malaysian politician Gan Ping Sieu, Malaysian politician Aleksei Gan, Russian anarchist avant-garde artist Chester Gan, American actor of Chinese descent Rafał Gan-Ganowicz, Polish exile and mercenary Jennifer Gan, American actress Pinchas Cohen Gan, Israeli painter Samuel Gan, Singaporean biologist Brendan Gan, Malaysian football midfielder Shyam Gan, Indian cricketer Barry L. Gan, American philosophy p
Hedwig is a German feminine given name, from Old High German Hadwig, Haduwig. It is a Germanic name consisting of the two elements hadu "battle, combat" and wig "fight, duel"; the name is on record with Haduwig, a daughter of Louis the German. The name remained popular in German high nobility during the 11th centuries. Other medieval spellings include Hathuwic, Hadewich, Hathwiga, Hatwig, Hediwig, Hedewich, Hatuuih, Haduwich, Hatuwig, etc. Forms such as Hadiwih, Hadewi etc. suggest that the name is the result of a conflation of two separate names, one with the second element wig "fight", the other with the second element wih "hallowed". The Dutch form is Hadewych. A German and Dutch diminutive is Hedy; the German name was adopted into Swedish in about the 15th century and is still in use in Swedish, to a lesser extent in Danish and Norwegian, in the spelling Hedvig, with a diminutive Hedda. Finnish forms of name are Helvi; the German name was adopted as Jadwiga. A French form is Edwige. Hedwige of Saxony, German noblewoman and mother of Hugh Capet, King of France Hedwig of Nordgau, wife of Siegfried of Luxembourg, first Count of Luxembourg.
Hedwig of France, Countess of Mons Saint Hedwig of Silesia, Duchess of Silesia, canonized 1267. He is a nine year old boy in Glass. All pages with titles beginning with Hedwig All pages with titles beginning with Hedvig Hedwiga, Duchess of Saxony, mother of Henry the Fowler Hedvig Blessed Hadewych of Meer Hadewijch, 13th century poet and mystic